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fortunate disagreement with Karl August. The following are the principal works of this period of his life-Elective Affinities (1809), a novel dealing with some complications among the members of a household; Poetry and Truth, an autobiography published 1811; Italian Journey (1816-17); The West-East Divan (1814-19), a collection of poems in twelve books-chiefly upon eastern subjects-which had wide influence; and Wilhelm Meister's Travels (1821-28), a continuation of the earlier work in three volumes, and a not very successful production. These years were full of vigor and activity. About 1821 he enthusiastically reviewed Byron's Manfred; he always was a warm admirer of Scott. But there was stealing on him the sadness of old age. Schiller was dead; Wieland and Herder had gone. In 1816 he lost his faithful wife, Christiane, who had been to him what no other woman was; in 1827 died the Frau von Stein, who had influenced his whole nature so finely in the early days at Weimar; the following year the Grand Duke Karl August, his oldest friend, beloved for fifty-two years, was taken from him. "Alles ist nun vorbei! Nothing now remains!” said he when the sad news came. A pathetic little story is told of the old man. Only a year before his death, he visited a little forest hut where he had been wont to ramble with old friends in bygone days. There still stood within, pencilled on the wall, some lines that he had written many years before in the flush of youth and strength:

Over all the hill-tops

Is quiet now;

In all the tree-tops
Hearest thou

Hardly a breath.

The birds are asleep on the trees;

Wait; soon like these

Thou too shalt rest.

Tears stood in his eyes for memory of the dead past. "Yes," he repeated, "wait but a little, thou too soon wilt be at rest." Not long was he to wait. On March 22, 1832, he sank peacefully into the sleep of death.

The services of Goethe and Schiller to German literature are almost incalculable. They found a movement, in the right direction indeed, but vague and weak. They confirmed the wavering fancies; they seized all half-formed tendencies and combined them into a powerful stream of effective work; they informed with new life the whole range of German poetry and prose. In a word, they gave confidence in German language and shape to German literature, imposing upon it the canons of true Art. Goethe, with his culture and his calm strength, Schiller, with his idealism and his untiring energy, developed the field of their choice to the establishment of their country's honor in the literary world.




THE nineteenth century has been marked for the German people by a great movement which has manifested its force on three occasions, all important in their significance and the last victorious in its results. This movement has been the aspiration for national unity.

We have come on to 1832 in order to round out the life of Goethe; we shall now turn back to the beginning of the century. Germany was in sore straits. The group of scattered and independent kingdoms of which it was then composed offered but a feeble front to the advances of Napoleon, and after the battle of Jena the country lay practically prostrate at his feet. But in the very depths of its misery was a hope. The worst had come, and the nation gathered together its strength for the new struggle. Conquered, it was not destroyed. Napo

leon retreated from Moscow in 1813. A few months later, the King of Prussia called his people to arms at the national cry for freedom. In the next year was fought the great battle of Leipzig and Germany was free. But a strange reaction took place. After their magnificent uprising, their splendid protest against national servitude, the people fell back into their old status, and from 1815 to 1848 submitted to the old form of princely domination. Germany became again a heterodox mixture of miniature States. That obsolete theory was revived-the Divine Right of Kings-and each princeling became a tyrant in his own petty sphere. In 1848 the popular spirit once more blazed forth in a second climax-a liberal movement which, nevertheless, was doomed to failure. Events, however, swept the nation on to the war of 1870. The brilliant issue of this war, the pride of Germans, in the achievement of their armies, seemed to remove at once all difficulties which hitherto had frustrated complete unity. In 1870 negotiations were opened to the long hoped-for end; on March 21st, 1871, the first Diet of the Empire met in Berlin.

This glance at the political development of Germany will aid us in viewing the literature of the century.

In the era of national humiliation after the battle of Jena there is one man who stands out as a strong champion. This is the philosopher who has been mentioned already-Fichte. He was of stern per

sonality and sturdy patriotism, and at Berlin, in 1808, he delivered his Addresses to the German Nation-a series of stirring appeals on behalf of the German nationality. He called on the people to assert their independence, to rise from the dust where they lay. And this in the centre of French influence, under the eyes of the French authorities, and with the full knowledge that he was risking his life. The effect of his inspiration, and that of the numerous other patriotic writers of the time, is seen in the extraordinary revival of national spirit and the magnificent enthusiasm which terminated in the destruction of French power in Germany at the battle of Leipzig. This enthusiasm was most remarkable; it was felt by all-statesmen, philosophers, poets, as well as the mass of the people. There was a grand spontaneous movement of the whole nation. And it was no idle spirit. Men were not content with fiery words-by their deeds they were known.

Chief among the patriotic writers were the poets who were inspired by the strong air of the day; and most striking of the patriotic poets was KARL THEODOR KÖRNER. He was born in 1791, and killed in the fight near Gadebusch in 1813, thus crowning a gallant life with a fair death. He was a fervent admirer of Schiller, and his father was Schiller's friend. He left his studies and a good position at Vienna to enlist as a volunteer. His songs were sung throughout the army and exercised an inspir

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