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The "Real Rulers of Russia," by Wolf von Schierbrand, attempts to explain the limitations of the Czar's power, and to analyze Russian character. This writer says the Czar is not the sole ruler of his people; that three other autocrats divide the power, and that these are three words in the Russian language: Nitshewo, Winowat, and Natshai. The first of these words means "nothing," never mind." Every disquieting thought is dismissed with a "nitshewo," which perhaps means more nearly "What are you going to do about it?" The second word, winowat, means literally "I am guilty," "I own up to it," but also implies "What is the use of my denying it ?" The third fatal word originally stood "for tea,"-like the French pourboire,-then came to be used to mean "for vodka" (corn-brandy); and, finally, it rose to imply the very essence of corruption, probably akin to our "graft." This last autocrat Herr von Schierbrand thinks the mightiest of them all. "Without natshai you would be unable to accomplish anything in Russia, all the orders and the decrees of the nominal Czar at St. Petersburg to the contrary notwithstanding."


W. S. Harwood has a well-illustrated article, "Saving the Fisheries of Our Inland Seas." He tells how more than 100,000,000 pounds of trout and whitefish are taken from the Great Lakes in a year, and of the Government restocking to repair the ravages of wasteful fishermen. It is a pretty big task to restock Lake Superior, an inland sea 400 miles long, 1,500 miles in circumference, and averaging 1,000 feet deep; but the Government seems to be accomplishing it. The fish are caught in huge nets and chiefly by Americans. They were pursued so constantly that they would soon become extinct but for the governmental aid in stocking. Thus, in Lake Ontario, the catch of whitefish-the most delicious of the lake fish,-fell from 1,156,200 pounds in 1868 to 126,650 pounds in 1895; and the catch of trout, for the same period, from 612,000 pounds to 109,300 pounds. The basis of the governmental work is collecting the eggs and hatching them artificially. The artificial hatch is very much more prolific than the natural hatch.


Charles M. Harvey calls attention to "Another Revolutionary Increase of Gold," from the mines of South Africa. He says that, by 1904, a complete resumption of mining in the Transvaal-together with a like increase in the rest of the productive countries,-will send the world's output up to $400,000,000 a year, as compared with a little over a quarter of that amount in 1890. Mr. Harvey says America will be the largest gainer by the gold deluge, as America is the best field for the investment of money that the world affords, having the most varied, extensive, and profitable of the world's industrial activities.


Mr. M. G. Cunniff, in a series of first-hand studies of labor problems, writes on "The Human Side of the

Labor Unions," and finds suspicion the prevailing mood of employer and union. He quotes labor leaders to the effect that misunderstandings cause half the labor troubles: "A union hates a typewritten letter, but it likes a man." Julian Ralph writes on "The Moral Soundness of American Life;" Henry Harrison Lewis gives a glimpse of the personality, and of the working habits, of Col. John Jacob Astor, under the title "The Quiet Control of a Vast Estate;" Frank M. Chapman describes the work of the American Museum of Natural History, and how it acts both as an investigator and teacher of natural science; Ivy Lee describes the New Stock Exchange Building in New York, and some remarkable features of its construction, and Mr. James H. Bridge gives the views of important leaders of industrial combinations, under the title "Trusts as Their Makers View them."



HE November Country Life has an eminently timely article on "Turkeys and Cranberries," describing the growing of the turkeys in the State of Rhode Island, and the cranberry at home in the marshes of Cape Cod and New Jersey.

Answering the question, "Does Farm Forestry Pay?'' Mr. Allen Chamberlain has a very interesting account of some actual successes of New England farmers, where the father sowed and the son reaped. In one case a Mr. Cutter, of Pelham, N. H., began caring for a forty-acre tract of self-seeded pine timber, thinning out the trees and, furthermore, pruning about an acre each year after the growth was ten years old. This furnished much amusement for the neighbors; but Mr. Cutter's son has recently logged 700,000 feet of lumber from this tract, leaving no less than 300,000 feet standing; this gives an average of 25,000 feet to the acre, and much of the Michigan old pine lands only cut about 5,000 feet to the acre. Another New Hampshire man, the Hon. John D. Lyman, of Exeter, has a hobby of white-pine culture cultivated most successfully. He plants 30,000 white pine trees to the acre,-thick enough to give the young trees long, straight bodies, free from limbs for quite a distance from the ground; these are thinned out until the final stand will have from 50 to 160 trees to the acre. Mr. Lyman reckons the land, before planting, at $10 an acre; and the interest at 4 per cent., compound, shows that a lot will stand its owner in 54 years about $80 per acre. On this basis he makes a good profit from his white-pine planting.

