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c. Distribution into classes
d. Arrangement of satisfactory timetables
B. Of routine affecting teachers first:
a. Prompt and effective supplying of physical
1. Necessary repairs and upkeep of building
2. Previson to secure supplies in time for
3. Securing additional equipment as needed
b. Attention to teacher's requests for:
Total for organizing power
2. Power to co-operate with staff:
A Ability to secure from staff acceptance of suggestions (not force to impose ideas upon staff)
B. Readiness to accept suggestions from staff or individual members
C. Ability shown in upholding decisions of staff or of individuals:
a. Upholding authority of teachers over pupils
or social sources from interfering with author-
D. Ability to act thoroughly in accordance with any
Total for co-operating power
A. Ability to decide definitely on matters under first
B. Ability to decide reasonably quickly on these
a. Effectiveness of carrying out
b. Choice of means to carry out decisions with
Total for decisiveness
4. Professional attitude:
A. Maintaining prestige of school and profession
b. Non-interference with personal life of teachers
c. Efforts to secure better financial rewards for
d. Efforts to make staff professionally better
A. Work done in securing necessary publicity for
B. Keeping school closely adjusted to community needs
Total rating in per cent
Latin As An Aid To The Study Of English
JAMES R. RUTLAND, DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH,
mem÷E rightly admire the man who can think and talk straight. Straight from the shoulder talking is usually combined with the power of linguistic analysis or what we commonly call grammar. It must be admitted at the beginning that grammar is no child's game and that the young learn language most easily through imitation. But, as it happens that the imitative faculty makes no distinction between bad and good, it is well at the proper time to have a good guide in the criticism of one's speech. Here lies the linguistic value of the study of grammar, although a great deal may be said of its usefulness in developing the reasoning powers. It is the common experience of those who have studied both Latin and English grammar, that they have realized far better training in linguistic criticism from the Latin. As a matter of fact, the pupil well grounded in Latin grammar never has any difficulty with English. One of the surest roads to grammar, I would say, and thence to effective critical analysis of our own speech, is the study of Latin.
One cannot use a dictionary intelligently without some knowledge of Latin. The spelling and meaning of hundreds of English words in our daily reading are an open book to the boy who knows his Latin. Hundreds of technical terms that meet the student of science on every side give up their secrets easily to him who has a Latin key. Daily every good Latin teacher points out numerous roots that give us words, thereby enlarging by leaps and bounds the students' vocabularies. With a knowledge of these roots, the pupils' daily reading will add hosts of kindred words. Besides this very practical service, there is a unique pleasure in being able
to know the personal history of Latin derivatives. Salary, for example, is salt money; appreciation is value or price giving; courage is strong-heartedness, and so on. To know the Latin word claudere (clausum, to shut) is to have the key to exclude, inclose, include, seclude, cloister, preclude, reclusion, clause, disclose, and a great many other English words. Even one who cares nothing for the flavor of personality and kinship in words will appreciate the aid of Latin in spelling and defining English words derived from Latin.
How does this help English? Thinking and talking are largely dependent on words and the larger the number of words at our disposal and the greater the accuracy with which we can employ them, the greater our power to talk and write effectively.
Another aid to the English student in the Latin class is found in his daily drill in translation. Few other exercises can surpass translation in its power to develop accuracy in the students' use of English diction. Of course, the quite common habit of translating Latin word for word is on a par with the bad habit, in any class, of using incorrect speech. But if the translation is made into idiomatic English, sentences that stand alone, phrases that have the bloom of freshness upon them, the student will get one of the most valuable exercises in composition. College teachers of English often make use of translation because it gives excellent drill in the choice of effective diction and in the weighing of different phrasings of the same idea.
But, as I take it, Latin aims not only to give linguistic training but also to open up for students a window toward the rich fields of Latin culture. Perhaps the information and inspiration gained here would not contribute greatly to success in cobbling or feeding cattle or in most ways of earning bread, but it will contribute bountifully to that manifold interest in life and human beings usually called culture. As democracy broadens down and education in high schools becomes more nearly universal, our ideals of education will widen so as to include more than training for the arduous duties of making a living. It is quite conceivable that
Latin and English literature will find a secure place in the schedule of many students when educational reformers regard the benefits of general reading and study as a possibility for all classes of society. It is not too much to say that the student of English literature will have his appreciation of our own writers doubled if he has a thorough acquaintance with Greek and Roman mythology, Roman history and customs, and Roman art and literature.
No radical schedule maker would leave out of his so-called scientific curriculum the theory of physical evolution; and yet many would omit Latin classics of an age from which many of our customs, laws, and literary forms have an evolution that can be established without a missing link. Burke drew a great deal of his forensic inspiration from Cicero; Spenser and Milton found in Theocritus models for their pastoral poems; Pope imitated the odes of Horace; and nearly all of our dramatists found subjects and form in the plays of Seneca and Plautus. The common sense and ingenuity of Cæsar in his Gallic campaigns, Cicero's fiery denunciation of Cataline, Virgil's glorification of Rome, or of "arms and man," Ovid's marvellous adventures of gods and heroes will always find response when properly presented, because of their pastionate humanity. Just as passing through a museum of Etruscan art, or of sculptured forms of the ancient gods, or as visiting the ruined monuments of ancient civilization throws new light on the life of the human past, so the study of Latin literature gathers into one beam the various colored lights of history, of art and architecture, of myth and story, and of the common experience of mankind. Without this background of culture, the reader can not fully enjoy even so popular a poet as Tennyson. With it he will find greater values in nearly all others.
English literary study apart from the learning of the facts of literary art and literary history, is a study in the appreciation of effective expression and of the varied experience of human life. If a student enjoys the music and the enthusiastic patriotism of Virgil, if he is touched by the scorching epithet of Cicero, if he visualizes the exploits and senses the ingenuity of Cæsar, or if he tastes