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for the extent of her information, and the variety of her accomplishments. The most learned men in the society she frequented, would appeal to her in any historic doubts," and so clear was her knowledge on such points, and so accurate her memory in dates, that she never was at fault in deciding the question. But far from assuming any unseemly arrogance, her manners were distinguished by an amiable simplicity. Her predominant passion was music; her father gave her as a master Pilotti, an excellent professor of counterpoint; he was, in a short time, so struck with the talents of his scholar, that drawing her father aside, "Sir," said he, "your daughter is a genius; the love I bear to my art makes me entreat you to allow me to instruct her in counterpoint; her success is infallible." This business undertaken, Luigia applied herself with the tenacity that is inspired by the passionate love of the science. As a pianist she soon ranked among the first; but a much higher praise awaited her as a composer. In 1836 the newspaper of Bologna published the following paragraph:

"The very beautiful symphony written by the young amateur Luigia Pizzoli, was executed by our orchestra, and received most favourably. It is calculated to please all persons of taste, for combined with much learning, and studied elaborations, we find that gracious melody the Italian ear demands."

Soon after this she was invited by the musical academy of Bologna, to accompany the greatest harpist of Italy at a musical festival. She made her first appearance, not only as a performer, but as a composer; for besides accompanying the harp in a most admirable manner, she played a sonata for four hands, composed by herself; the well-known Corticelli took the bass. The following day the papers abounded with panegyrics on this young lady. In the midst of her rising fame, consumption, with which she had once been threatened, came to tear this beloved and charming girl from the arms of her parents. Her last illness presented a model of Christian piety and resignation, together with the utmost cheerfulness, and tender efforts to soften the blow to her wretched father and mother. In her dying state, she was still an artist; her last wishes and acts were to encourage and improve the art she so loved. She obtained from her father permission to endow a perpetual foundation for a yearly prize, to be given by the Philharmonic Society of Bologna, to any of the young students, not excluding women, who shall produce the best fugue; the decision to rest with the presiding professors of counterpoint.

Three days after, the 10th of January, 1838, Luigia expired. The number of her works, in so short a period, is a reproach to those who live long. and accomplish nothing. An edition of these was printed at Milan, in 1840. After her death, her symphony was executed by the professors of that city.

PLUMPTRE, ARABELLA, NIECE of the Rev. Dr. Plumptre, for many years president of Queen's College, Cambridge, wrote a

number of books for the young, which were well received. Among these were, "The Mountain Cottage," a tale; "The Foresters," a drama; "Domestic Stories from various Authors;" "The Guardian Angel," a tale, translated from the German of Kotzebue; "Montgomery, or Scenes in Wales," two volumes; "Stories for Children," &e.


WHOSE maiden name was Gunning, an English writer, acquired considerable celebrity as an ingenious novelist. She published "The Packet," four volumes; "Lord Fitzhenry," three volumes; "The Orphans of Snowden," three volumes; "The Gipsy Countess," four volumes; "The Exiles of Erin," three volumes; "Dangers through Life," three volumes; "The Farmer's Boy," four volumes; "Malvina," three volumes; "Family Stories for Young Persons," two volumes; "The Village Library for the Use of Young Persons," three volumes; and "Memoirs of a Man of Fashion."

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THE daughter of Powhatan, a celebrated Indian chief of Virginia, was born about the year 1594. According to a custom common among the Indians, of bestowing upon their children several symbolic names, she was sometimes called Matoaka. When the well-known and adventurous Captain John Smith came to this continent, for the purpose of promoting its settlement by the English, while exploring the James river, he was taken prisoner by some of the warriors of the tribes under Powhatan, and brought before this powerful chief to be disposed of. The fame and exploits of Smith had reached Powhatan, and he was considered too dangerous an enemy to be permitted to live. A council was called, and his fate decided; he was condemned to be bound and placed upon the earth, with his head upon a stone, and his brains beaten out with clubs. Pocahontas, though but a child of twelve or thirteen years, was present at this council, and heard the sen tence; but when it was about to be executed, yielding to the generous impulses of her nature,

she flung herself upon the body of Smith, beneath her father's uplifted club, and protected his life at the risk of her own. Touched by this act of heroism, the savages released their prisoner, and he became an inmate of the wigwam of Powhatan, who soon after gave him his liberty.

