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The Harvest

Despite the fact that, on May 8, of Mr. Root's the direct American mail service Sowing. to the eastern coast of the southern continent was discontinued, and after that time all our letters will go to those South American countries by way of Europe, our relations with the Latin-Americans,thanks principally to Secretary Root's recent mission,-have greatly improved. In a speech in opening the Argentine Congress, on the same day that we began to send our South American mail via Europe, President Alcorta declared:

of the
New Director.

As a preliminary step, a most ambitious plan of reorganization and extension for the bureau was submitted to the Third Pan-American Conference, held in Rio de Janeiro last summer. This was approved by the conference. Following this, Mr. Root made his famous diplomatic tour of the South American continent, visiting all the principal capitals, and realizing, as no American statesman has heretofore realized, the magnificent opportunities for the extension of American commerce and influence in all Latin-America. Before his return to the United States he had secured an appropriation from our own Con

The most notable diplomatic event of the past year was the visit of the American Secretary of State, Mr. Root, to this and other Latin repub-gress of $200,000 for a site and building for lics. That eminent statesman brought messages the bureau's new home, to which fund the of cordiality and friendship from the American other republics also contributed. Describing people and their illustrious President, Mr. Roose- his hopes to Mr. Carnegie, he persuaded that velt, and made statements on every possible oc

The Bureau of

casion which could only have the effect of assist- philanthropist to give $750,000 for a building in the progress of the republics and bringing ing, making a total of $1,000,000 for about closer relations between them and the location and structure. Mr. Root's next United States. The visit of Mr. Root has already move was, in conference and harmony with begun to bear fruit in the genuine friendship the ministers of the Latin-American repubestablished, in a better understanding, and in the frank relations existing between Argentina and lics at Washington, to select a new director the United States and the firm desire of both for the bureau. The choice fell upon Hon. republics to promote their mutual commerce. John Barrett, United States Minister to Colombia, who has also previously been United States Minister to Panama and to Argentina, and before that delegate of the United States to the Second Pan-American Conference, at Mexico. In December last Mr. Barrett was formally elected director of the bureau to succeed Hon. William C. Fox, who has been appointed United States Minister to Ecuador. In discussing the future of the bureau, Mr. Barrett says that its great purpose will be not only to build up trade and commerce among all the American nations, but to promote more friendly relations, better understanding of each other, and the general prosperity and well-being of all the countries of the American continents. For this purpose he desires the co-operation of chambers of commerce, boards of trade, commercial organizations, and other institutions interested in the extension of American influence and prestige abroad. The monthly bulletin of the bureau has already been greatly improved, and Mr. Barrett hopes for increased usefulness from this publication.

The International Bureau of the American American Republics, of which Republics. Mr. John Barrett has just been made director, is an institution founded about seventeen years ago as a result of the First International Pan-American Conference, held in Washington. The late James G. Blaine was the leader in the movement, and saw great possibilities in an establishment of this kind for developing commerce and friendly relations among the republics of the Western Hemisphere. Since then it has led a dignified and honest existence in Washing ton, having such distinguished men as its directors as the celebrated newspaper correspondent, William Eleroy Curtis, and Hon. W. W. Rockhill, now United States Minister to China. It has not, however, ever carried out to the extent planned the intentions of the founders. It has done a good work and has possessed a competent staff, but there had been lack of interest in the State Department of the United States and in the foreign offices of the governments of the other republics, until Secretary Root, with his masterful statesmanship and far-sighted policy, saw the necessity of immediately developing better relations with our sister republics and determined that the bureau should become the chief agency to this end.

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ceived from a keen student of politics and economics, of long residence in Cuba in capacity which has afforded him, during the past ten years, excellent opportunity for observing actualities. There are two main reasons, he declares, for the depression in Cuba. One is the lack of personal rights on the part of the inhabitants of the island, and the other the commercial unrest which is evident in the want of confidence on the part of both labor and capital. The moneyed man has, says the writer of this letter, no adequate security that he will ever get his money back. He therefore charges inordinate interest and demands inordinate security. Usury is, accordingly, one of the curses of present-day Cuba. On the other hand, labor is almost absolutely unprotected. There is no such thing as the mechanic's lien or its equivalent. In Cuba the laborer is considered last. Not until farmers and laborers are reasonably sure of the fruits of their labor will there be industrial tranquillity in Cuba, and commercial tranquillity will flow at once from industrial tranquillity." The principal difficulty in the way of securing these reforms, we are told, is the apathy of the conservative elements.

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They are relying upon the strong arm of the United States to maintain law and order, and are therefore quietly abstaining from taking any effective part in public affairs. Thus the very elements that must eventually govern Cuba, as every other nation, are contributing to delay the hour when the American troops can evacuate the island.

Economic Reforms in the Island.

The writer of this letter insists that it is already recognized by all intelligent Cubans that the island, being the key to the Panama Canal, can never be permitted by the Government of the United States to pass into hostile hands, er, by incompetent administration, to become a source of international peril."

tion, therefore, must largely depend for reform on one-sided statements, because of the lack of any representative party to set forth the other side in an organized manner.

