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part of his paper, although probably not in the least accurate, is the passage in which he says that Paardeberg was hardly less than the scotching of the Christianity of an entire nation. When Cronje lost the race to the river it was to the Boers as if God's arm had broken. He notes that February 11, the day set apart in England for prayer

stock companies, and he insists that these directors should be obliged to give financial guarantees for their responsibility and independence.

66

BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE.

and intercession, was the day "BLACKW

upon which French started upon his march, and the effect upon the Boers was overwhelming. They felt without the least affectation that this day of intercession was the most terrible, as well as the least expected, weapon that the English would use, and even among the most irreligious ran a sudden foreboding of ill.

C

THE NATIONAL REVIEW.

on

APTAIN MAHAN contributes to the National Review for September a twenty-page arti the Persian Gulf and international relations. He seems to believe in the antagonism between England and Russia in Persia, and therefore advocates the construction of a German railway line through Asia Minor which would have as its outlet on the Persian Gulf a British port. It may be noted that Captain Mahan in the course of his article makes the following remark : "There is certainly in America a belief, which I share, that Great Britain has been tending to lose ground in international economical matters. Should it prove permanent, and Germany at the same time gain upon her continuously, the relative positions of the two as seapowers would be seriously modified."

UNIVERSITY REFORM.

)LACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE" for September contains a good short travel paper by Reginald Wyon, entitled "Montenegrin Sketches." "Linesman" continues his interesting series of papers describing the adventures of his brigade on the heels of De Wet.

An anonymous writer, signing "L," discourses concerning the Boers in an article in which he warns Englishmen that all the living Boers are irreconcilable. They live in the past, and the past holds nothing for them but anger and distrust. "No single one of our transactions with them has been of a joyful or friendly nature, not one but has seemed to them dishonest, oppressive, or cowardly. . . . To the beaten Boer there is no future worth winning." The English tell him he will become great and famous. But all his life long he has prayed for obscurity. What is progress to a man whose earnest wish was to stand still? Or riches to one who dreads and despises them? Or imperial citizenship to an anchorite whose share even in the primitive government of his republic was oppressive to him? The writer says there is no doubt that when for the first time England governed the Boer nation she misgoverned it. She promised, and did not perform; she threatened and did not punish; she went to war and did not win. She invoked the sun and the rivers to attest her immovability, and moved; and to the Boer mind ever since she has been a nation of unjust, impotent braggarts.

There is a little dithyrambic article by Edward Hutton upon Venice after the fall of the Campanile; and a characteristic Blackwoodian article about the new ball with a core in it, which the Americans have invented, which bids fair to supersede the ball with which all golfers at present play. The feather-stuffed ball of the olden days cost $1.25, till the gutta-percha ball at 25 cents took its place. At present the new core ball costs 62%1⁄2 cents, and compared with the solid gutta-percha ball the new American ball covers one-third more distance. Judged, however, by the championship results, the core ball is only better than the gutta-percha by one stroke in three hundred and eight.

Dr. H. E. Armstrong, professor of chemistry at the Central Technical College, writes upon the need for general culture at Oxford and Cambridge. He declares that it is difficult not to believe that British educational authorities have been engaged in a silent conspiracy to undo the nation and deprive the Briton of individuality by a system of examinations and scholarships which encourage cram, and stifle both the spirit of inquiry and the development of character. Whatever elements of good may be discovered in England's educational system, it is impossible to deny that there is a total absence of organization. To secure success there must be reform at the same time both above and below. The establishment of an efficient system of technical instruction is dependent upon the upgrowth of an efficient system of general instruction. At present the control of the educational system rests almost entirely in the hands of politicians and benevolent amateurs. Half a dozen strong, sympathetic men at the Education Depart-publishes the first of a most useful series of papers ment, with power to act and supported by government, could solve the problem in a very few years.

ENGLISH "COMPANY DIRECTORS."

Mr. W. R. Lawson maintains that English jointstock finance is threatened with as bad a breakdown as the British War Office sustained at the outset of the South African War. He says that nine-tenths of the company directors have had no education whatever for duties demanding the highest skill and judgment. He draws up a table showing that of 1,143 companies occupying the broad zone between banks, insurance, home railways, and mining companies, 980 at present have their stock quoted below par. These 1,100 companies have 6,000 directors, most of whom are either incompetent or inefficient. He thinks that something might be done to get practical, trained directors for industrial joint

THE CORNHILL MAGAZINE.

