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COMPLETE IN EVERY DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE. Many Encyclopedias and works of reference and information are published, but most of them are disappointing. They are either out-ofdate or fail to give the kind of information that is wanted. WINSTON'S ENCYCLOPEDIA covers every phase of history, invention, discovery and science in the world. It is a regular Encyclopedia in the full meaning of the word and stands the most searching examination. Clear, accurate articles by competent authorities treat all subjects with sufficient fullness. It is thoroughly up-to-date, and covers the whole range of human knowledge. In HISTORY-Each country of the world treated separately at length. BIOGRAPHY-Great men and women, dead and living. SCIENCE-Astronomy, Chemistry, Botany, Electricity, Geology, Physiology, Meteorology, Light, Heat, including Radium, etc. INVENTIONIncluding Wireless Telegraphy, Aeroplanes, etc. THE WORLD'S PROGRESS-In Discovery, Industries, Manufacturers, Mechanics, New Processes, etc. RELIGIONS-Denominations, Sects, Schisms, Orders, etc. GEOGRAPHY-Continents, Oceans, Cities, Towns, Mountains, Rivers, etc. ANIMALS, PLANTS, of all species; ARCHEOLOGY, GOVERNMENT, LABOR PROBLEMS, MILITARY AND NAVAL affairs, battles, wars, etc.; all these subjects and many more are handled in detail in all the thousands of sub-divisions which they comprise.


If WINSTON'S ENCYCLOPEDIA were sold on usual subscription plans, not less than $20.00 would be charged for it. The price of WINSTON'S ENCYCLOPEDIA is within the reach of everybody WINSTON'S ENCYCLOPEDIA is manufactured throughout in the complete plant of the publishers and thereby profits are saved that are usually paid by publishers to outside printers and binders, which is one reason why the work can be sold at such a low price. But the most important reason is that every purchaser of a set of WINSTON'S ENCYCLOPEDIA is so well satisfied with it that he or she takes pleasure in recommending it at every opportunity and thereby aids in creating sales for the work. WINSTON'S ENCYCLOPEDIA has a greater sale than any Encyclopedia published.


The Chicago Herald says. "A careful examination shows it to be a work of genuine excellence. difficult to see how a greater mass of information could have been crammed into the same compass. Every page bears witness to the care and thoroughness of the editors' labors."

A Superintendent of Schools says: "I have examined the Encyclopedia, and found it to be just what is claimed for it. The range of subjects is unusually broad, and they are concisely treated and are always to the point, giving the reader just about what he wishes to find."


The WINSTON ENCYCLOPEDIA, as above described, is complete in 8 volumes, each measuring 5% x 8 inches; 11⁄2 inches thick. Volumes average over 500 pages, or a total of 4,176 pages. Printed on ood paper, in good clear type; over 1.000 half-tone and text illustrations; a 32-page Atlas of the World, in colors.. Bound handsomely and durably in substantial library buckram, with red leather title label en back of each volume. Weighs 16 lbs. PRICE $6.00-sent anywhere in the United States, all charges prepaid, on receipt of price-PRICE $6.00. Money cheerfully refunded if not satisfactory.

THE JOHN C. WINSTON CO., Publishers of International Bibles, Winston Building, 1006 Arch St. Philadelphia, Pa.

VOL. XXII-SEPT, 1909—NO. 1

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine NOTES ON

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All communications pertaining to subscriptions and advertising or other business relating to the magazine should be addressed to the Michigan office, J. H. Shults, Business Manager, Manistee, Michigan. All other communications to E. Lyell Earle, Managing Editor, 59 W. 96th St., ew York City.

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine is published on the Arst of each month, except July and August, from 278 River Street, Manistee, Mich.

The Subscription price is $1.00 per year, payable in advance. Single copies, 15c.

Postage is Prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions in the United States, Hawaiian Islands, Philippine Islands, Guam, Porto Rico, Tutuila (Samoa), Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, and Mexico. For Canada add 200 and for all other countries in the Postal Union add 40c for postage.

Notice of Expiration is sent, but it is assumed that a continuance of the subscription is desired until notice of discontinuance is received. When sending notice of change of address, both the old and new addresses must be given.

Remittances should be sent by draft, Express Order or Money Order, payable to The Kindergarten Magazine Company. If a local check is sent, it must include 10c exchange.


Notwithstanding that we have announced in every issue during the past year that all matters pertaining to subscriptions or advertising for the Kindergarten-Primary Magazine should be addressed to Manistee, many letters are still going to New York City. This occasions delay and extra work in the editorial lay and extra work in the editorial rooms. Kindly note that editorial rooms only, not a business office, are maintained in New York, and send business letters to Manistee, Mich. J. H. SHULTS.



