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ELEMENTS OF THE SCIENCE OF RELIGION. Part I. Morphological. Being the Gifford Lectures delivered before the University of Edinburgh in 1896. By C. P. TIELE, Theol. D., Litt.D. (Bonon), Hon. M. R. A. S., etc., Professor of the History and Philosophy of Religion in the University of Leyden. In Two Volumes. Vol. I. Pp. viii, 302. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood & Sons. 1897. $2.00.

In these popular lectures the distinguished author has brought the fruits of his long study well within the reach of ordinary readers. In the main, his conclusions will prove acceptable to conservative scholars, and the work is deserving of special commendation. According to him, "Christianity unites the two opposite doctrines of transcendency and immanency by its ethical conception of the Fatherhood of God, which embraces both the exaltation of God above man and man's relationship with God. Christianity is the most many-sided of all religions and families of religion, and it thus possesses an adaptability, or elasticity as it has been called, which explains its great wealth and variety of forms" (p. 209).

THE UPANISHADS. (Sacred Books of the East.) Translated by the Rt. Hon. F. MAX MUELLER. Part I. Pp. g, ci, 350. 8vo. New York: Christian Literature Co. 1897. $2.50.

This cheaper edition of the "Sacred Books of the East" is an unchanged reprint of the English edition, with a brief introduction by Max Müller. The typographical features are equally good with those of the English edition, while its cheaper price will bring it within the reach of a much larger circle interested in the study of comparative religion. For such, we need not say, the volumes are most convenient and, indeed, indispensable.

THE THEOLOGY OF LUTHER IN ITS HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND INNER HARMONY. By Dr. JULIUS KOESTLIN, Professor and Consistorialrath at Halle. Translated from the Second German Edition by Rev. CHARLES E. HAY, A.M. Complete in Two Volumes. Vols. I and II. Pp. xxii, 511, and xvii, 614. 8vo. Philadelphia: Lutheran Publication Society. 1897. $4.50 net.

This excellent translation of the standard life of Luther meets a widely felt want. Our general estimate of the original work has already been given; so that we need here but call attention to its accessibility in the present form. The life of Luther is so fundamental to the modern development of thought and of general history that every well-informed person needs carefully to study it. The volumes treat in the most thorough and sympathetic manner of all the influences which combined to shape Luther's theology. His own private life had so much to do with this development that one finds in this treatise a very full history of the man as well as a thoroughly satisfactory account of his philosophy, the ology, and relations to the tumultuous upheavals of every kind which were then beginning to take place in modern thought and life.

THE OLD TESTAMENT UNDER FIRE. By A. J. F. BEHRENDS, S.T.D., Pastor of the Central Congregational Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. Pp. vi, 240. 12mo. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. 1897. $1.00.

This vigorous protest of one of our most scholarly and popular pastors is most effective and timely. The author has prepared himself for it by a thorough mastery of German philosophy and by long-continued attention to the problems of Old Testament criticism. The volume is not the work of a novice, but of one who has made a faithful study of the original Hebrew Scriptures, and who at the same time has been compelled to keep in view the whole system of Christianity in its relation to Christian life both past and present. A learned pastor constantly engaged in the active work of bringing the gospel into vital relation with the intellect and conscience of the church is far better prepared to pass judgment upon many critical theories than are the scholars of the closet, living apart from the main currents of human thought and activity. Furthermore, the conclusions of the prevailing Old Testament destructive criticism are not dependent upon special knowledge of recondite facts far removed from the possibility of popular apprehension, but are largely dependent upon a priori evolutionary theories which are false in principle, defective in application, and calamitous in the erroneous views of history to which they lead. It is high time that such a scholarly protest were made and it ought universally to be read.

SEVEN PUZZLING BIBLE BOOKS: A Supplement to "Who Wrote the Bible?" By WASHINGTON GLADDEN. Pp. iv, 267. 16mo. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 1897. $1.25.