N the Cornhill Magazine for September, the editor

on "Prospects in the Professions," written by carefully selected experts, who not unnaturally prefer to remain anonymous. The purpose of these papers,-the first of which is on the royal navy,-is to give parents some of the many "wrinkles" which they could, perhaps, not pick up otherwise, and which might save them much expense and disappointment. The question of the advantages and disadvantages of the professions, the essential qualities for success, the deficiencies which must cause failure, the amount of outlay actually (not nominally) to be incurred,-enlightenment on all these points should provoke gratitude from many a father with sons to place in the world. On the whole, the navy apparently offers very good average prospects.

Viscount St. Ayres says in an amusing literary paper on Martin Tupper:

"Tupper's claim to immortality rests on his vanity alone. No man ever thought as well of himself with scantier reasons for so doing; no man ever soiled more paper in telling the world why it ought to admire him. And the curious thing is that the world took him at his own valuation; few books commanded a larger sale than Martin's during the

WE

middle years of the nineteenth century. That he should ever have been popular,-that any one, even an American, should have read 'Proverbial Philosophy' sixty times,-might well drive Matthew Arnold to despair."

Lady Grove has a chatty article on "Hotels as Homes," which they never can be in her view.

THE CONTINENTAL REVIEWS.

REVUE DES DEUX MONDES.

E have noticed elsewhere M. Fouillée's curious and interesting article on "The Conduct of Life Among Animals," and Madame Bentzon's "Interview with Tolstoy." As usual, the Revue devotes a great deal of space to historical papers, and in each of the August numbers the place of honor is given to M. Sorel's elaborate account of the Peace or Treaty of Amiens, which ended the Wars of the Revolution, and which was hailed, especially in London, as the commencement of a new era of peace and prosperity. Before the Treaty of Amiens, Bonaparte was still unrealized by Europe at large, but the conduct of the negotiations (the treaty was only signed on March 26, 1802) showed the world that the brilliant Corsican soldier was a statesman as well as a general, and caused the more observant of his contemporaries to regard him with fear.

Those taking a practical or merely an intelligent interest in naval matters will find it worth their while to glance over the diary kept by a French naval officer who prefers to remain anonymous. The first chapter is entitled "In Port," and the writer gives a lively account of Cherbourg, the great maritime town

ing the long hours of hard, constant labor, which, he says, makes the French miner old before his time, and causes him to appear a worn-out old man when he has reached his forty-fifth year. He admits, however, that no French worker enjoys so many holidays as does the miner,—one and all, even the more sober workers, constantly take days off. The usual expression concerning these unlicensed holidays is "doing Sunday." "What were you doing yesterday?" one miner will ask the other. "Oh, I was Sundaying," comes the ready an

swer.

OTHER ARTICLES.

Other articles consist of an attempt to analyze the personal character of Frederick the Great, as seen in his political correspondence; of an account of two great musical epochs, that of the cantata and that of the oratorio; of a subtle analysis of the mistakes made by those eighteenth-century philosophers who believed that the world could be rendered virtuous by act of Parliament; and of a political paper dealing with the practical effects of the recent French legislative elections.

whose strength and warlike footing so unpleasantly TH

impressed Queen Victoria and Prince Albert on the occasion of their second visit to France. The French Portsmouth owed its being in the first instance to the ill-fated Louis XIV., who was passionately interested in his navy; but each successive French ruler, including Napoleon, Charles X., and Napoleon III., added something to Cherbourg and its defences, and even now the government is spending twenty-seven million francs in making improvements to the harbor. The writer manages to convey a great sense of activity and power, and gives some choice word-pictures of the various types of seamen with which he was brought in contact.

WORK IN THE FRENCH COAL MINES.

M. Benoist continues his most interesting account of the organization of work in the French coal mines, and he gives much information of a curious character. Of the five thousand miners employed in one north of France mine, close on four hundred of the workers are children, that is, from thirteen to fourteen years of age. In most cases a man spends his whole life, from childhood to old age, in this kind of work; for though in the life of every Frenchman there comes one great break, that caused by the conscription, even after having spent some years in the army, the young miner drifts back to his old way of life. It should be added that the miner rarely remains faithful to the same neighborhood; he drifts from mine to mine, and this in spite of the fact that the various companies do all they can to encourage their men to stay with them year after year. M. Benoist has much to say concern

REVUE DE PARIS.

