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depict her in the most glowing colours. To exalt Napoleon's repudiated wife, is to censure him. We, who are less liable to prejudice, may be able to estimate her character more impartially, and may fairly inquire how much of the devotion for which she has been so highly praised, belonged to the man, how much to his station.
Napoleon's ardent attachment to her admits of no such doubt; his actions, as well as his letters to her, prove it; particularly those written in the early part of their married life, when he frequently complains of her coldness. The prudence of her conduct while Napoleon was absent in Egypt, may reasonably be doubted. If so, we may ask, how far the woman who was chosen by such a man as the sharer of his name and fortunes was worthy of her destiny? Her extravagance, even while seated upon a throne, we have seen, was considered reprehensible by her husband. Napoleon had not an exalted opinion of women; how much this might be owing to the example of the woman whom he knew best, the reader must decide. If Josephine had been as eminent for high womanly virtues, as he was for exalted genius; if she had been in truth Napoleon's "star," her fate might have been a different one.
by pope Pius VII., December 2d, 1804, and the | Josephine, in their hatred of Napoleon always crown which his genius had won for her was placed by Napoleon upon her brow. Soon after, at Milan, she was crowned queen of Italy. Josephine acquitted herself in her exalted position with a grace and dignity which won all hearts; to many, it was a matter of surprise how she had acquired this royal bearing." Eugene and Hortense, her children, shared her elevation; Napoleon never neglected their interest, nor that of any members of Josephine's family. As Napoleon's power increased, and his family became to all appearances more and more firmly established upon the throne of France, his desire for offspring to continue his line increased; and after much deliberation, and many painful scenes, a divorce was determined upon. Josephine bore it with a fortitude which her good sense alone enabled her to exert. have opposed the will of Napoleon would have availed her nothing, and it was every thing to her to continue to possess his esteem. The world, too, would sympathize with a wife who, under such painful circumstances, yielded with dignity to her fall; her impotent resistance would only excite its contempt or sneers. Josephine retired to Malmaison, at the age of forty-six, with the title of empress-dowager, and two millions of francs a year. Napoleon visited her occasionally, and always gave proofs of his esteem and regard for her. While at St. Helena, he paid the highest tribute to her virtues and amiability. On the birth of the king of Rome, in 1811, Josephine is said to have exhibited the most unfeigned satisfaction. If such was really the case, her magnanimity was of the highest order: for that event, which must have confirmed Napoleon's sense of the expediency of the divorce, also rendered his wife more dear to him, and Josephine's situation more glaringly humiliating.
In 1814, Josephine beheld the downfall of that throne which she had once shared. When Napoleon retired to Elba, she wrote to him, signifying her wish, if permitted, to follow him in his reverses. When the allies entered Paris, she was treated with the most distinguished consideration. The king of Prussia and the emperor of Russia visited her at Malmaison, and showed her flattering attentions. On the 19th of May, the emperor Alexander and the king of Prussia dined with her. She was extremely indisposed, and, in opposition to her physician's wishes, did the honours to her royal guests. The next day she became much worse; her disease, a species of quinsy, increasing rapidly. On the 29th of May, 1814, she expired, in the full possession of her faculties. Her children were with her, and, by their affectionate attentions, soothed her last moments. Her body was interred in the church of Ruel, where, seven years after, her children were permitted to erect a monuent to her.
Josephine was handsome; her figure was majestic and elegant; but her greatest charms were her grace and goodness of heart. She has been called Napoleon's "star." His fortunes, it is said, arose with her, and waned when their connexion ceased. The English, when they paint the empress
JUDSON, ANNE HASSELTINE,
WAS born in 1789, in Bradford, Massachusetts. She was carefully educated, and became early distinguished for her deep and earnest religious character. In February, 1812, she married Adoniram Judson; and in the same month sailed for Calcutta, her husband being appointed missionary to India. Soon after they reached Calcutta, they were ordered by the East India Company, who were opposed to all missionary labour among the natives, to quit the country. While waiting for an opportunity of leaving, Mr. and Mrs. Judson employed their time in investigating the subject of baptism; and being convinced that their previous opinions had been erroneous, they joined the Baptist Church at Calcutta. In July, 1813, Mr. and Mrs. Judson arrived at Rangoon, in Burmah, where for many years they laboured success
fully and diligently in the cause of religion. In 1821, in consequence of protracted ill health, Mrs. Judson returned alone to America, where she remained till 1823, when she rejoined her husband in Rangoon. Difficulties arising between the government of Bengal and the Burman empire, and the taking of Rangoon by the British in 1824, caused the imprisonment of Mr. Judson and several other foreigners, who were at Ava, the capital of the Burman empire. For two years, the inexpressible sufferings endured by these prisoners, were alleviated by the constant care and exertions of Mrs. Judson; and it was owing in a great measure to her efforts that they were at last released.