About two years later, the Indians, alarmed at the extraordinary feats of Smith, and fearing his increasing influence, began to prepare for hostilities, and laid a plan for entrapping him. When on the eve of effecting their object, while Smith was on a visit to Powhatan for the purpose of procuring provisions, he was preserved from this fate by the watchful care of Pocahontas, who ventured through the woods more than nine miles, at midnight, to apprise him of his danger. For this service, Smith offered her some trinkets, which, to one of her age, sex, and nation, must have been strongly tempting; but she refused to accept any thing, or to partake of any refreshment, and hurriedly retraced her steps, that she might not be missed by her father or his wives.

For three or four years after this, Pocahontas continued to assist the settlers in their distresses, and to shield them from the effects of her father's animosity. Although a great favourite with her father, he was so incensed against her for favouring the whites, that he sent her away to a chief of a neighbouring tribe, Jopazaws, chief of Potowmac, for safe keeping; or, as some suppose, to avert the anger of her own tribe, who might be tempted to revenge themselves upon her for her friendship to the English. Here she remained some time, when Captain Argall, who ascended the Potomac on a trading expedition, tempted the chief by the offer of a large copper kettle, of which he had become enamoured, as the biggest trinket he had ever seen, to deliver her to him as a priBoner; Argall believing, that by having her in his possession as a hostage, he could bring Powhatan to terms of peace. But Powhatan refused to ransom his daughter upon the terms proposed; he offered five hundred bushels of corn for her, but it was not accepted.

Pocahontas was well treated while a prisoner, and Mr. Thomas Rolfe, a pious young man, and a brave officer, who had undertaken to instruct her in English, became attached to her, and offered her his hand. The offer was communicated to Powhatan, who gave his consent to the union, and she was married to Rolfe, after the form of the church of England, in presence of her uncle and two brothers. This event relieved the colony from the enmity of Powhatan, and preserved peace for many years between them.


him, she was overcome with emotion; and turning from him, hid her face in her hands. Many surmises have been hazarded upon the emotion exhibited by Pocahontas in this interview. The solution of the mystery, however, is obvious; the dusky maiden had no doubt learned to love the gallant soldier whom she had so deeply benefited; and upon his abandonment of the country, both the colonists and her own people, aware of her feelings, and having some alliance in view for her to the furthering of their own interests, had imposed upon her the tale of his death. Admitting this to be the case, what could be more natural than her conduct, and what more touching than the picture which this interview presents to the imagination?

Captain Smith wrote a memorial to the queen in her behalf, setting forth the services which the Indian princess had rendered to himself and the colony, which secured her the friendship of the queen. Pocahontas survived but little more than a year after her arrival in England. She died in 1617, at Gravesend, when about to embark for her native land, at the age of twenty-two or three. She left one son, who was educated in England by his uncle, and afterwards returned to Virginia, where he became a wealthy and distinguished character, from whom have descended several wellknown families of that state.

Pocahontas has been the heroine of fiction and of song; but the simple truth of her story is more interesting than any ideal description. She is another proof to the many already recorded in this work, of the intuitive moral sense of woman, and the importance of her aid in carrying forward the progress of human improvement.

Pocahontas was the first heathen who became converted to Christianity by the English settlers; the religion of the Gospel seemed congenial to her nature; she was like a guardian angel to the white strangers who had come to the land of the red men; by her the races were united; thus proving the unity of the human family through the spiritual nature of the woman; ever, in its highest development, seeking the good and at “enmity” with the evil; the preserver, the inspirer, the exemplar of the noblest virtues of humanity. POICTIERS, DIANA DE, DUCHESS OF VALENTINOIS,

Was born March 31st, 1500. When her father, the count of St. Vallier, was condemned to lose his head for favouring the escape of the constable Bourbon, Diana obtained his pardon by throwing herself at the feet of Francis I. St. Vallier was, however, sentenced to perpetual confinement; and the horror he experienced at this fate brought on a fever, of which he died.

In the year 1616, Pocahontas accompanied her husband to England, where she was presented at court, and became an object of curiosity and interest to all classes; her title of princess causing Diana de Poictiers married, in 1521. Louis de her to receive much attention. Though the period Breze, grand-marshal of Normandy; by him she of her conversion is disputed, it is generally be- had two daughters, whom she married very advanlieved that she was baptized during this visit to tageously. She must have been at least thirtyEngland, when she received the name of Rebecca. five years of age, when the duke of Orleans, afterIn London, she was visited by captain Smith, wards Henry II. of France, at the age of seventeen whom, for some unknown purpose, she had been became deeply attached to her; and she maintaintaught to believe was dead. When she first behelded her ascendency over him till his death, in 1559.