HOSE interested in and concerned with the management of universities will turn at once to M. Liard's curious paper on the foundation of French universities in the Revue de Paris for August. A great effort is being made at the present moment to reorganize, and, as it were, resuscitate, the ancient centers of French learning-once so justly famed in medieval Europe. Since the Revolution there has been, from the practical point of view, but one French universitythat of Paris. Various Frenchmen who have lived for short or long periods in England have been struck by the great part played in the national life, not only by Oxford and by Cambridge, but by the ancient and honored Scottish universities; and these acute observers have longed ardently to see the same kind of institution flourish on their own soil. M. Waddington took an immense interest in the matter, and as long ago as 1876 made a determined effort to interest the government in the project. Various Republican statesmen followed suit, and at last in the July of 1896-the dream of Renan, of Berthelot, of Lavisse, of Monod, and of Jules Simon became more or less a substantial reality.

CHARACTERISTICS OF JOHN CHINAMAN.

In the same number of the Revue M. Donnet analyzes the fundamental characteristics of the Chinese " man in the street." According to the French writer, the most remarkable natural trait of John Chinaman is his good sense, and this in spite of the fact that he is full of superstitions. The Chinaman, as is so often the case with those who pride themselves on their good sense, is an utter materialist; the ideal side of life does not appeal to him at all. He is so sure that he knows every

part of his paper, although probably not in the least accurate, is the passage in which he says that Paardeberg was hardly less than the scotching of the Christianity of an entire nation. When Cronje lost the race to the river it was to the Boers as if God's arm had broken. He notes that February 11, the day set apart in England for prayer and intercession, was the day upon which French started upon his march, and the effect upon the Boers was overwhelming. They felt without the least affectation that this day of intercession was the most terrible, as well as the least expected, weapon that the English would use, and even among the most irreligious ran a sudden foreboding of ill.

CA

THE NATIONAL REVIEW.

on

APTAIN MAHAN contributes to the National Review for September a twenty-page arti the Persian Gulf and international relations. He seems to believe in the antagonism between England and Russia in Persia, and therefore advocates the construction of a German railway line through Asia Minor which would have as its outlet on the Persian Gulf a British port. It may be noted that Captain Mahan in the course of his article makes the following remark: "There is certainly in America a belief, which I share, that Great Britain has been tending to lose ground in international economical matters. Should it prove permanent, and Germany at the same time gain upon her continuously, the relative positions of the two as seapowers would be seriously modified."

UNIVERSITY REFORM.

Dr. H. E. Armstrong, professor of chemistry at the Central Technical College, writes upon the need for general culture at Oxford and Cambridge. He declares that it is difficult not to believe that British educational authorities have been engaged in a silent conspiracy to undo the nation and deprive the Briton of individuality by a system of examinations and scholarships which encourage cram, and stifle both the spirit of inquiry and the development of character. Whatever elements of good may be discovered in England's educational system, it is impossible to deny that there is a total absence of organization. To secure success there must be reform at the same time both above and below. The establishment of an efficient system of technical instruction is dependent upon the upgrowth of an efficient system of general instruction. At present the control of the educational system rests almost entirely in the hands of politicians and benevolent amateurs. Half a dozen strong, sympathetic men at the Education Department, with power to act and supported by government, could solve the problem in a very few years.

ENGLISH "COMPANY DIRECTORS."

Mr. W. R. Lawson maintains that English jointstock finance is threatened with as bad a breakdown as the British War Office sustained at the outset of the South African War. He says that nine-tenths of the company directors have had no education whatever for duties demanding the highest skill and judgment. He draws up a table showing that of 1,143 companies occupying the broad zone between banks, insurance, home railways, and mining companies, 980 at present have their stock quoted below par. These 1,100 companies have 6,000 directors, most of whom are either incompetent or inefficient. He thinks that something might be done to get practical, trained directors for industrial joint

stock companies, and he insists that these directors should be obliged to give financial guarantees for their responsibility and independence.