In 1826, the missionary establishment was removed from Rangoon to Amherst; and in October, of that year Mrs. Judson died of a fever during her husband's absence. The physician attributed the fatal termination of the disease to the injury her constitution had received from her long-protracted sufferings and severe privations at Ava. In about six months after her death, her only child, an infant daughter, was laid by her side. That some correct idea may be formed by those who have not read the memoir of Mrs. Judson, of the exertions and sufferings of this angelic woman, whose mission was to wear out her precious life for the preservation of others and the advancement of her Saviour's cause, we will give one extract from her "Narrative" of the imprisonment of Mr. Judson, written in form of a letter to her brother-in-law.
MRS. JUDSON AT OUNG-PEN-LA.
"The next morning I arose and endeavoured to find something like food. But there was no market, and nothing to be procured. One of Dr. Price's friends, however, brought some cold rice and vegetable curry, from Amarapora, which, together with a cup of tea from Mr. Lansago, answered for the breakfast of the prisoners; and for dinner, we made a curry of dried salt fish, which a servant of Mr. Gouger had brought. All the money I could command in the world, I had brought with me, secreted about my person; so you may judge what our prospects were, in case the war should continue long. But our Heavenly Father was better to us than our fears; for notwithstanding the constant extortions of the jailers, during the whole six months we were at Oung-pen-la, and the frequent straits to which we were brought, we never really suffered for the want of money, though frequently for want of provisions, which were not procurable. Here at this place my personal bodily sufferings commenced. While your brother was confined in the city prison, I had been allowed to remain in our house, in which I had many conveniences left, and my health had continued good beyond all expectations. But now I had not a single article of convenience—not even a chair or seat of any kind, excepting a bamboo floor. The very morning after my arrival, Mary Hasseltine was taken with the small-pox, the natural way. She, though very young, was the only assistant I had in taking care of little Maria. But she now required all the time I could spare from
Mr. Judson, whose fever still continued in prison, and whose feet were so dreadfully mangled, that for several days he was unable to move. I knew not what to do, for I could procure no assistance from the neighbourhood, or medicine for the sufferers, but was all day long going backwards and forwards from the house to the prison with little Maria in my arms. Sometimes I was greatly relieved by leaving her, for an hour, when asleep, by the side of her father, while I returned to the house to look after Mary, whose fever ran so high as to produce delirium. She was so completely covered with the small-pox, that there was no distinction in the pustules. As she was in the same little room with myself, I knew Maria would take it; I therefore inoculated her from another child, before Mary's had arrived at such a state as to be infectious. At the same time, I inoculated Abby, and the jailer's children, who all had it so lightly as hardly to interrupt their play. But the inoculation in the arm of my poor little Maria did not takeshe caught it of Mary, and had it the natural way. She was then only three months and a half old, and had been a most healthy child; but it was above three months before she perfectly recovered from the effects of this dreadful disorder.
"You will recollect I never had the small-pox, but was vaccinated previously to leaving America. In consequence of being for so long a time constantly exposed, I had nearly a hundred pustules formed, though no previous symptoms of fever, &c. The jailer's children having had the smallpox so lightly, in consequence of inoculation, my fame was spread all over the village, and every child, young and old, who had not previously had it, was brought for inoculation. And although I knew nothing about the disorder, or the mode of treating it, I inoculated them all with a needle, and told them to take care of their diet, — all the instructions I could give them. Mr. Judson's health was gradually restored, and he found himself much more comfortably situated, than when in the city prison.
