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man-like view of English juridical necessities, and so earned a place in English history which far out-values the questionable honour from the title borrowed from his Roman prototype. But historical thought had not proceeded to that phase when men can look beyond the trammels of fixed systems of knowledge and perceive the unity of all knowledge (to borrow an analogy from Mr. Freeman's celebrated Rede Lecture); beyond the trammels of nationality and perceive the unity of race; beyond the trammels of race and perceive the unity of mankind.

It may, I think, be gathered from this review of the Patriarchal Theory in history, that hitherto, it has existed on an insecure basis because it did not derive its history from the broader groundwork that modern science has opened up. Among the ancients it was faintly recognised as a condition of society in which they once lived, though totally unconnected with later circumstances; among the moderns it has been dragged into political controversy and lost altogether its historical value in the assertion of its religious authority. Among the ancients it sank into insignificance because it had no connected literature for its historical support; among the moderns it has, on the one hand, been argued to be the only origin of kingly power, because it has been preserved in the records of religious writ; and, on the other, it has been cast aside as altogether useless, because, first, it was unhistorical and then unscientific.

This paper has, it is hoped, explained the position of the Patriarchal Theory in modern historical thought to be not altogether in consistent with its past. though placing it on a somewhat new basis.



"Now let us praise famous men, and our fathers that begat us." Ecclesiasticus, chap. xlv. 1.

LONG bygone scenes lived once again
Shall prompt both song and chorus ;
Now let us praise our famous men,
And laud our sires before us.

Chorus: Long bygone scenes, &c.

A cheer for Royal Alfred's name,
The patriot, warrior, trader,

Who made our hallowed England's fame,
And quelled the fierce invader.

For letters, laws, and liberty,

We raise the song and chorus;

Now let us praise our famous men,

And laud our sires before us.

Chorus: For letters, laws, &c.

Let's hymn the Lords of Runnymede,

(That camp of legislation),

For many a wise and noble deed,

The patterns of our nation.

'Twas they who, first from discord dire,

To right and reason bore us.

Now let us praise our famous men,

And laud our sires before us.

Chorus: 'Twas they who first, &c.

A ringing cheer for Queenly Bess,
That moon by stars surrounded,
Whose worth still envious realms confess,
Whose fame a Spenser sounded.
The light that shone on letters then,

Inspires a deathless chorus.

Now let us praise our famous men,

And laud our sires before us.

Chorus: The light that shone, &c.

Of Anson, Clive, and Wellington,
The names shall live for ever,
And Nelson's dauntless deeds each son
Shall nerve to best endeavour.
A cheer alike for victor's crown,
And wreath for death decorous.
Now let us praise our famous men,
And laud our sires before us.

Chorus: A cheer alike, &c.

Hurrah, for all who dying make
Humanity a debtor,

Who gild this world for duty's sake,
And silent, preach a better.
Till angel harps alone be heard,
We'll raise the strain sonorous,
Now let us praise our famous men,
And laud our sires before us.

Chorus: Till angel harps, &c.

Who wielded well the sword of Truth,
And proved its point and keenness;
Who Falsehood's barb disclosed to youth,
And Vice's sordid meanness;
Who trod the narrow path of right,-

We hymn in song and chorus.
Now let us praise our famous men,

And laud our sires before us.

Chorus: Who trod the narrow path, &c.

Our lives will swell the seething sea
Of history and tradition;

Then may our children, glad and free,
And proud in their position.
With mantling flush on open brow,
Still raise the song and chorus.
Now let us praise our famous men,
And laud our sires before us.

Chorus: With mantling flush, &c.






SERVIA has profited by its vicinity to more civilised countries to have its mining resources particularly inquired into. As far back as 1836, Prince Milosch engaged M. de Herder, captain of mines in Saxony, in this service. It appears from these researches added to what was already known, that in the N.E. of Servia the limestone and porphyritic sienite are accompanied at MaidanPek* and Butsh by masses of oxide of iron and argentiferous grey and carbonated pyrites, which gave occupation at one time to twenty-four furnaces. Cupriferous oxide of iron exists in the same position at Tzernaika, oxide of iron at Tanda, galena and copper pyrites, between sienite and mica-slate, at Luka. The galena was formerly wrought in mica-slate at Golubatz, carbonate of copper exists in limestone at Moldava in the Bannat, and formerly argentiferous galena was worked at Stara-Kutschaina.