"BL

BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE.

LACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE" for September contains a good short travel paper by Reginald Wyon, entitled "Montenegrin Sketches." "Linesman" continues his interesting series of papers describing the adventures of his brigade on the heels of De Wet.

An anonymous writer, signing "L," discourses concerning the Boers in an article in which he warns Englishmen that all the living Boers are irreconcilable. They live in the past, and the past holds nothing for them but anger and distrust. "No single one of our transactions with them has been of a joyful or friendly nature, not one but has seemed to them dishonest, oppressive, or cowardly. . . . To the beaten Boer there is no future worth winning." The English tell him he will become great and famous. But all his life long he has prayed for obscurity. What is progress to a man whose earnest wish was to stand still? Or riches to one who dreads and despises them? Or imperial citizenship to an anchorite whose share even in the primitive government of his republic was oppressive to him? The writer says there is no doubt that when for the first time England governed the Boer nation she misgoverned it. She promised, and did not perform; she threatened and did not punish; she went to war and did not win. She invoked the sun and the rivers to attest her immovability, and moved; and to the Boer mind ever since she has been a nation of unjust, impotent braggarts.

There is a little dithyrambic article by Edward Hutton upon Venice after the fall of the Campanile; and a characteristic Blackwoodian article about the new ball with a core in it, which the Americans have invented, which bids fair to supersede the ball with which all golfers at present play. The feather-stuffed ball of the olden days cost $1.25, till the gutta-percha ball at 25 cents took its place. At present the new core ball costs 62% cents, and compared with the solid gutta-percha ball the new American ball covers one-third more distance. Judged, however, by the championship results, the core ball is only better than the gutta-percha by one stroke in three hundred and eight.

THE CORNHILL MAGAZINE.

N the Cornhill Magazine for September, the editor

In the Copy the rest of a most useful series of papers

on "Prospects in the Professions," written by carefully selected experts, who not unnaturally prefer to remain anonymous. The purpose of these papers,-the first of which is on the royal navy,-is to give parents some of the many "wrinkles" which they could, perhaps, not pick up otherwise, and which might save them much expense and disappointment. The question of the advantages and disadvantages of the professions, the essential qualities for success, the deficiencies which must cause failure, the amount of outlay actually (not nominally) to be incurred,-enlightenment on all these points should provoke gratitude from many a father with sons to place in the world. On the whole, the navy apparently offers very good average prospects.

Viscount St. Ayres says in an amusing literary paper on Martin Tupper:

“Tupper's claim to immortality rests on his vanity alone. No man ever thought as well of himself with scantier reasons for so doing; no man ever soiled more paper in telling the world why it ought to admire him. And the curious thing is that the world took him at his own valuation; few books commanded a larger sale than Martin's during the

WE

middle years of the nineteenth century. That he should ever have been popular,-that any one, even an American, should have read 'Proverbial Philosophy' sixty times,-might well drive Matthew Arnold to despair."

Lady Grove has a chatty article on "Hotels as Homes," which they never can be in her view.

THE CONTINENTAL REVIEWS.

REVUE DES DEUX MONDES.

E have noticed elsewhere M. Fouillée's curious and interesting article on "The Conduct of Life Among Animals," and Madame Bentzon's "Interview with Tolstoy." As usual, the Revue devotes a great deal of space to historical papers, and in each of the August numbers the place of honor is given to M. Sorel's elaborate account of the Peace or Treaty of Amiens, which ended the Wars of the Revolution, and which was hailed, especially in London, as the commencement of a new era of peace and prosperity. Before the Treaty of Amiens, Bonaparte was still unrealized by Europe at large, but the conduct of the negotiations (the treaty was only signed on March 26, 1802) showed the world that the brilliant Corsican soldier was a statesman as well as a general, and caused the more observant of his contemporaries to regard him with fear.

Those taking a practical or merely an intelligent interest in naval matters will find it worth their while to glance over the diary kept by a French naval officer who prefers to remain anonymous. The first chapter is entitled "In Port," and the writer gives a lively account of Cherbourg, the great maritime town whose strength and warlike footing so unpleasantly impressed Queen Victoria and Prince Albert on the occasion of their second visit to France. The French Portsmouth owed its being in the first instance to the ill-fated Louis XIV., who was passionately interested in his navy; but each successive French ruler, including Napoleon, Charles X., and Napoleon III., added something to Cherbourg and its defences, and even now the government is spending twenty-seven million francs in making improvements to the harbor. The writer manages to convey a great sense of activity and power, and gives some choice word-pictures of the various types of seamen with which he was brought in contact.