Henry seemed to delight in giving testimonies of his attachment, both in public and private. The palaces, public edifices, and his own armour, were all ornamented with "the moon, bow and arrows," the emblems and device of his mistress. Her influence, both personal and political, was carried to an unbounded extent. She may be said to have divided the crown with her lover, of whose council she was the directing principal, and of whose attachment she was the sole object. The young queen, Catharine de Medicis, not inferior in genius, taste, and beauty, to Diana, was obliged to act a subordinate part.

Diana was made duchess de Valentinois in 1549. In 1552, she nursed the queen in a dangerous illness, notwithstanding their bitter feeling towards each other. She preferred the interest of the state to the aggrandizement of her family; and she loved the glory of her king. Her charities were immense; and every man distinguished for genius was sure of her support. Yet she did not always make a good use of her power; for she persuaded Henry to break the truce with Spain, which was the source of many evils to France. She did this at the instigation of the cardinal of Lorraine; but he, with the rest of the Guises, no sooner saw the result, than they leagued with Catharine de Medicis to ruin Diana, if she would consent to the marriage of their niece, Mary, queen of Scotland, to the dauphin. This was done, and the duchess remained without support; but she did not lose her firmness; the king promised to inform her of all the plots of her enemies; but he died soon after of a wound he received in a tournament, where he had worn her colours, black and white, as usual.

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When he shall be no more, should I be so unfortunate as to survive him long, I shall be too wretched to be sensible of their malice."

Catharine, however, was persuaded not to persecute the duchess, who, in return for being allowed to retain the superb gifts of the king, presented her with a magnificent palace. Diana retired to Anet, a palace built for her by Henry II.; but was recalled, in 1561, by Catharine, to detach the constable de Montmorency from his nephews, the Chatillons, which service her great influence over him enabled her to perform.

She died in 1566, at the age of sixty-six, retaining her beauty to the last.

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lously careful of her health, and in the most severe weather bathed in cold water; she suffered no cosmetic to approach her, denouncing every compound of the kind as worthy only of those to whom nature had been so niggardly as to compel them to complete her imperfect work; she rose every morning at six o'clock, and had no sooner left her chamber than she sprang into the saddle; and after having galloped a league or two, returned to bed, where she remained until midday engaged in reading. The system appears a singular one, but in her case it undoubtedly proved successful, as, after having enslaved the duke d'Orleans in her thirty-fifth year, she still reigned in absolute sovereignty over the heart of the king of France when she had nearly reached the age of sixty! It is certain, however, that the magnificent Dians owed no small portion of this extraordinary and unprecedented constancy to the charms of her mind and the brilliancy of her intellect."

Six months before her death," says Brantôme, "I saw her so handsome, that no heart of adamant could have been insensible to her charms, though she had some time before broken one of her limbs upon the paved stones of Orleans. She had been riding on horseback, and kept her seat as dexterously and well as she had ever done. One would have thought that the pain of such an accident would have made some alteration in her lovely face; but this was not the case; she was as beautiful, graceful, and handsome in every respect, as she had ever been."

She was the only mistress whose medal was struck. This was done by the city of Lyons, where the duchess was much beloved. On one side was her effigy, with this inscription: Diana, Duz Volentinorum Clarissima; and on the reverse, Omnium Victorum Vici: "I have conquered the conqueror of all;" alluding to Henry II. The king had another medal struck in 1552, where she is represented as Diana, with these words: Nomen ad Astra. The H.'s and D.'s cyphered in the Louvre, are still greater proofs of the passion of the prince. She told Henry, when he wished to acknowledge a daughter he had by her, "I was born of a family, the old counts of Poictiers, which entitled me to have legitimate children by you; I have been your mistress, because I loved you; but I will not suffer any arrêt to declare me so.' This reply proves her sense of the superior dignity of virtue over vice. She would not glory in her shame; she felt she had degraded the race from which she sprang.

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WAS one of those who suffered martrydom for their religious opinions in the reign of Mary, queen of England. She was burned at Tunbridge, July, 1555.