Dr. Gladden has such a keen eye for infelicities in many of the orthodox defenses of the Bible, and has written so much to expose them, that his real attitude is in danger of being misunderstood. In his introduction, therefore, he emphasizes the fact that he believes that the Bible contains "a revelation from God found nowhere else in literature" (p. 16); "that these records are in the main veracious" (p. 14), and that it is "a book which gives us a revelation of God infinitely more perfect than any other sacred writings have given us" (p. 13). In looking through this volume we are, however, impressed, as in many other writings of this class, with numerous violations of the rules governing presumptive evidence, one of which is, that where two well-accredited writers seem to be in conflict in their narratives of the same event, a considerable margin for harmonization should be allowed on the score of our own ignorance both of the circumstances of the time and of the interpretation of the narratives. A case in point occurs on page 52, where Dr. Gladden avers that there is a discrepancy between Joshua and Judges in their description of Othniel's smiting Kiriath-Sepher, where one account seems to place the event before the death of Joshua and the other after the death. This, it is said, "the wit of man cannot reconcile." If Dr.

Gladden had read both accounts with sufficient care he would have seen that it is by no means certain that the account in Joshua is meant to be strictly chronological. There is a topical reason for introducing the story there which amply justifies its introduction, and there is no affirmation that the actual occupation by Othniel was before Joshua's death.

THE EMPHASIZED NEW TESTAMENT. A New Translation, designed to set forth the Exact Meaning, the proper Terminology, and the Graphic Style of the Sacred Original; arranged to show at a glance Narrative, Speech, Parallelism, and Logical Analysis; and emphasized throughout after the Idioms of the Greek Tongue. With Select References, and an Appendix of Notes. This Version has been adjusted to the Critical Text (“formed exclusively on Documentary Evidence") of Drs. Westcott and Hort. By JOSEPH BRYANT ROTHERHAM, Translator of "The New Testament Critically Emphasized. Pp. 274. 12mo. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1897. $2.00.

This volume is adapted to serve various purposes. In the translation the reader will find the author's interpretation of the New Testament, which is that of a painstaking, competent scholar. The translation is somewhat more literal than the Authorized Version or the Revised, and also more colloquial, but in general is highly to be commended. The theological proclivities of the author appear in his substitution of “immerse" for "baptize," and by his substitution of "age-abiding" for everlasting." The volume has most of the merits of Moulton's "Modern Readers' Bible," with the addition of numerous special marks calculated to assist in the proper elocutionary rendering of the expression of the thought. It will be found very useful as a practice book by those who have not had much training or experience in public reading.

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THE STORY OF JESUS CHRIST. An Interpretation. By ELIZABETH STUART PHELPS, author of "A Singular Life,' 'The Gates Ajar," "The Supply at Saint Agatha's," etc. Pp. xiii, 413. Crown Svo. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $2.00.

Naturally this work differs from all other Lives of Christ, but is worthy to take a place with them. The distinguished author has a woman's imagination, and applies it with great literary skill to impress many lessons from the life of our Lord which ordinary commentators neglect; but, while doing this, she adheres closely to the narrative itself, and reverently accepts the supernatural facts.

THE LAST THINGS. BY JOSEPH AGAR BEET, D.D. Pp. xv, 318. 12mo. New York: The Methodist Book Concern. 1897. $1.25.

This is on the whole one of the most satisfactory discussions of eschatology which have appeared in recent times. It is the work of one of the most painstaking and competent of living exegetes, who is at the same time in full sympathy with the evangelical elements of the Christian

church. No point bearing on the subject is overlooked, and the conclusions at which he arrives are such as naturally follow from the data under discussion. The author does not believe in conditional immortality, in universal salvation, in restoration, or in probation beyond the grave. Nor does he believe in the continual enlargement of the capacity of the wicked after death, but he relieves the ordinary doctrine of eternal punishment of some of its repulsiveness by supposing that the wicked gradually lose their capacity and ultimately come to a state of total extinction of their powers. This makes it easily possible to represent punishment after death as proportionate to each one's guilt and at the same time adequate for the demands of just government. The view does not differ much from that presented in the ingenious volume entitled "Calvinarianism," published some years ago by our honored contributor, Rev. S. B. Goodenow.

THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN THE DIVINE. An Interpretation. By A. H. AMES, M.D., D.D. Pp. 280. New York: Eaton & Mains; Cincinnati: Curts & Jennings. 1897. 90 cents.

Dr. Ames, rejecting all theories which would make of the book an epitome of history, finds in it a symbolical setting forth of the mediatorial kingdom of Christ. Particular attention is given to the symbolism of numbers and to those drawn from the Old Testament as well as to the dramatic structure of the book. In our opinion the author does not fully make out his case, but he presents his theory with great ability, making of it a valuable contribution to the literature of the subject.

THE ISLE THAT IS CALLED PATMOS. BY WILLIAM EDGAR GEIL. Pp. 206. Philadelphia: American Baptist Publication Society. $1.50.

In this elegantly printed and highly illustrated quarto, the author and publishers have furnished a really sumptuous volume. Its thirty-two illustrations are nearly all full-page photographs of the scenery and people of this historic isle. For fullness of detail and interesting description we know of nothing upon this subject that excels it.

DARWIN, AND AFTER DARWIN: An Exposition of the Darwinian Theory and a Discussion of Post-Darwinian Questions. By the late GEORGE JOHN ROMANES, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., Honorary Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. III. POST-DARWINIAN QUESTIONS, ISOLATION, AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SELECTION. Pp. viii, 181. 12110. Chicago: Open Court Publishing Society. $1.00.

This concluding volume of the great work upon which Romanes was engaged at the time of his death had already been largely put in type while he was still living. The remaining portions are collected and completed under the competent supervision of Professor C. Lloyd Morgan. The volume is principally devoted to the exposition and enforcement of

the principles discovered by Rev. John Gulick, to whose essays, says the author, "I attribute a higher value than to any other work in the field of Darwinian thought since the date of Darwin's death. For it is now my mature conviction that a new point of departure has here been taken in the philosophy of Darwinism, and one which opens up new territories for scientific exploration of an endlessly wide and varied character" (p. 1). Similar tributes to Mr. Gulick occur frequently throughout the volume, which is prefaced by a very satisfactory photograph of the distinguished missionary and biologist. The discovery of Mr. Gulick is that of the principle of "isolation" as a means of fixing and promoting variation where natural selection has no chance to come in play. Indeed the "survival of the fittest" is but a single "form of isolation" (p. 39). "By isolation," he says, "I mean simply the prevention of intercrossing between a separated section of a species or kind and the rest of that species or kind, whether such a separation be due to geographical barriers, to migration, or to any other state of matters leading to exclusive breeding within the separate group."

These three volumes of Professor Romanes are full of facts of interest to the general reader, and altogether constitute the most important single treatise upon Darwinism that has been published. No one can speak with proper intelligence upon the subject without having read them.

ORIGIN AND NATURE OF CONSCIENCE. An Exposition and Criticism of the Empirical-Evolution Theory of the Origin of Conscience, with Constructive Conclusions. By PITT G. KNOWLTON. Pp. 150. News Press, Oberlin, O.

This treatise is Mr. Knowlton's thesis in fulfillment of the require ments for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Leipsic University. It attempts no such exhaustive survey of the evolutional theories of ethics as, for example, C. M. Williams' "Review of Evolutional Ethics"; but within its compass it is a careful and thorough piece of work, and goes to the real heart of the questions involved. The treatment is divided into three parts: exposition of the empirical-evolution theories; criticism of empirical-evolution theories; and constructive conclusions. The survey of the empirical-evolution theories classifies them as the theory of natural science-Darwin; historical theories-Spencer and Rée; psychological theories-Bain, Mill, and Grote; and sociological theories-Stephen, Ihering, and Hartmann. This is a suggestive and helpful classification, but one wonders a little at the precise selection of writers made, and questions the special prominence given to Rée. The exposition of the theories is clear and just. It finds these theories all characterized by the assertion of the complex, derivative character of conscience arising from original, non-moral elements; and it is precisely to this point that the main criticism of the second part is directed. This second critical division is the strongest portion of the book. The author's main conten

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