WORK IN THE FRENCH COAL MINES.

M. Benoist continues his most interesting account of the organization of work in the French coal mines, and he gives much information of a curious character. Of the five thousand miners employed in one north of France mine, close on four hundred of the workers are children, that is, from thirteen to fourteen years of age. In most cases a man spends his whole life, from childhood to old age, in this kind of work; for though in the life of every Frenchman there comes one great break, that caused by the conscription, even after having spent some years in the army, the young miner drifts back to his old way of life. It should be added that the miner rarely remains faithful to the same neighborhood; he drifts from mine to mine, and this in spite of the fact that the various companies do all they can to encourage their men to stay with them year after year. M. Benoist has much to say concern

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ing the long hours of hard, constant labor, which, he says, makes the French miner old before his time, and causes him to appear a worn-out old man when he has reached his forty-fifth year. He admits, however, that no French worker enjoys so many holidays as does the miner,-one and all, even the more sober workers, constantly take days off. The usual expression concerning these unlicensed holidays is "doing Sunday." "What were you doing yesterday?" one miner will ask the other. “Oh, I was Sundaying," comes the ready an

swer.

OTHER ARTICLES.

Other articles consist of an attempt to analyze the personal character of Frederick the Great, as seen in his political correspondence; of an account of two great musical epochs, that of the cantata and that of the oratorio; of a subtle analysis of the mistakes made by those eighteenth-century philosophers who believed that the world could be rendered virtuous by act of Parliament; and of a political paper dealing with the practical effects of the recent French legislative elections.

TH

REVUE DE PARIS.

HOSE interested in and concerned with the management of universities will turn at once to M. Liard's curious paper on the foundation of French universities in the Revue de Paris for August. A great effort is being made at the present moment to reorganize, and, as it were, resuscitate, the ancient centers of French learning-once so justly famed in medieval Europe. Since the Revolution there has been, from the practical point of view, but one French universitythat of Paris. Various Frenchmen who have lived for short or long periods in England have been struck by the great part played in the national life, not only by Oxford and by Cambridge, but by the ancient and honored Scottish universities; and these acute observers have longed ardently to see the same kind of institution flourish on their own soil. M. Waddington took an immense interest in the matter, and as long ago as 1876 made a determined effort to interest the government in the project. Various Republican statesmen followed suit, and at last-in the July of 1896-the dream of Renan, of Berthelot, of Lavisse, of Monod, and of Jules Simon became more or less a substantial reality.

CHARACTERISTICS OF JOHN CHINAMAN.

In the same number of the Revue M. Donnet analyzes the fundamental characteristics of the Chinese "man in the street." According to the French writer, the most remarkable natural trait of John Chinaman is his good sense, and this in spite of the fact that he is full of superstitions. The Chinaman, as is so often the case with those who pride themselves on their good sense, is an utter materialist; the ideal side of life does not appeal to him at all. He is so sure that he knows every

thing best that he naturally regards all those human beings who have not the good fortune to be born in China as outer barbarians. Even now there are many districts in China where Europeans are believed to be creatures stone blind, with red hair and red faces, and of semi-amphibious nature-that is, living half their time on earth and half their time in the sea. It has often been said that the Chinaman has extraordinary command over his nerves, and can apparently compel himself to feel glad or sorry, according to his mood. At a family funeral the mourners are all very cheerful till the moment comes when they are informed that they must be sorrowful. They then fall to weeping bitterly, and exhibit every sign of intense distress. After this has gone on for some time, the chief mourner observes, "I thank you; that is enough," and, as if by magic, every tear is dried; the men seize their pipes, and begin again laughing and drinking with great good humor.

THE FRENCH NAVY IN THE ORIENT.