Miss Pardoe, in her History of Francis I., thus describes Diana: — “ Her features were regular and classical: her complexion faultless; her hair of a rich purple-black, which took a golden tint in the sunshine; while her teeth, her ankles, her POMPADOUR, JEANNE ANTOINETTE hands and arms, and her bust, were each in their POISSON, MARCHIONESS DE, turn the theme of the court poets. That the ex- THE celebrated mistress of Louis XV., was the traordinary and almost fabulous duration of her illegitimate daughter of a financier, and early disbeauty was in a great degree due to the precau- tinguished for her beauty and talents. She was tions which she adopted, there can be little doubt, married to a M. d'Etioles, when she attracted the for she spared no effort to secure it; she was jea- | king's notice, and becoming his mistress, was cre

sted marchioness de Pompadour, in 1745. She had great influence over the king, and she employed it at first in patronizing arts and literature. But when her charms began to fade, she turned her attention to state affairs, and produced many of those evils which afterwards contributed to

bring on the revolution of 1792. She was the chief instigator of the war between France and Prussia, to cause which, Maria Theresa of Austria wrote her a letter with her own hand. Madame de Pompadour died in 1764, at the age of fortyfour, little regretted, even by the king.


Was born at Amsterdam, in 1664. Her father was the famous professor of anatomy, Ruysch, and her instructor in the art of painting was William Van Aelst, whom she soon equalled in the representation of flowers and fruit. She studied nature so closely, and imitated her so well, that she was thought almost a prodigy, and allowed to be the most able artist of her time in that line. Her choice of subjects was judicious; her manner of painting them exquisite; and she contrasted them in all her compositions with unusual beauty and delicacy; and they appeared so natural, that every plant, flower, or insect, would deceive the eye with the semblance of reality. Her reputation extended all over Europe, and she was appointed painter to the elector palatine, who, as a testimony of respect, sent her a complete set of silver for her toilette, consisting of twenty-eight pieces, and six candlesticks. He also engrossed the greater part of her works, paying for them with princely generosity. In early life she married Juria Van Pool, an eminent portrait-painter, with whom she lived very happily. She continued to paint to the last period of a long life; and her pictures, at the age of eighty, were as neatly and carefully worked as when she was thirty. Her paintings are uncommonly rare, being treasured up as curiosities in Holland and Germany. She died at Amsterdam, in 1750, at the age of eightysix. She was as highly esteemed for her character as her talents. Her genius developed itself very

early, and she had become somewhat celebrated for it before she received any instruction.


AN actress, was the daughter of Mr. Campion, a respectable merchant of Waterford, Ireland. The family being left in reduced circumstances by Mr. Campion's death, Maria went on the stage, and soon, as a tragic actress, attained great eminence, especially by her personation of Juliet. In 1798, she married Mr. Pope, the actor.


WAS the daughter of an actress. Her mother educated her for the stage; but M. de Popelinière, an opulent financier, fascinated by her beauty and elegant wit, made her his mistress. Mademoiselle Daucour represented herself to Madame de Tencin as having been seduced by her lover, and so interested her protectress, that she mentioned her case to the prime minister. The act of openly keeping a mistress was a luxury as yet scarcely authorized among the bourgeoisie: vice was still considered the privilege of the noble and great. Fleury exacted that M. de Popelinière should marry Mademoiselle Daucour, on pain of a withdrawal of the lease which he held from the king, of farmer-general. M. de Popelinière complied, but he never forgave his mistress the means she had taken to secure the rank of his wife. Madame de Popelinière soon became one of the most admired women of the Parisian world. She adapted herself to her new position with singular ease and tact. Men of the world mingled with singers, musicians, painters, and poets, in her drawing



Her wit and taste became celebrated; the latter quality was especially displayed in the judgments which she passed on all works of art or literature submitted to her; she was soon thought infallible in such matters. The success of Madame de Popelinière was short-lived. She engaged in an intrigue with the duke of Richelieu, which her husband discovered. He made her a handsome allowance, but would no longer suffer her to reside under his roof. Madame de Popelinière was thus excluded for ever from that elegant society over which she had ruled with so much grace. painful illness cut her off in the flower of her youth.



WAS the daughter of an Irish officer, who died soon after her birth, leaving a widow and several children, with but a small patrimony for their support. Mrs. Porter took her family to Scotland soon after, and there, with her only and elder sister, Jane, and their brother, Sir Robert Ker Porter, she received the rudiments of her education. Sir Walter Scott, when a student at college, was intimate with the family, and, we are told, "was very fond of either teasing the little female student when very gravely engaged with her book, or more often fondling her on his knees, and telling her stories of witches and warlocks, till both forgot their former playful merriment in the marvellous interest of the tale." Mrs. Porter removed

to Ireland, and subsequently to London, chiefly with a view to the education of her children.

