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I. A sentence is a group of words

II. A paragraph is a group of sentences III. A longer composition is a group of



A. Aids in securing unity.

1. Simple and complex sentences.

2. Uniform construction.

3. Short rather than long sentences.

B. Aids in securing coherence.


having coherence emphasis.

Putting together words that belong together, noting especially the relation of (1) a participle to a noun or pronoun, (2) a pronoun to its antecedent.

C. Aids in securing emphasis.

1. Important words in important positions.

2. Periodic, balanced, interrogative, or exclamatory


3. Repetition or climax.


A. Aids in securing unity.

1. A topic sentence.

2. A definite plan.

3. A fixed point of view.

B. Aids in securing coherence.

1. Logical order of details.
2. Connectives.

C. Aids in securing emphasis.

1. Important words and sentences in conspicuous positions.

2. Sufficient space for important details.


A. Aids in securing unity.

I. A limited subject.

2. A fixed point of view.

B. Aids in securing coherence.

1. Logical order of significant details.

2. Good transitions.

C. Aids in securing emphasis.

1. Important words, sentences, and paragraphs in

conspicuous positions.

2. Sufficient space for important details.


(See pp. 226-234 for words not given here.)

Accept and except are often confused, especially if mispronounced. Accept means "to take, or to receive"; except means "to omit, or leave out."

Affect and effect are also often confused by being carelessly pronounced. (See p. 228.)

Ain't is not in good use as a contraction for am not, are not, or is not. Proper contractions are: "I'm not," "He isn't," "We're not," "You're not,” “Aren't you?”

Aggravate means “to make more grave, heavier, worse. in the sense of "provoke" or "exasperate" is colloquial.

Its use

And which (and but which) should not be preceded by an independent clause, as in this sentence: “The first time I went to school, I found a dollar on the way, and which I used to start my first bank account." Say rather, "The first time I went to school, I found on the way a dollar which I used to start my first bank account." (See sect. 100.) Awful. It is absurd to speak of an awful algebra lesson or an awful recitation. (See p. 230.)

Bad means the opposite of good. One may read a bad or a good book, but he cannot have a bad pain any more than he can have a good pain. In "He feels bad" and "He looks bad," bad is an adjective: in "He feels badly about it," badly is an adverb. Badly is not a synonym for very, very much, or greatly. Say, "I wish to go very much," but not, "I wish to go badly.'

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Beside means "by the side of"; besides, “in addition to."

"Between you and me" is correct, not "Between you and I."

Calculate should not be used for intend, think, believe, or suppose. Couple includes two of the same kind connected or considered together.

Different from is correct, not different than or different to. Say, "My work is different from yours." Do not say, "My work is different than yours."

Don't is the abbreviation for do not. "I don't" and "We don't" are correct, but not "He don't," ," "She don't," "It don't." We may say "He doesn't," "She doesn't," "It doesn't."

Either and neither are singular grammatically; as, "Neither of us is in a hurry."

Elegant should refer to something choice. We speak of "elegant manners,' an elegant house," not "an elegant time.”


Enthuse is a vulgarism to be avoided. Never say you enthuse when you mean that you are enthusiastic.

Everybody and every one are singular grammatically; as, "Everybody should attend to his own affairs."

First is both adjective and adverb. Avoid firstly.

Fix means "to make secure, to fasten." It is best not to use the word as those persons do who fix furniture when they repair it; fix books when they arrange them; fix a cut finger when they dress it, and fix a person whom they bribe or quiet.

Funny does not mean odd or unusual.

Gent is not to be used for gentleman or man.

Got is not to be used with have in the sense of possession. Say, "The table has five legs." It may be used in the sense of obtaining: as, "I got what I wanted."

Home. Avoid "He is home" when you mean "He is at home."
How is not to be used for "What?" or "What do you say?"

If is not to be used for whether, in "I do not know whether he will


Its, the possessive of the pronoun it, contains no apostrophe. (See sect. 79.)

Kind of need not be followed by the article a. Say, "I like this kind of hat," not "this kind of a hat."

Last and latest do not have the same meaning. The latest arrival need not mean the last arrival.

Lot and lots, meaning number, as in "a lot of people," are used colloquially.

Like should not be used for as, in “Do as I do.”

Lovely is a much-abused word. It really refers to what stirs the affections. Not everything that is satisfactory is lovely. It is absurd to say a hat is lovely because it is becoming or beautiful.

Most, almost. Most should not be confused with almost, which

" "Most children are happy,"

means "nearly"; "He is almost ready,"

'Almost all children are happy."

Mighty, as an adverb meaning very, has never been in strictly good form, and at best is only colloquial.

None, singular grammatically, is often used as plural.

No use. Say "of no use," as in "This thing is of no use."

Nor strengthens the second alternative. "I am not going nor planning to go" is more emphatic than, "I am not going or planning to go."

Of. A preposition is not a substitute for the verb form have. Say, "I should have gone," not "I should of gone."

Off of. The of is usually unnecessary. Say, "He fell off the roof,” not, "off of the roof." Avoid such expressions as, "May I have some paper off of you?" or, "May I have some paper off you?” Say rather, "May I have some paper?"

Onto should seldom be used for on or upon.

Pants is not to be used for trousers.

Per. A Latin preposition not to be used in English. Say, “The cloth is fifty cents a yard," not "per yard."

Phone is not used by good writers.

Photo is to be avoided.

Posted is colloquial for well-informed.

Proven is not to be used for proved.

Raise. Chickens are raised, children are reared. Do not speak of a raise in salary when you mean an increase or rise.

Receipt — recipe. We say a receipt for a pudding, usually reserving recipe for medical prescriptions.

Respectfully must be distinguished from respectively.

Retire does not necessarily mean go to bed.

Smart, used provincially in the sense of able or capable, really means keen, sharp.

So is to be used with caution, whether as a connective or as an intensive word. "He is so enthusiastic," "Her gown is so pretty."

Some is an adjective or a pronoun; it is not an adverb. Say, "I am somewhat tired," not "I am some tired."

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