In the second number of the August Revue, undoubtedly the most important article is an anonymous and romewhat technical account of the new arrangements made concerning the disposition of the French fleet in the far East. At the present moment, France's possible adversaries would naturally be England and Japan, and the writer concludes that, in that case, the allies would be face to face, not only with France, but also with Russia, who always keeps a portion of her fleet in Chinese waters. The anonymous writer draws careful parallels between the naval conflicts which took place during the last twenty years of the eighteenth century and those which may occur during the next twenty years. He warns the French Admiralty that in such a far Eastern naval conflict as that foreseen by him, France would be in no sense prepared to hold her own with England.

FRANCE A COMMERCIAL NATION.

M. Bérard, who has become a great authority on all commercial questions, contributes an interesting article on the place now held by France in the commercial world. He warns his countrymen, and especially those interested either directly or indirectly in the world's markets, to beware of Anglophobia, for from a commercial point of view the United Kingdom has long been France's best friend and customer. Unlike Germany, the British empire does not seek to acquire her lively neighbor's happy hunting-grounds; she is content to trade with her fair neighbor; indeed, even at the present time the French manage to sell to England goods of twice the value of those which England each year sells to her. Further, wealthy as is the British empire in much that is lacking to France, the French often contrive to make a profit out of what should be purely British products. Thanks in a great measure to Mr. Rhodes, the colonial Briton has now a monopoly of the diamond industry, but the art of diamond-cutting has remained a Continental art, and the De Beers diamonds are all bound to make a short sojourn in Paris before they can be displayed to the retail customer. As for the enormous trade done in French eggs and butter, the fact has been pointed out numberless times in innumerable British publications, and were the United Kingdom to disappear into the sea, there are whole departments of northern France which would find themselves on the verge of bankruptcy. In addition to the egg-and-butter trade, France seems to have a practical

monopoly of certain fruits, and England buys forty million francs' worth of fresh fruit from France each year. The humble but useful sardine means a turnover of fifteen million francs. Fifty millions' worth of French butter is consumed in England, and an instructive chapter could be written concerning the popularity of French wines, notably champagne. M. Bérard speaks with touching sympathy of the energetic promoters of the National Poultry Organization Society; but he points out with considerable shrewdness that in this matter France has nothing to fear from her British rival, for the French farmer's wife devotes herself to the rearing of poultry in a way that no modern Englishwoman would consent to do, and as long as this is so France will go on supplying England with eggs, butter, and poultry to the tune of seventy million francs each year.

ΤΗ

NOUVELLE REVUE.

HE place of honor in the Nouvelle Revue for August is given to M. Fallot's shrewd analysis of the present Maltese crisis. The writer has paid two long visits to Malta, and so considers himself well equipped to deal with the difficult language question. He begins by pointing out that were it not for Great Britain a great portion of the population of Malta would have to leave the island, or else remain to die of hunger. But in spite of this fact, which is fully recognized by the Maltese, the island has never become really British in affection and sentiment, and the French writer accuses the British residents and officials of treating the Maltese native nobility and gentry with scorn. Although until comparatively lately Malta was exceptionally fortunate in her form of government, being in no wise managed from Downing Street, the unfortunate interference of Mr. Chamberlain in the difficult and delicate language question caused the smouldering embers of dislike to burst into flame. The Maltese are now on the worst of terms with their rulers, and this in spite of the fact that the home authorities have given way on the language question.

M. Lacour contributes some curious pages concerning high temperatures and the causation of great heat, especially that artificially produced. Curiously enough, it is extremely difficult to make a thermometer strong enough to register certain high temperatures; as to mercury, it begins to boil comparatively soon.

LOCUSTS IN ALGERIA.

M. de Tiallis gives a striking account of the modern plagues of locusts, so dreaded by the Algerian colonist. During the nineteenth century there were four great visitations,-in 1846, in 1866, in 1874, and in 1891. No noxious insect, and for the matter of that no animal, can do more mischief in a short time than can the humble-looking locust; a tract of land which is noted for its fertility and beautiful luxuriance will in the course of a few hours be so completely denuded of every blossoming and green thing as to recall the desert. The eloquent words of the prophet Joel are as true to-day as they were when he first delivered them. All sorts of extraordinary remedies have been proposed, of which perhaps the most absurd and the least practical was that of arming a battalion of soldiers with butterfly nets. More profitable experiments have been made by scientists, and nowadays some locusts are destroyed with the aid of insecticides, but no effective method of combating these African pests has yet been discovered.

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