Recognizing that a prolonged occupation by the American authorities is necessary, the Provisional Government has begun to bestir itself about material reforms. Says this observer:

The conclusion of the sugar harvest has left many laborers idle. A phenomenal dry season has so far made new planting impossible, and advantage is being taken of these conditions to push forward many public works of utility with the greatest economy possible. Among these is a well-considered plan for a great central highway which shall tap all the rich agricultural cation by which products can reach their marregions of the island with an artery of communikets. This will necessitate the disbursement of some $4,000,000, chiefly for materials and labor, among the very classes now out of employment. It will also relieve the industrial situation temporarily, permanently benefit the farmers of the island, and help to put into circulation the millions of surplus which the bankers refused to accept at 2 per cent. as a loan. The smaller towns are also being assisted to improve their sanitary conditions under the direction of American army officers, with further disbursement of public funds for works of general utility.


The Hague.

The personalities and careers of Delegates at our American delegates to the Hague Peace Conference are so interesting and significant that in this connection we offer no apology for calling the reader's attention to our contributed article on page 673 this month. Before the conference meets the interest is largely in personalities, and the governments of the world have in almost all cases appointed delegates whose names stand for dignity and progress. By the middle of May these appointments had been announced: The British delegates are Sir Edward Fry, a member of the permanent Court of Appeals at The Hague; Sir Ernest Satow, British Minister to China; This being recognized, the conservative ele- Lord Reay, the president of the Royal Asiatic ments of Cuban society, without much regard to Society; Sir Henry Howard, British Minparty, smile at the prospect of an end to the ister to The Hague, besides military, naval, Intervention." They declare that no end is pos- and international law experts. France sends sible and that, after all, it is not the form of intervention but the fact of American control of the M. Léon Bourgeois, former Premier of the situation which interests them. Hence these ele- Republic; Baron d'Estournelles de Constant, ments have thus far failed to perfect any organi- Senator and well-known advocate of internazation to succeed the now defunct "Moderato tional arbitration; and M. Louis Rénault, party, leaving the "Liberales," so badly divided among themselves over the candidacy of various France's permanent representative at the generals, to control the situation so far as per- Hague Tribunal. Italy will be represented mitted by the Provisional Government. These by Count Tornielli, Ambassador to France; having no organization and exhibiting considera- Signor Guido Pompili, Under-Secretary of ble apathy about organizing, there remains only the late insurgent element to be heard from in Foreign Affairs, and Signor Fusinato, memany truly representative way. The Administra- ber of the House of Deputies and authority


on international law. The Russian delegates will be: Count Nelidoff, Prof. Theodore Martens, international law expert, and Dr. Charikov, Russian Minister at The Hague. Austria sends Privy Councillor Merey von Kaposmere, Baron von Maccio, of the Department of Foreign Affairs, and Prof. Heinrich Lammasch, expert on international law. Dr. F. Hagerup, Norwegian Minister to Denmark, will represent his country at The Hague. Japan sends an impressive delegation, which includes Mr. K. T. Sutsuki, of the Foreign Office; Dr. Aimana Sato, Japanese Minister at The Hague; Rear-Admiral Shimamura, Major-General Akiyama, and Mr. H. W. Dennison, the American advisor to the Japanese Foreign Office.

'The British Colonial

The conspicuous result of the British Colonial Conference, Conference. which met in London in late April and early May, was the refusal of the imperial government to accede to the scheme for colonial trade preference, a policy which


of the Clémenceau cabinet.

in order to favor the United States. In a dramatic speech he announced that Newfoundland denies the right of the home government to permit what Newfoundland's laws forbid. It is to be hoped and confidently expected that under the broad, progressive, and conciliatory methods of Ambassador Bryce speedy progress will be made in the settlement of this long-standing difference with Newfoundland.

Premier Clé-

was favored by all the assembled premiers, A snap shop of M. Viviani, the out-and-out Socialist with the exception of Sir Wilfrid Laurier. All attempts to commit the federal government to the policy of protection, under the name of preference, were defeated, the Canadian Premier always voting with the government, and General Botha, of the Transvaal, being on most occasions his supporter. The sensational events of the sessions were the speeches by Mr. Alfred Deakin, Premier of Australia, and Sir Robert Bond, of Newfoundland. Mr. Deakin, speaking at a dinner of the Pilgrim Society of London, predicted in the near future a tremendous struggle for the control of the Pacific. The BritAs a direct result of the May ish Colonial Office, declared Mr. Deakin, is Day labor demonstrations in farther from the colonies than the colonies France, the position of the Cléare from the Colonial Office. He wished it menceau ministry is stronger than ever in the to be noted, however, as unalterable Austra- republic. On the first day of last month lian sentiment, that "England had not al- some minor demonstrations occurred, ending lowed a rival European nation [referring to with the arrest of several of the labor leaders the German occupation of the New Heb- in Paris for disorder. The crux of the siturides], to get a foothold close to Australia ation, however, was reached when M. Jaurés, without a warning from the colony." Dur- the Socialist deputy in Parliament, followed ing the last century the British Government by MM. Deschanel and Ribot, almost blunthad not been called on for a test of sea su- ly asked the government to disclose its labor premacy, but in a few years, Mr. Deakin con- policy. The attack of the extreme Socialists, tinued, without mentioning nations by name, led by Jaurés, turned upon the refusal of England would have to fight for the suprem- Minister Briand to authorize the formation acy of the Pacific with Germany, Japan, and of labor unions by the school teachers and perhaps the United States of America. Sir other state officials. The Premier denied Robert Bond presented the Canadian fisheries being antagonistic to the principles of laborargument, claiming that the imperial govern- unionism, but strongly opposed what he ment had overridden the rights of the colony termed the disorderly revolutionary program

