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my research into the causes, purposes, objects, and aims of this unparalleled international struggle and explicitly state not only my views as to why we are in this war, but also to make it clear and plain why we must win this war.

In all my comments on German Kultur and the spirit and methods of the German people, I would have the reader bear in mind that I speak from personal experience-from first-hand contact with the German people in Germany and Austria, where I lived among these people and mingled with them as a student and observer.

In sentiment I have always been a strong pacifist. In belief and feeling I have been strongly opposed to war, and in sentiment I have been strongly sympathetic with Germany and the Germans, having gone there for study, and this I mention merely to indicate that I entered upon my search for the answer to "What's the matter with Germany?" with an unprejudiced viewpoint, and with a mind altogether friendly in its disposition toward the German people as a whole.

AN UNUSUAL WAR- A WORLD-WAR

The reasons for this war are so many and so complicated and so interrelated, that I am not surprised that the average citizen finds more or less

difficulty in formulating his position and beliefs. Especially must we recognize that this is true of many of our foreign born and foreign related citizens.

Why, my own wife, herself a physician, asked me only a few days after our country declared war, just why we had gone into the fight after having stayed out of the struggle for more than two years. And when I sought for a concrete answer to my wife's question I found, to my dismay and chagrin, that I did not have my own National Consciousness on this particular point very well formulated or focused. Of course, I could have answered her right off-the Lusitania, Belgium, Submarines, etc.; but I well knew that was not the whole truth of the matter, and so I have spent just six months in finding the answer to my wife's question to the satisfaction of my own mind, and it is upon her suggestion that I venture to pass it on to the public, for the sake of any of like inquiring mind, and in the hope that my research may help others to know why America is in the war, and, what is of still more importance, why we must win this war.

CHAPTER III

THE PREHISTORIC HEIDELBERG RACE

HIS war has led me to undertake a careful

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review of the history of European civilization, of the real origin and present racial status of the Germanic peoples; and I think it will help somewhat to a better understanding of the issues involved in the present struggle, if we will take the time to go back a few thousand years and patiently examine the migration paths connected with the ebb and flow of the tide of early civilization in central and western Europe.

It is quite the unanimous opinion of authorities 1 on racial origin today that the various prehistoric species of the human family seem to have come forth out of an Asiatic cradle and from their eastern habitats to have emigrated by various routes into Europe. The excavations and other studies of prehistoric man during the last two decades have revealed the interesting fact that several

1 In my researches every available source of information and every accessible authority has been consulted, too numerous to cite in this connection; but I am especially indebted to the more recent works of Osborn and Grant.

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great race struggles have ensued on the banks of the Somme River and the territory adjacent thereto, and it may help us more fully to appreciate the present great struggle on the Somme River briefly to review the best modern opinions regarding these earlier world-wars which, it would seem, sometimes were fought to the utter extinction of one or the other of the belligerents.

The human race has struggled up through the ages, again and again to revert into savagery and barbarism, but withal after each reversion some net gain has been the reward of the race for the suffering and struggling of our ancestors; and this social evolution or development will thus continue just as long as there is somewhere in the world some race of people which possesses this capacity for growth and ascension in the biologic scale of life and civilization.

ORIGIN AND NATURE OF GENIUS

Commenting on this fact Grant1 says: "The impulse upward, however, is supplied by a very small number of nations, and by a very small portion of the population in such nations. The section of any community that produces leaders or

1 The Passing of the Great Race. By Madison Grant. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

genius of any sort is only a minute percentage. To invent new processes, to establish new principles, to elucidate and unravel the laws of nature, calls for genius. To imitate or to adopt what others have invented is not genius but mimicry. This something which we call 'genius' is not a matter of family, but of stock or strain, and is inherited in precisely the same manner as are the purely physical characteristics. It may be latent through`several generations of obscurity, and then flare up when the opportunity comes. Of this we have many examples in America. This is what education or opportunity does for a community; it permits in these rare cases fair play for development, but it is race, always race, that produces genius. This genius-producing type is slow breeding, and there is real danger of its loss to mankind."

THE "DAWN MAN"

Sometime away back in the early second interglacial period the so-called Heidelberg race appeared in northern Germany. The typical bones and skulls representative of this early race were unearthed in 1907 in a sand-pit near Heidelberg, at a depth of almost eighty feet below the surface, in a layer of ancient river sands, representing the

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