Bryant Fleming describes the famous Hunnewell Estate at Wellesley, founded by the late H. H. Hunnewell, with its Italian gardens and magnificent plantations of conifers, on the shore of Lake Waban, opposite Wellesley College. There is a very pleasant account of an old-time-home garden at Cazenovia Lake; an article on quail and quail shooting, and a chapter on staircases, in the series on "The Making of a Country Home."

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Handicraft," and takes the ground that the handicrafts of the Renaissance embody vices of design which unfit them to be taken by the modern artisan as exemplary models for imitation. He complains, too, that the commercial spirit has too much of a place as a motive for artistic production. This commercial spirit, however, does not wholly explain why the better things which a few exceptionally able craftsmen produce do not readily find a market. The most important reason is that people do not care enough for the fine arts. "Our absorbing interests and successful achievements are in other directions. Men always do best what the largest number of the most intelligent among them care most for. Our predominant interests are plainly not at present in the direction of the fine arts."


Elizabeth McCracken, in "The Book in the Tenement," shows some interesting experiences she has had in finding out the reading tastes and capacities of tenement dwellers. The native instinct and taste for real literature as shown by this inquirer's explorations is remarkably true in the entity. "Grimm's Fairy Tales" delighted a tenement girl who thought Mr. Herford's "Primer of Natural History" silly. The climax of the tenement criticism of Henrik Ibsen's dramas was "They don't help you, and you can't enjoy 'em." Kipling was a prime favorite. "The Christian" failed to satisfy, and "The Tragic Muse" was unappreciated.


Mr. A. B. Norton, discussing "The Care of the Eyes," expresses the belief that our collective eyesight is deteriorating, and that this fact is due to neglect of the eyes and the injudicious use of glasses. There were, in 1890, over 50,000 totally blind people in the United States, which gives a proportion slightly less than the world's average. Mr. Norton says no one but the oculist appreciates the amount of suffering and ill health caused by defective eyes. The public is gradually becoming educated on this subject, however; and, nowadays, it is not unusual for a family to consult an oculist first when a daughter is troubled with headaches. Many nervous and mental troubles result from eye-strain, and can be cured by correcting the trouble in the sight. This writer says that every school should possess a series of test letters, and that each scholar at the commencement of each term should have the eyes examined by the teacher. Mr. Norton gives some valuable information as to the supplying of light in the schoolroom, and as to the reform of school studies with a view to their effect on the eyes of the pupils. He warns us that the prevalent habit of going without glasses for reading, as long as possible, is a bad one. All normal eyes require glasses for near vision about the age of forty or forty-five; postponing their use later than this age causes an effort which does harm.

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all their possessions, by Judge Taft is considerably under $10,000,000, which estimate is considered a just, if not a generous, one. There are half a dozen foreign firms in Manila without the knowledge of the people and the islands which the friars possess, who have made as much money as this out of the Philippines within the decade."


Justice John Woodward, of the New York Supreme Court, maintains that, in criminal cases, the State should pay the experts called on both sides, a legal, absolute, and fair standard of compensation having been established. The expert can then have no incentive to be dishonest. The witness' chair would then afford no opportunity for exploitation by the sensational selfseeker.


Mrs. Gertrude Atherton summarizes the conditions of the substitute treaty, which is said to meet with the approval of the Danish party opposed to the sale of the Virgin Islands to the United States, as follows:

"That Denmark shall cede to the United States either St. Thomas or St. John, both of which islands have excellent harbors; that she shall guarantee never to sell the other islands to any power whatsoever, except the United States of America; that the United States shall, in return, arrange for tariff concessions to St. Croix.

