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which are so interesting, and in the eyes of all I can see reflected the light of that inspiration of the great ideal which they all cherish, in which they all rejoice,—what the Peace Congress is doing to establish Peace in the world. (Applause.)
The news of arbitration has reached my country, has reached Mexico. It was received by cheers from the Mexican people. It had a warm response from the President, who instructed me to appear as his representative and Ambassador, to come to these two banquets and to express his views, which are in full accord with the plans of this Arbitration and Peace Congress. (Applause.) He was asked to be present, and regretted exceedingly that he could not on account of his official duties, the courts now being in session; but he is with us in spirit, for he is one of the great Peacemakers of the world. He has received with sympathy the news of the good feeling of the American people, and the important letter which was read at the gathering of the National Congress of Peace and Arbitration, the letter of your honorable President, Mr. Roosevelt, and the remarkable speech that was delivered by his Secretary of State, Mr. Root. President Diaz regarded that as something very noble, something very important. We also regarded it as something important that no place was found large enough for all the people expected at these banquets, people who are here in sympathy with the movement of Peace. There is reason for this great city of New York to rejoice, this great metropolis of America, whose capital, whose energy, whose initiative, have contributed so largely to the wonderful development of this great country. Besides its efforts in economical and industrial ways it has been crowned with the love of Peace. That is why we are all rejoicing. It is true that the treaty of international arbitration has not yet been signed, but the next step onward has been taken. The initiative of the American people, the great interest which they have taken, is influencing the important powers of the European continent, and every move in public opinion, every move in the press, every move of wise and scientific men, is a strong indication that we are going on the right line to accomplish what we all wish,-International Arbitration and the Peace of the human family.
In this country this movement has for its head a very noble character, a man who had a brilliant career as an industrial and
business man, and who after accomplishing wonders along these lines and building a fortune which went into many millions of dollars, is now working on a higher standard, interested in the welfare of his fellow-citizens and in humanity, and in all the people of the world. You will recognize that I am speaking of Mr. Carnegie, of that noble character who has a universal reputation, of that one man who is being loved by the people of two continents, and that man who is setting an example for many people to follow, and whose good work we wish may have great success. (Applause.)
Allow me, ladies and gentlemen, to propose to you that we shall drink to the health of Mr. Carnegie, a noble man who is entitled to our respect and to our consideration. (Great applause The guests drank to the toast.)
I am sure that I speak the sentiments of this audience in thanking the Mexican Ambassador for the message he has brought to us from the Mexican Republic-from President Diaz. If we have ever doubted before, or ever failed to understand before, why Mexico has made the great progress in recent years that she has made, I am sure that we American men will fail no longer. A nation that appreciates so thoroughly the eyes of our American women is a nation that understands the wise thing to do. (Laughter.)
I am going to call upon Mr. John Bassett Moore, of Columbia University, who is certainly one of the first, if not the very first, of the authorities upon international law in the United States. Those of us who know him well delight to think he is one of the foremost in the entire civilized world.
LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: Your honored Chairman has by his kind introduction raised expectations which I feel that it will be very difficult for me in reasonable measure to meet. I feel, too, that coming, as I do, after eminent speakers who have entertained us with their eloquence, there has perhaps fallen upon me the duty of introducing that spice of discord which has been supposed to characterize all the meetings of this Peace Congress, and which our honored Chairman has intimated that we might
have before the evening was over. I find myself, however, in such complete accord with what has been said that, if I should attempt to disagree with anybody I fear it would have to be with myself; and that, I am sure, would not be altogether becoming.
I was delighted when I saw the Mexican Ambassador mount this platform a few moments ago with a message from the President of his country. I am justified in saying, from personal knowledge, that, among the many good things for which Mexico is distinguished, one of the best is the high character of the official representatives whom our sister Republic has sent to represent her in this country. (Applause.) It was my good fortune, my happy privilege, to know somewhat intimately, for a number of years, one of the most honored predecessors of the present Ambassador-the Honorable Matias Romero; a man whom I esteemed and cherished as a friend, whom I respected as a diplomatist, and whom I honored as one who, while intensely loyal to his own land, possessed that fine sense of equity which enabled him to appreciate the fact that justice is to be found not in the contentious insistence upon, but in the reconciliation of, differences. (Applause.)
There is one thing that has specially distinguished the Congress, whose sessions are now coming so pleasantly to a close, and that is, that it has presented, not a negative program consisting in the deprecation and denunciation of war, but a positive program on which something definite may be accomplished for the adjustment of international disputes and the bringing about of just results through legal methods. The great end to be striven for to-day by those who cherish the cause of Peace is the establishment of an international organization which shall insure Peace upon the basis of legal justice. The aspiration after the amicable settlement of international disputes is not new. But it is, on the other hand, equally true that there has been during the past hundred years a great advance among nations toward the definition and establishment of principles of international law and the adoption of co-operative methods for their enforce
In 1815 the Congress of Vienna, besides drawing together more closely the great powers of Europe, laid down important principles with regard to the navigation of international rivers and with regard to diplomatic precedence and procedure. The