Anna Maria became an authoress at the age of twelve. Her first work was called "Artless Tales," and was published in 1793. "Don Sebastian, or the House of Braganza," is considered her best novel. Some of her others are, "The Lake of Killarney," "A Sailor's Friendship and a Soldier's Love," "The Hungarian Brothers," "Ballad Romances, and other Poems," "The Recluse of Norway," "The Knight of St. John," "Roche Blanche," and "Honour O'Hara." Miss Porter died at Bristol, while on a visit to her brother, Dr. Porter, on the 21st of June, 1832, aged fifty-two. The number of her novels is really astonishing, more than fifty volumes were the product of her pen. In all her works, Miss Anna Maria Porter portrays the domestic affections, and the charms of benevolence and virtue, with that warmth and earnestness which interests the feelings; but in "Don Sebastian" we have an interesting plot, and characters finely discriminated and drawn. The author has, therefore, shown a higher order of genius in this novel than in her others, because she has displayed more constructive power.


WAS sister of the preceding, and the oldest of the two, though she did not commence her career of authorship so early, nor did she write such a multitude of novels as her sister, yet she has succeeded in making a deeper impression of her genius on the age. She was the first who introduced that beautiful kind of fiction, the historical romance, which has now become so popular. Her "Thaddeus of Warsaw" was published in 1803, and "The Scottish Chiefs" in 1810; both were highly popular, but "Thaddeus of Warsaw" had unprecedented success. It was translated into most of the Continental languages, and Poland was loud in its praise. Kosciusko sent the author a ring, containing his portrait. General Gardiner, the British minister at Warsaw, could not believe that any other than an eye-witness had written the story, so accurate were the descriptions, although Miss Porter had not then been in Poland. She

was honoured publicly by having the title of Chanoiness of the Polish order of St. Joachim conferred upon her after the publication of "Thaddeus of Warsaw."

In regard to the "Scottish Chiefs," that this romance was the model of the historical class, is beyond doubt; Sir Walter Scott acknowledged that this work was the parent in his mind of the Waverly Novels. In a letter, written by Miss Porter about three months previous to her death, she thus alludes to these works:

"I own I feel myself a kind of sibyl in these things; it being full fifty years ago since my Scottish Chiefs' and Thaddeus of Warsaw' came into the then untrodden field. And what a splendid race of the like chroniclers of generous deeds have followed, brightening the track as they have advanced! The author of Waverley,' and all his soul-stirring Tales of my Landlord,' &c. Then comes Mr. James, with his historical romances on British and French subjects, so admirably uniting the exquisite fiction with the fact, that the whole seems equally verity. But my feeble hand" (Miss Porter was ailing when she wrote the letter) "will not obey my wish to add more to this host of worthies. I can only find power to say with my trembling pen, that I cannot but esteem them as a respected link with my past days of lively interest in all that might promote the virtue and true honour of my contemporaries from youth to age."

Miss Porter's last work was "The Pastor's Fireside;" and she also wrote, in conjunction with her sister, "Tales round a Winter's Hearth." She contributed to many periodicals; and her "Biographical Sketch of Colonel Denham, the African Traveller," in the "Naval and Military Journal," was much admired. The genius of both these ladies was similar in kind; they described scenery vividly, and in appeals to the tender and heroic passions, were effective and successful; but their works want the permanent interest of real life, variety of character, and dialogue.

The career of Miss Porter was not marked by any striking event; she won her celebrity by her genius, and the excellence of her character brightens the picture, and makes her fame a blessing to her sex. Miss Porter died May 24th, 1850, at the residence of her brother, Dr. Porter, (the last survivor of the family,) in Bristol. She was nearly seventy-four years of age. The following is a vivid description of the first meeting between William Wallace and Helen Mar:

FROM "THE SCOTTISH CHIEFS." They proceeded in silence through the curvings of the dell, till it opened into a most hazardous path along the top of a far extending cliff which overhung and clasped in the western side of a deep loch. As they mounted the pending wall of this immense amphitheatre, Helen watched the sublime uprise of the king of light issuing from behind the opposite citadel of rocks, and borne aloft on a throne of clouds that streaked the whole horizon with floating gold. The herbage on the cliffs glittered with liquid emeralds as his beams kissed their summits; and the lake beneath spar


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