"No money will change hands, and the United States will have the additional advantage of almost encompassing Denmark with the Monroe Doctrine, thus giving herself an excuse to check Russia, when that cormorant makes her first sign of closing in upon Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, and threatens American trade in the Baltic. Denmark would part with one of her islands without regret, on account of the great advantage accruing to the most important, commercially, of the group, St. Croix; and the United States would gain the only advantage she wants, and be delivered from another incubus."


Mr. Clarence H. Poe, writing on the South's new method of dealing with the negro vote,-as illustrated in recent State constitutional conventions,-holds that this method, "in spite of appearances of injustice, promises better government, fairer elections, greater political freedom, and more generous treatment of the negro than would be possible were the national Government to compel a return to the policy of so-called unrestricted suffrage."


In an article under the taking title, "America Mistress of the Seas," Capt. Richmond Pearson Hobson outlines the following programme for the building up of our navy: "To start with the appropriation made at the Congress just adjourned, about $30,000,000, and make an increase of 85,000,000 for next year, or $35,000,000 altogether for 1903, and increase this amount by $5,000,000, or $40,000,000 altogether for 1904, and so on; increasing for each year by $5,000,000 the appropriation of the previous year, making for 1905, $45,000,000; 1906, $50,000,000 1907, $55,000,000; 1908, $60,000,000; 1909, $65,000,000; 1910, $70,000,000; 1911, $75,000,000; 1912, $80,000, 000; 1913, $85,000,000; 1914, $90,000,000; 1915, $95,000,000: 1916, $100,000,000; and so on, till we become the first

naval power. If the European nations continue to build along their present lines, I estimate that we should overtake Great Britain about 1920, when-at the rate indicated, our naval appropriation for new ships would be $120,000,000. The probabilities are strong, however, that the powers will accelerate even their present rates of increase, and we could scarcely expect to reach the top before 1930, when the annual appropriation would be $170,000,000 for new ships."


Acting Adj.-Gen. W. H. Carter, U.S.A., advocates "A General Staff for the Army;" Mr. Walter Littlefield describes the effect of the Associations Law in France; Mr. R. B. Van Cortlandt writes on "Social Conditions and Business Success;" the Hon. Hannis Taylor on "An Ideal School of Politics and Jurisprudence ;" and Sir Gilbert Parker on "Mr. Balfour and his Opportunities." The Hon. O. P. Austin contributes the first of a series of articles on "The Public Debt of the United States." There is a posthumous paper by the late Professor Schenck, of Vienna, on "The Mechanical Development of Sex."



HE second quarterly issue of the Forum has excellent reviews of "American Politics," by Henry Litchfield West; "Foreign Affairs," by A. Maurice Low; "Finance," by A. D. Noyes; "Applied Science," by Henry Harrison Suplee; "Literature," by Frank J. Mather, Jr.; "Music," by Henry T. Finck; "Sculpture," by Russell Sturgis ; and "Educational Outlook," by Ossian H. Lang. All of these articles are in the nature of résumés of recent developments in the various fields surveyed.

In the department of "Educational Research," the editor, Dr. J. M. Rice, contributes an account of "A Test in Arithmetic."

GROWTH OF REVOLUTIONARY SPIRIT IN RUSSIA. Dr. Isaac A. Hourwich, writing on "The Political Situation in Russia," emphasizes the recent spread of revolutionary propaganda:

"For twenty years the government has managed to keep down the demand for constitutional reform, until now it is again met with the same agitation, renewed with greater vigor. It has been stated in a recent pamphlet by Mr. Bourtzeff-the Russian refugee, who has served a sentence of imprisonment in England for advocating in his publication the methods of the terrorists-that but a few years ago his appeals met with general disapproval among Russian revolutionary organizations. Since last year, however, the terrorists have been as active as during the days of the 'Executive Committee,' and there is only one little faction among the Russian social democrats that opposes them. Revolutionary conspiracy to-day has scores of thousands of active sympathizers to feed upon, where the Executive Committee of 1879-81 had only hundreds."

