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that be deemed of any importance whatever, Tokio government, he declared, is quite conespecially as being an element of the least weight tented that the United States should own in the relations of two great and wholly friendly these islands. "We hope you will keep nations? I say to you simply that in Japan we have paid no attention to it. It is altogether too trivial. It counts for nothing. It is nothing.

The General added that undoubtedly in the future many more Japanese children would come to the United States for instruction, probably by way of Seattle. In an interview with the representative of the New York Times General Kuroki declared that the Japanese people now want peace, only peace, peace with the whole world, and peace for years to come. His message to the American people was:

The Japanese people love peace. They fought for peace. My nation wants peace in which to develop the opportunities that are hers. We have no other desire. The profession which I have the misfortune to follow is noble only because war is sometimes necessary to establish conditions in which peace may be maintained and in which the arts of peace may flourish.

As to the Japanese purpose at The Hague, he declared that the instructions given to the delegates "look in the direction of disarmament." Regarding the condition of affairs in China and the relations between that country and Japan, the General said, with emphasis:

The most important fact about China at this moment is that it is internally in a strife of civil chaos. Manchuria and Korea are overrun by brigands, and it is the case generally throughout China. Now, it is of first importance that the Chinese Government should be able to maintain order in the territory over which it holds authority. For that purpose it is organizing an army. Japanese officers are taking a prominent part in that organization. We hope an efficient Chinese army may be created, but the purpose

them. If, however, they were to come into the possession of other powers, then Japan would consider their acquisition."

A Franco-


Two events in her foreign politics have been of great significance and importance to the Japanese people during the past few weeks. These were the understanding with France and the negotiations with Turkey, as yet only partially successful, for the establishment of a Japanese embassy at Constantinople. The Franco-Japanese understanding consists of a treaty according to which France recognizes the rights of Japan in Korea and her special interests in Manchuria, and Japan, on her side, promises not to interfere with French possessions in Siam and Indo-China. This agreement assures tranquillity to the French Asiatic possessions, and, taken in conjunction with the Anglo-Japanese alliance, the RussoJapanese peace of Portsmouth, and the pending Anglo-Russian treaty (complemented by the Anglo-French entente cordiale), will be an irresistible combination for the maintenance of peace in the Far East. While these alliances and agreements do not actively in

volve either Germany or the United States, it is certain that there can be nothing but sympathy in both these countries for such combinations which make for world peace.

In negotiating for the establishA Japanese Ambassador ment of a Japanese embassy at the in Turkey? Turkish capital the island empire not only desires to establish itself on an equalof it is wholly pacific. It is for internal police ity with other European nations represented at service. Japan believes that the internal police the Sublime Porte, but also to have a proper of China will make for the peace of the world. representation at a court whose relations with In this interest in the training of Chinese sol- Russia are always particularly important and diers Japan has only the welfare of the world at delicate. The Sultan, however, has so far heart. She wants to see order established, and then to see China enter into a high plane in the opposed the Japanese idea, ostensibly because sisterhood of nations. When she masters the of the opposition of Russia and Germany, evil and disorderly forces within her, you will see China learn the lessons of modern civiliza. tion. Japan learned them first. Is it not now her duty to help China learn them, too?

Baron Ozawa, for his part, declared that the Japanese people are looking earnestly for an alliance with the United States, because, despite any and all reports to the contrary, the Japanese people really regard the American people as their friends. As to the Philippines, the Baron was very frank. The

but in reality because the countries represented at the Turkish capital by ambassadors have a right to the provisions of the historic "Capitulations," by which Turkey gives foreign powers certain supervision over her internal affairs, including schools, missions, consular courts, etc. Within recent years the efforts of the Turkish Government have been to restrict and ultimately abolish these privileges, as contrary to the dignity of its independent sovereignty.

(From April 20 to May 19, 1907.)


April 20.-Over seventy-five indictments against alleged violators of the anti-trust laws are brought at Toledo, Ohio.

April 22.-The Buffalo, N. Y., Chamber of Commerce passes resolutions favoring the amendment of the Public Utilities bill and call


(Indicted for bribery in franchise cases.)

ing for a convention of representatives of similar organizations to consider the bill.