"The prisoners were at first chained two and two; but as soon as the jailers could obtain chains sufficient, they were separated, and each prisoner had but one pair. The prison was repaired, a new fence made, and a large airy shed erected in front of the prison, where the prisoners were allowed to remain during the day, though locked up in the little close prison at night. All the children recovered from the small-pox; but my watchings and fatigue, together with my miserable food, and more miserable lodgings, brought on one of the diseases of the country, which is almost always fatal to foreigners. My constitution seemed destroyed, and in a few days I became so weak as to be hardly able to walk to Mr. Judson's prison. In this debilitated state, I set off in a cart for Ava, to procure medicines, and some suitable food, leaving the cook to supply my place. I reached the house in safety, and for two or three days the disorder seemed at a stand; after which it attacked me so violently, that I had no hopes of recovery left-and my only anxiety now was, to return to Oung-pen-la to die near the prison. It was with the greatest difficulty
that I obtained the medicine-chest from the Go- | Mrs. Boardman shared with her beloved husband, vernor, and then had no one to administer medicine. I however got at the laudanum, and by taking two drops at a time for several hours, it so far checked the disorder, as to enable me to get on board a boat, though so weak that I could not stand, and again set off for Oung-pen-la."
To show the estimate in which the services and talents of Mrs. Judson were held by the British residents of India, we will give the statement made by one of the English prisoners confined at Ava with Mr. Judson. It was published in a Calcutta paper.
"Mrs. Judson was the author of those eloquent and forcible appeals to the government, which prepared them by degrees for submission to terms of peace, never expected by any, who knew the hauteur and inflexible pride of the Burman court. “And while on this subject, the overflowings of grateful feeings, on behalf of myself and fellowprisoners, compel me to add a tribute of public thanks to that amiable and humane female, who, though living at a distance of two miles from our prison, without any means of conveyance, and very feeble in health, forgot her own comfort and infirmity, and almost every day visited us, sought out and administered to our wants, and contributed in every way to alleviate our misery.
"While we were all left by the government destitute of food, she, with unwearied perseverance, by some means or other, obtained for us a constant supply.
"When the tattered state of our clothes evinced the extremity of our distress, she was ever ready to replenish our scanty wardrobe.
"When the unfeeling avarice of our keepers confined us inside, or made our feet fast in the stocks, she, like a ministering angel, never ceased her applications to the government, until she was authorized to communicate to us the grateful news of our enlargement, or of a respite from our galling oppressions.
"Besides all this, it was unquestionably owing, in a chief degree, to the repeated eloquence, and forcible appeals of Mrs. Judson, that the untutored Burman was finally made willing to secure the welfare and happiness of his country, by a sincere peace."
Mrs. Ann H. Judson was the first American woman who resolved to leave her friends and country to bear the Gospel to the heathen in foreign climes. Well does she merit the reverence and love of all Christians; nor can the nineteenth century furnish the record of a woman who so truly deserves the title-a missionary heroine.
JUDSON, SARAH B.,
DAUGHTER of Ralph and Abia Hull, was born in Alstead, New Hampshire, November 4th, 1803. She was first married to the Rev. George D. Boardman, in 1825, and soon after accompanied her husband, and other missionaries, to Calcutta. The first destination of Mr. and Mrs. Boardman was Tavoy; and there, after encountering great dangers and sufferings, and overcoming appalling difficulties and discouragements, in all of which
Mr. Boardman died, in 1831. She had previously lost two children; one only, a son, was left her, and they were alone, in a strange land. But she did not desert her missionary duties. Four years she remained a widow, and then was united in marriage with the Rev. Dr. Judson. Their union was a happy one; but after the birth of her fourth child her health failed, and a voyage to America was recommended as the only hope of restoration. Dr. Judson, with his wife and children, took passage for their own country; but on reaching the Isle of France, Mrs. Judson's health was so greatly improved, that Dr. Judson, whose duties in Burmah were urgent, determined to return, while his wife and children should visit America. The arrangements were accordingly made, and in expectation of the parting, Mrs. Judson wrote this sweet and most pathetic poem, addressed to her husband:
We part on this green islet, love,-
I for the setting sun, love,
Oh, when to meet again!
My heart is sad for thee, love, For lone thy way will be; And oft thy tears will fall, love, For thy children and for me.