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Ward Stimson; and on "Individual Freedom," by Eugene Del Mar.

Of a more concrete nature is the topic treated by Mr. James Allmann-"Russia as a Social Factor," This writer shows that, while in other lands a socialistic system can only be attained by the antagonism of classes and the overthrow of governments, in Russia it would simply mean the overthrowing of a despot. All else would easily follow.


The importance of the movement to restrict child labor in the South is clearly brought out in an article by Mrs. Leonora Beck Ellis, who describes the situation as follows:

"The marvelous industrial transformation of the last decade has wrought as great a change in the moral questions bound up with such development. The mills in the South are suddenly reckoned by the hundreds; soon by the thousands; and the people of that section are confronted with the appalling fact that in many of these mills from 20 to 30 per cent. of the operatives are under sixteen years of age, hundreds of them being children of twelve, eleven, ten, and, in some cases, even younger.

"Public feeling has been greatly stirred on this score during the last two or three years, and bills for regulating child labor are now pending before the General Assembly of every cotton-growing State that has also entered cotton manufacturing. Tennessee, a sister of these (and, although reckoned chiefly a grain-producing and pastoral State, yet rich in minerals and boasting many large woolen mills), merits particular mention as having already passed an enactment fixing the age of employment of children in factories, mines, and similar places of labor at fourteen years, while Louisiana has for almost a decade restricted the age of girls to fourteen, and of boys to twelve."

Similar measures failed of passage in Georgia, Alabama, and the Carolinas, but are now strongly supported in these and other States.

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F. W. Edridge-Green and E. G. P. Bousfield write on "The Abuse and Control of Hypnotism." They demand that the practice of hypnotism should be restricted, like that of vivisection, to qualified persons, in whose hands it may be used for the good of humanity, and not for mischievous objects. At all events, persons who desire to practice hypnotism should be required to take out a license. The writers discuss the assertions made by the present advertisers of hypnotic cures, and state certain guiding facts. Hypnotism, they declare, is bound in time to prove more or less deleterious. It is possible to hypnotize a person gradually without his realizing the fact. It is not true to say that any one who is hypnotized has done more himself to induce the condition than the operator has done.


Mr. Edgar J. Wardle, in an article under the above

title, sees the chief danger for the French in Central Africa in Senussi-ism. "It is very much to be feared," he says, "that the French will have before them the task of finishing the work begun by Lord Kitchener at Khartoum, that is, to destroy the last force of organized Moslem fanaticism in Africa." The Senussi have always been in contact with the dervishes on the Nile, from whom they have received many reinforcements, and at the same time they have easily obtained supplies of arms and ammunition through Ben Ghazi, though the Turks are supposed to prohibit this traffic.


Mr. E. M. Konstam writes a paper on "Indian Caste and English Law." Mr. E. R. Newbegin has a somewhat abstract paper on "The Theory of Government by Democracy," in which he says that the true point of view from which to regard democratic government is that it represents the reciprocal play of expert judgment and common sense. There is a charming article by Dr. Woods Hutchinson describing a visit made by him to an island off the Oregon coast.

Col. Carroll D. Wright's article on American labor organizations is quoted at some length elsewhere.

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Miss Edith Sellers, who speaks with the authority of an expert on state provision for the aged, sums up the result of her investigation by saying that were she a wornout worker she would like to change her nationality and become a Dane, an Austrian, or a Russian; for, of all the nations of Europe, these three best understand how to deal with the old and destitute. Their homes are the brightest and cheeriest of resorts. In Denmark, by a law of 1891, any man or woman over sixty years of age who can show a decent record is housed, fed, and clothed at the expense of the nation as an honored veteran of industry. The old folks are content and thankful. The cost per head in Danish homes averages 25 cents a day. "In the most comfortless of all the London workhouses it is 47 cents." The cost is about the same in Russia. It costs England more to make her old people miserable than the Danes spend in making their old people happy. The picture is a beautiful contrast to Miss Sellers' last month's sketch of a London workhouse.