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We do not wish to be understood as meaning that there is one set of principles applicable to the kindergarten and another distinct set that have their validity only in the subsequent stages of the child's development. The problem of school theory and practice is first a general one, whose solution is applicable to all education and, in the second place, a particular problem with a specific solution when those same general principles are to find their fullest expression in the daily plan and work of the kindergarten.

The principles of general educational theory and practice may be derived from several sources. The History of Education furnishes abundant material for guidance in the selection of principles and practices when illumined by the experiences of past ages and chastened by the exacting contact with real life. contact with real life. The selective process of this well tested practice makes certain great truths stand out prominently, eliminates the useless, and preserves all that is profitable in the record of former times. A true study of the History of Education coupled with proper philosophi

cal insight will save the teacher from repeating useless experiments and enable her to build her superstructure of the science and art of kindergarten teaching on the true foundations of past success.

These general principles of educational theory and practice should always be made to find their special application to the kindergarten in any training school by the

This magazine to Jan., teacher of those subjects. The habit of 1911, for $1.00.

Conditions: That you mention this special offer when subscribing, and remit before Oct. 15, 1909.

looking for principles in their inception and of noting their growth to success or their decadence to ultimate failure will enable the young teacher to judge present day so-called discoveries in the kindergarten by the standards of a vital past.

We shall not, however, give time to this aspect of the subject as that belongs legitimately to the Training School which is giving its courses in the History and Principles of Education with special reference to kindergarten application.

We shall confine our efforts in this series of articles to the study of the child on the one hand in the entirety of his nature as a re-acting organism, noting particularly the physical and mental qualities of children up to the kindergarten age with emphasis on the significance of these characteristics in the light of genetic and experimental psychology.

If kindergarten teachers in particular become familiar with the special characteristics, both physical and mental, of the normal child of the kindergarten age they will be making their first step toward an intelligent understanding of the material and method of caring for that child at this particular period of his life. Furthermore, if on the other hand they study the actual life he leads in his attempt to interpret life about him in terms of his own propensities and interests, they will have a second known quality in the solution of many of the problems of kindergarten theory and practice.

It is possible that we kindergartners are not sufficiently cognizant of the actual psychic life the child leads in the home and on the street, when free from the influence. of the supervising (sometimes subduing) care of the teacher. This is what Froebel probably had in mind when he invited all teachers in those beautiful words: "Come let us live with our children," not as we so often do compel them to live with us and as we live, thus dwarfing or crushing out. the best part of their young lives.

It shall be our purpose to study the child and the actual life he leads up to the kindergarten period, his tendencies, interest and needs so that our Kindergarten Theory and Practice may be based, not on our mere logical organization of what we conceive to be the child's life and living, but on the psychologic fact of his actual up and on growth.

Another aspect of the subject that we shall touch later on, somewhat in detail, is the influence of this early living of the child on his later living. In other words, we shall try to determine as far as is known with any degree of certainty what particu

lar physical and mental activities of the child from four to eight are most likely to persist as the basis for maturer growth and resolve themselves into the fuller life of preadolescence.

It is true that this aspect of child study. is still in its beginnings. The relative value of the mental and physical activities of early childhood has not yet been absolutely determined although we have much reason for believing that certain of these early and characteristic processes were of particular use in the growth of the race, and will probably be of special value in the growth of the individual child into the fullness of life.

Let us begin with the correct conception of what the child truly is. Like the adult human being he consists essentially of body and mind, and Child Study must embrace both of these aspects. It must take account of children's bodies, of the way they grow and act, and at the same time a similar account of their mental states and processes, and the interdependence and relation of these two great factors. Prof. Thorndike has this to say of children:

"It is obvious that our ordinary common sense acquaintance with people does not provide us with correct notions about children. For children are not like grown up folks. They are not miniature adults, but are in reality different beings. Their bodily make-up is different, as truly, though not as much different, as is the tadpole's from the frogs."

Says Dr. Oppenheim:

"We have been in the habit of looking upon a child as a man in small, of looking upon a man as a child somewhat strengthened, with greater experience and knowledge. Outside of these factors of experience, knowledge and strength, the child and man seem practically the same. So true is this observation that society founds its judgments accordingly; it prescribes its methods of education, of social and domestic care accordingly, it sees almost no differences outside of these adventitious ones between them.

"As a matter of fact, it would be hard to find many salient factors, beyond the most fundamental laws, in which the infant and adult exactly resemble each other. Multiply the proportions of the infant to those of the adult, and you will have a being whose large head and dwarfted lower face, whose apex-like thorax, whose short arms and legs, give a grotesque appearance. The two do not breathe alike, their pulse-rates are not alike, the composition of their bodies is not alike.

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