April 23-The Rhode Island Legislature adjourns without electing a successor to United States Senator Wetmore.

April 26-Frederick I. Allen, United States Commissioner of Patents, resigns.

April 30.-The names of several well-known Pennsylvania politicians are involved in the capitol investigation at Harrisburg.

May 1-Governor Hughes, of New York, sends a message to the Legislature advising the reapportionment of the State; he also signs the bill for an investigation of the National Guard.

May 3-Governor Hughes, in a speech at Elmira, N. Y., appeals to public opinion on the Public Utilities bill and other issues.

May 4-Indictments are returned against Chicago's former chief of police, commissioner of public works, city purchasing agent, police attorney, and others, on charges of corruption in the police department.

May 5-Pennsylvania officials decide to bring both civil and criminal suits against men connected with the capitol scandal.

May 7.--J. Barry Mahool (Dem.) is elected Mayor of Baltimore by a majority of 4000 over Clay Timanus (Rep.) the present incumbent.... Irvine L. Lenrott (Rep.) withdraws from the contest for the senatorial nomination in Wisconsin.

May 8.-Chairman Brown, of the Ohio Republican State Central Committee, and George B. Cox, former Republican leader in Cincinnati, dcclare for Taft for President and Foraker for Senator.

May 9.-President Roosevelt makes public a report by James B. Reynolds, recommending certain changes in the government of the District of Columbia, including the substitution of a governor for the present three commissioners.

May 10. It is announced in Washington that Secretary Taft and his friends will neither aid nor oppose Senator Foraker in his contest for reelection.

May 11-The Republican State Committee of New York unanimously indorses the reform measures of Governor Hughes.

May 12-Senator Foraker issues a statement in Washington, saying that so far as he is concerned there has been no compromise in Ohio politics and that he will not be bound by any action of any unauthorized body.... The Illinois Legislature passes a new charter for the city of Chicago.

May 13.-The United States Supreme Court dismisses the suit brought by Kansas against Colorado to restrain the latter State from diverting the waters of the Arkansas River for irrigation purposes.

May 14-The New York State Senate passes over Mayor McClellan's veto the bill designed to equalize the salaries of men and women teachers in New York City.

May 15-The New York Assembly unanimously passes the Public Utilities bill; it also passes the bill for equal pay of New York men and women teachers.

May 16.-Republican members of the Wisconsin Legislature nominate Isaac Stephenson to succeed John C. Spooner in the United States Senate.

May 17-Chairman Brown, of the Ohio Republican State Central Committee, declares that the sentiment of the State is overwhelmingly for Secretary Taft.


May 19. A report of the Commissioner of Corporations, charging the Standard Oil Company with the abuse of transportation facilities, is made public at Washington.


April 20.-Elections to the lower house of the Cortes take place throughout Spain.

April 23.-Governor Magoon, at Havana, signs a decree granting amnesty to the members of the armed forces of Cuba found guilty of committing offenses in the recent rebellion.... The Czar.receives President Golovin of the House and expresses confidence that the Duma and the ministry will be able to co-operate.... The Imperial Conference in London adopts a resolution for the creation of a general staff for Great Britain and her colonies.

April 24-Winston Spencer Churchill, UnderSecretary for the Colonies, is made a privy councillor for Great Britain.

April 25.-The German treasury bond issue of $75,000,000 is subscribed forty-five times over.

April 27.-The session of the Canadian Parliament comes to a close.

May 2.-The German Reichstag passes the first reading of the Kiel Canal bill, which provides for beginning the work of enlargement....A new Belgian cabinet is formed, with M. De Troos, Minister of the Interior, as Premier.

May 3.-The German Reichstag passes by a

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(Lord Cromer's successor in Egypt.)

large majority the bill establishing a colonial ministry....A. J. Balfour, the Unionist leader of England, in a speech before members of the Primrose League, strongly favors protection under the name of preference.

May 4-The vice-president of the Persian Parliament threatens a popular rising if the promises of constitutional government are not fulfilled.