Judge Hodges, of Melbourne, pleads for an imperial court of final appeal. At present the House of Lords is the seat for final appeal for the United Kingdom, and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council for British dominions over-sea. The writer would make one of these, or, preferably, a new court,-the finally decisive tribunal. He makes the shrewd remark that not only would this supreme court add to the weight and splendor of London, but it would enlist in the maintenance of the unity of empire the legal profession, whose members would everywhere aspire after a seat in the supreme court as the summit of their ambition.


Fortified by the recent recommendations of judges and commissioners, Sir Robert Anderson reiterates his plea for exceptional treatment of the small group of habitual malefactors. He would authorize the indictment of a prisoner, after repeated conviction, as a professional criminal. If proved a professional criminal, he would, on a subsequent conviction for crime and after serving out that sentence, be further detained in custody during His Majesty's pleasure. The certainty of such a fate would, in the opinion of the writer, induce the professional criminals to turn their talents into some new and less dangerous calling.

A PARALLEL TO THE BRITISH WAR OFFICE. It is a most instructive parallel which O. Eltzbacher draws between the French War Office on the breaking out of the Franco-German War and the British War Office in the South African War. There was the same rotten class-system, though, mercifully, not the same crushing overthrow.


N the Fortnightly Review for October, Mr. W. H. Mallock concludes his series of nineteen essays on "Science and Religion, at the Dawn of the Twentieth Century." The gist of it all is that there are contradictions in every department of life; therefore, we ought not to recoil from the idea of belief in the religious doctrine of things, although we cannot reconcile it with the scientific doctrine of things.


Mr. Richard Davey, in an article entitled "A Few More French Facts," writes a very powerful article, full of quotations and facts, protesting against the conduct of the present French ministry in enforcing the law against the schools kept by the unauthorized religious orders. He maintains that the experiment which is now being made by the French people is to ascertain whether it is possible for a nation to be governed without the assistance of the greatest of moral forces. Before another year is out, Mr. Davey thinks, events will happen which may reduce the leaders of the third republic to remember the fate of the first. Mr. Davey quotes a saying from M. Thiers that the attempt to establish an anti-religious government was the real cause of the collapse of the French republics, both in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

WHAT THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT HAS DONE IN IRELAND. "An Old Whig of the School of Grattan" writes sixteen pages full of invective against the administration of the Unionist government in Ireland since the year 1895. Never had an English government such an admirable opportunity of administering Ireland in her true interests, and passing legislation adapted to her: but never has any government so bitterly disappointed the expectations with which its advent was hailed. His chief complaint against the government is that it allowed the United Irish League to grow up and flourish. He concludes his long diatribe by suggesting that a thorough inquiry should be held into the land question through the agency of a commission, which should be charged with reporting what changes should be made in the law.

THE ATTITUDE OF GERMANY TO ENGLAND. In an article entitled "German Light on German

Policy," "Calchas" quotes exhaustively from the collected papers which Dr. Schliemann contributed to the Kreuz Zeitung in the last few years. From these papers, and from other evidence to which he refers, he comes to some very familiar conclusions. He thinks that Germany trades upon the traditional antagonism between Russia and England; that, if she gets to the Persian Gulf, she will disclaim any intention of hindering Russia from obtaining the same privilege; and that she is much more likely to join the dual alliance in breaking down England's sea-power than to join that nation in case of war with Russia and France.


Mr. J. L. Bashford writes a very interesting and wellinformed paper concerning the German colonies and naval power. The German population has increased, since 1895, at the rate of from 700,000 to 845,000 every year; but emigration has steadily fallen off. In the year 1892 more than 110,000 Germans emigrated, whereas the number of German emigrants in 1901 was little more than 20,000. There are nine German colonies covering an area of a million square miles, or onetwelfth of the area of the British Empire beyond the


But the total number of Germans in all the German colonies was, in 1902, only 4,058. Besides these 4,000 Germans, there were about 2,000 other whites. The total cost of administeriug this million square miles, with its 4,000 German inhabitants, will amount this year to $6,250,000. The total revenue collected from the colonies themselves does not amount to $2,000,000. The German Empire, therefore, spends more than $4,000,000 every year in subsidizing colonies which afford a home for only 4,000 Germans. Every German colonist, therefore, costs the mother-country $1,000 a year. It would certainly be better to maintain them at home. But, it may be said, there is a profit in the colonial trade. But German colonies export to Germany goods to the value of only $330,000 a year, and, if exports to other countries are included, the total colonial export is only $3,500,000. It comes to this, therefore,-that in order to secure exports from the colonies of $3,500,000 a year, $4,000,000 a year is extracted from the German taxpayers.



