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Three buildings were erected in 1889 by Emory and Henry College, Emory, Va. The William Morrow Science Hall contains a chemical lecture room, chemical laboratory, physical lecture room, cabinet of minerals and fossils, apparatus room, room for chemical calculus, etc. The Sam W. Small Gymnasium is a large octagonal building constructed with reference to a double use, viz, during the session, for bodily exercise, and at the close, as a public auditorium. Its seating capacity is about 1,600. Byars House is the college boarding house and hotel. Students are not allowed to room in this building, as the rooms are kept for hotel purposes. The third floor of the building is occupied by two society halls.
Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va., reports the erection of a gymnasium. No particulars are given.
West Virginia University, Morgantown, W. Va., reports the erection of a new hall to be used as an armory, gymnasium, and commencement hall.
Beloit College, Beloit, Wis., reports the completion of Scoville Hall at a cost of $25,000. This building is for the use of the preparatory department.
The College of St. Augustine, Benicia, Cal., reports that it was suspended during 1889-90 on account of the murder of the vice-president of the college by two students who were refused their diplomas, having been found deficient in mathematies.
Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn., reports the organization of a department of English language.
Moore's Hill College, Moore's Hill, Ind., established a normal school simultaneously with the abolishment of the De Pauw Normal School.
Kentucky University, Lexington, Ky., was opened to women in 1889. The president says that coeducation has proved a success with them.
Kentucky Classical and Business College, North Middletown, Ky.—The building with its contents was burned in November, 1889, and will not be rebuilt at present.
Kentucky Wesleyan College has been removed from Millersburg to Winchester, where new buildings have been erected.
The trustees of the University of Mississippi have decided to establish a department of pedagogy.
Trinity College, North Carolina.-In March, 1890, Mr. Washington Duke, of Durham, N. C., offered to give $85,000 to the college in building and endowment, and Mr. J. S. Carr agreed to donate a magnificent tract of 631 acres of land lying on the west of Durham as a site on condition of the removal of the college to that city. These offers were promptly accepted and buildings are now in course of erection. The main building to cost $50,000 will be three stories high and will have a main front of 200 feet long and 50 feet wide, with two end wings, extending 50 feet back. This building contains 60 dormitories, each consisting of a bedroom and study, 12 lecture rooms and offices, laboratories for the use of the professors, apartments for assistants and employés, and a basement under the entire building. The technological building contains separate apartments for the manual training school, the schools of civil, mechanical, and electrical engineering, two laboratories, two lecture rooms, a carpenter shop, machine shop, and a blue print and photographer's room. The Dining Hall and Chapel contains on the first floor, a dining hall with a capacity of 200 seats, and the second floor a chapel with a capacity of 500. The gymnasium is 80 by 40 feet, and will be furnished with good gymnastic appliances. In addition to the foregoing buildings there have been erected a laundry building and seven residences for the faculty and officers.
LENGTH OF COLLEGE CURRICULUM.
Introduction-Reduction of Course Recommended in the Interest of Medical Students-Average Age of Freshmen-Increased Requirements for Graduation (Course of Study in Yale, 1824-25 and 1890-1891)-Average Age of Freshmen at Harvard-Method of Computing Average Age at Harvard-Remarks and Opinions of Prominent Educators: President Eliot and the Action of the Harvard Faculty-Ex-President Andrew D. White, of Cornell-President Gilman, of John HopkinsAction of Columbia College-President Adams, of Cornell-President Angell, of University of Michigan-President Hyde, of Bowdoin-President Capen, of Tufts-President Warren, of Boston University-President Andrews, of Brown University Mr. George L. Fox, of Hopkins Grammar School-Prof. Tracy Peck, of Yale-Significance of the A. B. degree.
The subject of higher education has been so ably discussed and set forth during late years by the leading college men of the country that it will be profitable to reproduce here some of their remarks.
Prominent among the subjects which have engaged attention is that of shortening the time required to complete the college course. The proposition took practical shape in the attempt made by the faculty of Harvard College to reduce the time required for obtaining the A. B. degree.
This attempt was made in the interest of those students who, after completing a college course take a full four years' course in medicine. By the method now in practice the average age at graduation of such students, according to President Eliot, is between 26 and 27 years. That this is an evil and that something ought to be done to remedy it is generally admitted; but considerable opposition has been developed to the propositions advanced with this end in view, more especially by the smaller colleges of the country. To these institutions the abridgment of the course would mean, for some time at least, a diminished attendance and consequently a diminished income from tuition fees, while to replace this loss a larger increase in the productive funds of the colieges would be required than there is any reasonable hope of obtaining.