May 6.-The government of India threatens to withdraw educational aid in Bengal unless the political agitation in the university and schools


May 7.-Augustine Birrell, Chief Secretary for Ireland, introduces the new Home Rule bill in the British House of Commons; the measure is passed on first reading after the cloture rule has been applied by a vote of 416 to 121.

May 8.-Governor Magoon signs a decree providing for Cuban census statistics.

May 11-The Indian Government empowers authorities to prohibit meetings of the natives. ....The French budget for 1908 shows heavy reductions in the estimates.

May 13.-The Constitutional Democrats in the Russian Duma pass a resolution for the trial of the Governor-General of Moscow for illegal action in having caused the death of four men.

May 14-The British Imperial Conference closes its sessions.... The French Chamber of

Deputies sustains the government's policy toward
labor by a vote of 343 to 210.

May 15.-The Russian upper house rejects the
bill passed by the Duma to abolish trial by drum-
head court martial....Socialists and Anti-Sem-
ites make the greatest gains in the Austrian elec-

May 17-The corporation of Dublin unani-
mously adopts a resolution condemning the Irish
Home Rule bill.

May 18.-Herr Dernburg is appointed head of
Germany's new ministry for the colonies.


raising of the Turkish customs duty is signed at Constantinople.

arrest of General Lima on the charge of being
accessory to the murder of General Barillas.
April 28.-Mexico demands of Guatemala the

a discussion of the limitation of armaments at
April 30.-Chancellor von Bülow of Germany
The Hague.
clearly defines the German position in regard

cate provided under the Pure Food law for
May 1.-France refuses to accept the certifi-

American' meat.

May 2.-King Edward of England and Presi

April 20.-The Porte explicitly accepts the five dent Fallières of France exchange visits at Paris.

demands of the European powers.

April 22.-The reply of the Sultan of Morocco to the French demand for indemnity shows a desire to negotiate rather than to meet the claims.... Nicaragua suggests States a plan to break the deadlock at Amapala to the United by having the question of Salvadore's liability

in the war submitted to arbitration.

April 23.-A treaty of peace between Salvador and Nicaragua is signed at Amapala. April 25.-The protocol with reference to the

May 3.-The Dominican Congress ratifies the new treaty with the United States.

all the American demands, chief of which is that
May 4.-The Turkish Government concedes
concerning the treatment of schools.

Nicaraguan and Honduran prisoners on the
May 5-A demand for the release of the
Marietta is refused by the American commander.

May 6.-An agreement by which France and regarding their territories in the Far East is reJapan will be bound to observe the status quo ported as under negotiation at Tokio.

May 7-It is announced that Great Britain and Germany have reached an understanding with regard to their possessions in South Africa. ....Ecuador protests against the boundary agreement between Brazil and Colombia as prejudicial to Ecuador's interests.

May 9.-It is announced in Paris that as Morocco's reply to the French demands is not satisfactory the occupation of Oudja will continue.

May 12.-Negotiations to establish a Japanese embassy at Constantinople are hampered by Turkish refusal to grant to Japan the supervision of internal affairs which is possessed by the great powers.

May 14-The German Reichstag, on third reading, finally passes the German-American commercial agreement, which is to take effect on July I and remain in force one year.

May 15-Signor Tittoni, the Italian Foreign Minister, in a speech before the Chamber of Deputies, explains the attitude of the powers toward the question of limitation of armament at The Hague.

May 16-The_Moroccan Foreign Minister communicates to France the Sultan's decision to comply with her demands....Chinese officials in Shanghai state that the famine relief has healed all breaches between China and the United States.... The Nicaraguan Congress approves the peace treaty with Salvador.

OTHER OCCURRENCES OF THE MONTH. April 20.-Heavy snow and hail storms are reported from Colorado, Kansas, and other portions of the Southwest.

April 21.-Thirty-one persons are drowned by the sinking of a river steamer in the Neva, near St. Petersburg.

April 23-New buildings at Glasgow University are opened....The gift of $1,000,000 by Miss Anna T. Jeanes, for the education of negro chil

THE MEETING OF KING EDWARD AND KING AL- dren in the South, is announced.



April 26.-The Jamestown Tercentenary Ex

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