HE Westminster Review for October is one of the best of the monthly reviews. Topics of special interest to English readers are "Fighting the Plague in India," and "An Order of Brethren of Cleanliness."

Besides these articles there is one very interesting paper, aglow with enthusiasm, in which an English lady, who has adopted India as her home, and the Hindu religion as her faith, vindicates the people of India-especially the women,-from what she declares to be the calumnious misrepresentations of the missionaries.

Mrs. Swiney, writing on "Church and Women," vigorously impeaches the Church for having taken little part in the great work of righting the wrongs of women. She declares that the Church is daily alienating and driving out of her fold her foremost and most devoted supporters, who have hitherto lovingly and ungrudg ingly spent themselves on her behalf. As the Church palliated and condoned the immoralities of the Restoration and the Georgian period, so she has been blind and deaf and dumb before the increasing insincerity and moral decadence of modern times. Mrs. Swiney maintains that it requires no gift of prophecy to aver that

the Church stands or falls by her future attitude toward the great industrial, ethical, and spiritual developments of the new century, in which women will take paramount part as workers and initiators..



E have noticed elsewhere Dr. Kramarz's important article on "Europe and the Bohemian Question." The anti-German campaign of the National is represented not only by Dr. Kramarz's paper, but also by a contribution from Sir Rowland Blennerhassett on "The Origin of the Franco-Prussian War." The gist of Sir Rowland Blennerhassett's paper is, that owing to the intrigue between France and Austria for united action against Prussia, Bismarck could not be blamed for forcing on war before the enemies of his country had completed preparations. But Prussia had been determined to fight France for the supremacy of Europe as she had fought Austria for the supremacy of Germany. "Bismarck brought on the war at the right moment for his country. Prussianized Germany is now preparing for the struggle with Great Britain which Cavour foresaw. Should it come about, it will be a war for supremacy on the ocean. She is adding to her fleet a class of ship specially suited for an attack on England. The same methods, exactly, are employed by her against the British Empire which she formerly used against France. The German mind is being trained to receive with enthusiasm the announcement of a war with England when the time comes. Videant consules. Though the sands are running low in the hourglass I believe that, with courage and foresight on the part of our statesmen, that conflict may still be avoided."


Mr. Alfred Harmsworth contributes an interesting paper on "The Serious Problem of the Motor Car." Mr. Harmsworth says that some means of identification of each car should be provided, but that no identification system can be adopted without proper safeguards against the mendacity and prejudice imported into nearly every motor car case. The regulations in the law of 1869 relating to tires practically prevent the use of safety tires which are popular in Paris and do away with side-slip. English roads require reconstruction; dangerous corners must be widened, and hedges at corners must be cut down; some roads, as in France, should be reserved either for horse-drawn carriages or for automobiles exclusively. Mr. Harmsworth anticipates that soon there will radiate from London a great system of motor ways, for the support of which it will be necessary to reintroduce the toll system. These roads should be constructed of some material free from dust. On the question of the competency of drivers-which Mr. Harmsworth regards as the gravest question of all,-he says that the public will soon demand not only identification, but heavy penalties and damages in case of accidents, the licenses of drivers to be withdrawn in cases of misconduct.

The most interesting of the other contributions is the chapter of Sir Horace Rumbold's "Recollections," which deals with his life in Russia in 1870-71. Mr. J. R. Fisher reviews Mr. O'Donnell's book, "The Ruin of Education in Ireland." There is an article on St. Helena, written in the island by a Boer prisoner as a prize essay in the school which was carried on for the benefit of the prisoners.

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