The music of thy daughter's voice
When we knelt to see our Henry die,
My tears fall fast for thee, love,
Yet my spirit clings to thine, love,
And who can paint our mutual joy,
But higher shall our raptures glow,
When the loved and parted here below
Then gird thine armour on, love,
Nor faint thou by the way
Till the Boodh shall fall, and Burmah's sons
But they did not thus part; on putting out to sea, Mrs. Judson grew rapidly worse, and died within sight of the rocky island of St. Helena, where she was buried, September 3d, 1845.
If this second Mrs. Judson was less distinguished than her predecessor for strength of mind and the power of concentrating her energies, so as to display, at a glance, her talents, yet she was not inferior in loveliness of character. The genius and piety of Mrs. Sarah B. Judson will ever keep her memory sacred as a pure light in the path of the female missionary.
A SINGULAR character, of Norwich, England, who, in her zeal for mortification, confined herself for several years within four walls. She wrote "Sixteen Revelations of Divine Love showed to a devout Servant of our Lord, called Mother Juliana, an Anchoret of Norwich, who lived in the days of King Edward III.," published in 1610.
A WOMAN who possessed great influence at the court of the Mogul emperors of Hindostan, in the early part of the last century. She was born in Bengal, in 1658, and was the daughter of a Portuguese named Augustin Diaz d'Acosta. Being shipwrecked, she went to the court of the great Mogul, Aurengzebe, whose favour she conciliated by presenting him with some curiosities. Being appointed superintendent of the harem of that prince, and governess of his son, Behadur Shah, she rendered important services to the latter, who succeeded to the crown in 1707, under the title of Shah Aulum. He was obliged to defend his authority against his brothers by force of arms; and in the battle, Juliana, mounted on an elephant by his side, encouraged and animated both him and the troops, and he was indebted to her for the complete victory he obtained. Her services were rewarded with the title of princess, the rank of the wife of Seu Omrah, and a profusion of riches and honours. Shah Aulum often said, "If Juliana were a man, she should be my vizier." Jehander Shah, who became emperor of Hindostan in 1712, was equally sensible of her merit; and though she experienced some persecution when that prince was deposed, in 1713, by his nephew, she speedily recovered her influence, and retained it till her death, in 1733.
JUNOT, LAURA, DUCHESS D'ABRANTES, Was born in Montpelier, 1785. Constantine Comnena, a scion of the imperial stock, emigrated from the Peloponnesus, in 1676. He was followed by a body of three thousand Greeks. After two years of wandering they settled in the island of
Corsica, then a savage and uncultivated region, which they brought to some degree of culture and civilization, although the fierce and restless spirit of the native inhabitants kept them in a state of perpetual, sharp, yet petty warfare. When Corsica was sold to France, under Louis XIII., another Constantine, a man of approved valour and worth, was at the head of the Comnena family. He was the father of three sons, and a daughter, called Panona, who married a Frenchman by the name of Pernon. Upon the breaking out of the Corsican revolution, he was driven to seek shelter in France. From this union sprang the Duchess d'Abrantes. Destined to experience the most extraordinary vicissitudes, her very cradle was disturbed by the agitations which convulsed France at that period. In an autobiographical sketch, she speaks of her childish terrors, when, in the absence of her parents, she was placed at a boarding-school among strangers; the terrible days of September (1792) are particularly commemorated. Her father, for whom she appears to have entertained a particularly tender affection, died while she was still a child: she also lost the sister nearest her own age-to these afflictions were added most straitened pecuniary circumstances. The latter difficulties, after a time, diminished, and Madame Pernon established herself comfortably in Paris, where her house soon became the resort of all the most noted men of that day. The attractions, personal and mental, of her daughter, were not undistinguished. A man of rank and wealth made an offer of his hand: he was old enough to be her grandfather, but this seemed no objection in the eyes of the mother, who with difficulty yielded to Laura's repugnance, and gave up a match which held out so many mercenary advantages. Another matrimonial proposal soon was presented, which came to a more fortunate conclusion. Among the generals who distinguished themselves in the wars of Napoleon, was Junot, born of respectable parents at Bussy-le-Grand, in 1771. Before entering the career of arms, he had studied jurisprudence, with his friend Marmont; but the cannons of the revolution roused him to visions of fame, and he enrolled himself in the very first battalion that was formed in his province. At the siege of Toulon he was a sergeant of grenadiers: an accident was the beginning of his advancement. Napoleon called out, on some exigency, for somebody to step forward who possessed a good hand-writing. Junot came from the ranks, and began a letter, under the great man's dictation. Scarcely had he formed the last sentence, when a bomb cast by the English, bursting at ten paces from him, covered the writer and the writing with earth. Capital!" said Junot, smiling, "here is exactly what we want, sand to dry the ink." Such intrepidity was not lost on Bonaparte; he kept the heroic soldier in his eye, and soon after obtaining his generalship, he made Junot his adjutant. This man, on his return from the expedition to Egypt, was introduced to the house of Madame Pernon. He soon manifested an attachment to the young Laura; and as his military grade, and favour with the first consul,