of the Confederation Générale du Travail objections advanced by German exporters. (General Confederation of Labor). After Certain reductions, also, are made upon heated debate the chamber expressed confi- goods imported from Germany as permitted dence in the government by a vote of 343 to under the provisions of the Dingley tariff act. 210. M. Clémenceau's vigorous and fair- In German home politics the passage of the minded attitude has received the support of Colonial Ministry bill, early in May, was moderate people throughout the republic. one of the chief happenings of interest. The While the sympathies of his ministry are with attitude of the empire on the advisability of the labor movement in general,-as testified discussing at the Hague Conference the quesby the presence in his cabinet of Ministers tion of disarmament continues to provide a Briand and Viviani, the latter an out-and-out subject for discussion in the European press. Socialist, the moderate ground invariably taken by him in the suppression of disorder has won him the confidence, not only of his own countrymen, but of Europe in general.

Economic and


By the approval in the Reichstag, Industrial early last month, of the tariff modus vivendi between Germany and the United States, the trade interests of both countries have their relations fixed for another year at least and probably for an indefinite period in the future. This "Project of Commercial Agreement," as it is termed, extends to this country the benefit of the most-favored-nation clauses of the German tariff, in return for which certain concessions in the method of levying duties are made by the United States customs authorities to meet


Leopold: My Congo!" Belgium: "No, not your Congo. My handmaid she shall be."

From the Amsterdammer (Amsterdam).

The formal utterances of the Kaiser's representatives at the Dutch capital will be looked forward to with interest and concern by the entire world. It is a rather significant fact that, during the past few months, according to a statement made by Count von Posadowsky-Wehner, Secretary of the Interior, emigration from Germany has practically ceased. The Minister is reported to have said:

Germany has definitely ceased to be an exporter of men. She has become an importer and on an increasingly large scale. Not only our manufacturers, but also our farmers, are now wrestling with the problem of where to find sufforeign labor is obtainable, Russian, Polish, Hunficient hands. They are compelled to hire what garian, and Italian, while we have lately witnessed the strange spectacle of even England being drawn upon to ameliorate the abnormal conditions in our dock, arms, and ammunition trades.


Political Move

Important elections under new

ments in franchise laws occurred in May Central Europe. throughout the Austrian Empire which will result in a Reichsrath of many widely different groups. Especially noteworthy has been the gains of the Socialists. In the last Parliament they had eleven seats; in the next one they will control more than seventy. The new Swedish Franchise Reform bill, which is now before the King for his signature, will largely extend the suffrage. It will also make a reduction of the property qualification for eligibility to election to the upper house. In Belgium the disagreement continues between the Parliament and the King over labor questions and the future of the Congo. The Smet de Naeyer ministry, after being in power for eight years, was forced out of office early in April because of the Premier's inability to reconcile the interests of the King and Parliament. It would appear that a crisis in the affairs of the Congo were near, and the world will await with interest the decision of the Belgian people as represented in their Parliament regarding the future administration of this great Central African domain.


no importance whatsoever compared with the birth of an heir to the Spanish throne. The youthful Spanish monarchs have, by their independence and the human interest attaching to their real romance, won a place for themselves in the affections of the entire world. King Alfonso defied century-old etiquette in his search for a bride, and interested the whole world last year in his courtship. On May 31, 1906, it will be remembered, he married the lady of his choice, Princess Ena of Battenberg, niece of King Edward of England. As far as the outside world can know, it has been an unusually happy royal marriage and has received its culminating joy in the birth of an heir, on the 10th of last month. All the ceremony required by Spanish royal etiquette was rigorously adhered to upon this great occasion. To the company of royalists, grandees, ambassadors, and high officials assembled in an adjoining room of the palace, the young King presented the royal infant on a golden tray, exclaiming in the traditional formula: "Gentlemen, I present to you my beloved son, Prince of the Asturias, successor to the throne of Spain, to whom my dear wife, her Majesty the Queen, has just given birth." All the solemn dignitaries assembled then forgot their etiquette and cheered heartily. To celebrate the occasion King Alfonso distributed a large sum of money among the poor of his capital, proclaimed a three-days holiday throughout the kingdom, and decreed the pardon of thousands of prisoners. The child is reported to be a healthy, robust lad. He will have an English governess, as well as a Spanish nurse.

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