The Harvard plan of shortening the course is given farther on. Another and less radical measure looking to the accomplishment of the same purpose as the shortening of the college course has been proposed. This plan allows seniors to elect the first year studies of the professional department which they propose to enter; but this plan, it is evident, can be adopted only by those institutions which have professional departments in close proximity to the college.
Age of freshmen.-Before giving the views of college presidents on this subject it may be well to consider the age of college students. An inquiry on this subject was addressed by this Office to the colleges and universities of this country, 220 of which have returned fairly satisfactory answers. The inquiry was worded as follows: "How does the average age of the members of the freshman class in your institution compare with the average age ten years ago?"
Of the 220 institutions replying, 102 reported the average age as being the same as ten years ago; 65 reported a lower average, and 53 a higher average. Of the 65 institutions in the second category 52 give the age as "slightly lower," or "less than one year;" 9 report it as being between one and two years lower, and 4 report it as between two and three years lower. Of the 53 that report the age as higher, 36 say it is slightly or less than one year higher, 12 report it as being between one and two years higher, and 5 report it as between two and three years higher. But we must not lose sight of the fact that in a large number of these institutions the requirements for admission have been raised considerably
during the last ten years, which would naturally have a tendency to raise the age at admission, provided no improvement had been made at the same time in the secondary schools preparing for the colleges. Of the 220 institutions answering the inquiry as to the age of their students, 81 say that the requirements for admission have been raised; and of these 81 institutions the standard of 54 has been raised without increasing the age; in fact, 23 of these 54 institutions say that the age is lower than ten years ago. The requirements for admission have been raised in 27 of the 53 institutions that report the age as having increased, and it may be well to note the fact that of the 12 institutions in the North Atlantic Division reporting an increased age, 10 show an increase in the requirements for admission.
The foregoing information, summarized by States, is given in the following table.
Average age of freshmen as compared with the average age ten years ago.
Increased requirements for graduation.-A comparison of the following courses of study in Yale College for the years 1824-25 and 1890-91 will give some idea of the increased requirements for graduation in this country.
Greek.-Homer's Odyssey, five books; Xenophon's Hellenica; Herodotus, seventh book. Latin.-Livy, Books XXI and XXII; Tusculanæ Disputationes, De Amicitia, and De Senectute of Cicero; Satires of Horace; Prose Composition; History of the Roman Republic.
French or German.-Three hours a week throughout the year. Students may at their option either continue the study of the modern language presented for admission or begin the study of German in case they have not previously pursued it.
Mathematics.-In Geometry: Planes, polyhedrons, cones, cylinders, and spheres. Projec tion of figures with exercises on models (Chauvenet).
Plane Trigonometry: Solutions of Triangles, Mensurations, and Surveying (Richards); Trigonometric Analysis (Case).
Algebra: The geometrical interpretation of the Theory of Equations, Imaginaries, and the Solution of Higher Equations (Phillips and Beebe).
Oriental History.-One hour a week. A general view of Egyptian, Assyrian, and Babylonian and Persian history, with special reference to Biblical and classical history.
Greek.-Sophocles' Antigone and Electra; Euripides' Medea; Thucydides, first book; Isocrates' Panegyric; Plato's Apology. Latin.-Pliny's Letters; Agricola and Germania of Tacitus; Odes and Epodes of Horace; Menæchmi of Plautus; Andría and Adelphi of Terence; sight reading.
Modern Languages.- Advanced French or German, two hours a week.
Mathematics.-Trigonometry: Spherical Trigonometry; Applications to Navigation and Astronomy (Richards).
Average age of freshmen at Harvard.-The following table showing the age of freshmen at Harvard College is taken from the report of the president of that institution for the year 1889-90:
Age of students who entered the freshman class of Harvard College, 1856-1890, inclu
a On the assumption that all who ever joined each class were admitted as freshmen. 645 years old. c44 years old.
From this table it would appear that the average age has been increased in thirty-four years by a little more than seventeen months. But let us inquire into the manner of arriving at these results. The secretary of Harvard University, in a communication received August 16, 1890, gave the average age of the freshman classes for the last ten years as follows:
As the figures in the president's report did not agree with those given by the secretary, a letter was written to the latter asking him which of the two sets of figures should be used in the compilations of the Bureau. The following reply was received March 5, 1891:
"The table in the President's report is the best authority, as it contains all recent changes and corrections in the age statistics.
"The most marked changes are due to the embodying in the figures of persons entering the classes of 1890, 1891, 1892, and 1893 (i. e., the freshman classes marked 1887, 1888, 1889, and 1890) with advanced standing. For example: If a man comes from Yale or Amherst after graduation and enters our senior class