were united to personal beauty and pleasing address, he was successful in the suit: they were married in 1800. A very brilliant course awaited this couple, to be terminated with respect to both in a manner singularly unfortunate. Title, riches, and honours, were showered upon them; the duchess d'Abrantes was attached to the imperial household, and no less favoured by the ladies of the Bonaparte family than her husband was by its chief. Junot, in the very height of his fortunes, became suddenly a raging lunatic. His cure being despaired of, by the consent of the best physicians, he was placed in a celebrated asylum for the insane: here his sole object appeared selfdestruction. Taking advantage of a momentary absence of his keeper, he violently wrenched away the window-bolt, and threw himself out: he was taken up in the street below, without a sign of life. The death of the duke d'Abrantes was followed by the destruction of the empire, and the unfortunate widow found herself in a position which combined want of friends with want of means. It was then that she determined to have recourse to literature to aid her in the maintenance and education of her family. Her first work of importance was "Historical Recollections of Napoleon, the Revolution, the Consulship, the Empire." She has been charged with a blind admiration of the hero of these scenes, perhaps justly; but it was difficult for those who rose through that meteor's course, and partook of its brilliancy, to preserve cool and unbiassed the judgment. We may safely grant the author good faith in all she advances. This production was followed by various successful works of history, biography, travels, and romances. But for the descendant of the Greek emperors, the authoress of fifty volumes, the member of learned societies, what a sad end was reserved! She had been for twenty years troubled by a painful malady, to alleviate which she indulged in the use of opium, and it is supposed this pernicious drug accelerated the progress of her disease. Worse than physical pains,
a hard-hearted creditor, seeing the increasing illness, and fearing death might step in to withdraw his victim, actually brought an execution to her death-bed, and for the miserable sum of four hundred francs, sold the furniture of her apartment under her very eyes. She had not yet sunk deep enough in misery: it remained for her to be taken to the hospital to die! Removed from splendid apartments, she was cast into a bare, unfurnished cell, and left to the cares of a hireling nurse, whose venal attentions were distributed among many others. But earthly difficulties were fast passing away. On the night of the 7th June, 1838, she received the sacrament from the hands of the archbishop of Paris, who came to this humble couch to administer comfort to one who was the favourite of his flock. She died the next morning in the arms of her children, in a state of perfect resignation, confiding in the promises of the Saviour. She left four children, two daughters and two sons, all estimable, and worthy of the attention their mother had ever bestowed on them.
After the death of Kamehameha, his son Liholiho succeeded to be king of Hawaii, and all the islands of the group; and Kamamalu was queen, and his favourite wife, though he had four others. This was in 1819; the following year was the advent of the Gospel and Christian civilization to these miserable heathen. As has ever been the case, women joyfully welcomed the glad tidings of hope and peace and purity. Kamamalu was among the first converts, and eagerly embraced the opportunities for instruction. In 1822, she was diligently prosecuting her studies, could read and write, and her example was of great influence in strengthening the wavering disposition of her husband, and finally inducing him to abandon his debaucheries, and become, as he said, "a good man."
As proof of the wonderful progress made by this people in the manners of civilized life, and also marking the thoughtful benevolence of Kamamalu, we give an extract from a valuable work by Mr. Jarves on the Hawaiian Islands.
"On the 26th of March, 1823, his majesty held his annual festival in celebration of the death of Kamehameha I. On this occasion he provided a dinner in a rural bower, for two hundred individuals. The missionaries and all respectable foreigners were present; and the dresses were an improvement upon the costune of the preceding year. Black was the court colour, and every individual was required to be clothed in its sombre hue. Kamamalu appeared greatly to advantage.