More to the south, there were ironworks in olden times near Bela-Konie, and argentiferous galena works at Lukovo. Gold washing has been carried on in the bed of the Timok and the Pek, and there were smelting works at Oreschkovitza. The mines at Maidan-Pek, were abandoned by the Turks in consequence of the attacks of brigands, but they were reopened by Tzerni George, as also at another maidan or mine in the Rudnik mountains, but with little success, neither capital, skill, or science being brought to bear upon the undertaking. It was thought that enough was done to ensure success by carrying away a miner from the Bannat by force, and keeping him in Servia. These mines in Rudnik are somewhat similar to those at Maidan-Pek, only there is no copper. The argentiferous galena is met with in veins of quartz of from six inches to a foot in width, but mixed with blende, iron pyrites, and oxide of iron. The quartz is, however, like the aurifer. ous quartz of Transylvania in a siliceous porphyry associated with sandstones, it is supposed of the supra-cretaceous epoch. Two galeries are still to be seen, and a heap of scoriæ attest to the works

* A mine is "maden " in Turkish, "maidan" in Albanian, Slavonian, and among the Greeks of Turkey, "bae" in Wallachia, and "metalleion" among the Hellenic Greeks.

of Tzerni George. The Austrians themselves, however, met with no better results in some works carried on at Visoka, south of Belgrade.

In the west of Servia, masses and even small veins of galena are met with in limestone breccia at Krupagna and Korenitza, but they have never been turned to any account save to manufacture musket-balls. The peasants grope for galena and blende at such times as they have no agricultural work on hand,

In the south-west, there are indications, more especially at Zeovitsch, of argentiferous galena, and one mountain is called Suvo-Rudintsche, or the place of exhausted mines. Hydrated iron, as at Rudnik, and oxide of iron, with garnets, are met with in porphyritic sienite near Kopaonik.

There are iron mines in Bosnia, near Vischegrad, as also at Voinitza, near Kreschevo and between Butzovatz and Visoka, not far from Serajevo. The same beds are utilised in Croatia at NoviMaidan, at Maidan proper, at Stari-Maidan (old mine), and at Priedol. There is another maidan, or mine, near Gratschanitza. These mines give employment to several smelting furnaces and foundries. The iron is found in cavities in limestone mixed with clay and limestone fragments, and is supposed to owe its origin to ferriferous springs like the pisolitic iron of Dalmatia and Carniola. It is extracted on the surface or by means of wells, sometimes from fifty to sixty feet in depth. Old Roman works are to be seen near Srebernitza, whence the name of the place, Silver-town. Other sites of argentiferous galena are said to exist at Krupa, and at the sources of the Sana, in the southern chain of Turkish Croatia, but the latter are most likely the same argentiferous copper ore (Fahlerz) which is met with north of Livo.

There is on the frontier of the Servian district of Oujitze, a mountain called Slatibor, or mountain of gold; but nothing is known of its wealth, and several rivers, as the Bosna, the Verbas, and the Laschva have the reputation of being auriferous. Pliny says the Romans wrought a gold mine at Slatnitza, near Travnik, and at the sources of the latter river.

There were ironworks in the Balkan of Etropol, where the mineral was extracted from limestone in clayslate and talcose shists; but the works were abandoned from, it is said, the rapacity of the tax-gatherers. There are existing furnaces in Upper Moesia at Klisura and in the Urtska-Rieka, as also near EgriPalanka. Iron is also extracted from the alluvial beds at Samakov, where are furnaces.

The shistose and quartzite mountains near Novo-Brdo, Kratovo, and Janovo, have the reputation of having been once rich in silver and gold. The monk Save is reported to have

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