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lared for use. They would have been glad to see not one stone standing on another, lest, in the political convulsions that were then so frequent, they might be dispossessed of that to which their title was not the best. It is true they changed their religion in the time of Mary, but, as Hallam says:
"They adhered with a firm grasp to church lands, nor could the papal supremacy be established until a sanction was given to their enjoyment. And," he adds, "we may ascribe part of the zeal of the same class in bringing back and preserving the reformed church under Elizabeth to a similar motive."
Now let us see what our cathedrals and churches had to endure a little later. I quote from the same authority:
"The populace in towns where the reformed tenets prevailed began to pull down the images in the very first day of Edward's reign. Our churches bear witness to the devastation committed in the wantonness of triumphant reform, by defacing statues and crosses on the exterior of buildings intended for worship, or windows and monuments within." "It was observed," says Strype, "that where images were left there was most contest."
A faction fight was not the best thing for the protection of Gothic tracery, or likely to be most conducive to its preservation.
Further on we read:
"That in Elizabeth's reign, the ecclesiastical visitors of 1589 were directed to have all images, &c. taken away from churches. Roods and relics accordingly were broken to pieces and burned throughout the kingdom, of which Collier makes loud complaint."
It was not likely that the burners would be very careful of the surroundings or settings of the objects they were intent upon destroying. In later times, we must unfortunately add the neglect of the clergy, which has caused much of the destruction of our ecclesiastical fabrics. It is only within the memory of many now living that Gothic architecture has been thoroughly appreciated. clergy were wont to throw the blame on churchThe wardens-men even now, in many places, who cannot read-but the responsibility rested with those who, administering the rites of religion, should have carefully guarded and protected its
"It is said within the present century bodies of departed parishioners have remained in the church at Lindfield for several days for lack of an officiating priest. In the meantime the fabric was neglected. Beautiful carved work and elegant painted glass were surreptitiously obtained by curiosity dealers; a brass plate commemorative of a Challenor was removed from a gravestone, and a book of accounts stolen."
This is only a specimen of many instances of neglect that may be adduced in preceding and even succeeding times. A hundred years of such treatment would not leave much for Cromwell's
dragoons to destroy, or much for those who come two hundred years after his time to admire. Added to the neglect of man, see what vegetation will do in a hundred years. Nature will assert herself, and if man will not preserve, she will attempt to make productive even those spots where some of the most marvellous works of man's hands have been raised in one generation, but allowed to decay through the factious passions or cupidity of another which succeeded it."
I have seen nearly every cathedral in England, and numberless parish churches, and I have always taken place about them, and the gross neglect and marvelled, considering the contentions that have indifference of those who ought to have been their guardians, that they should have been preserved as they have been. I am more and more convinced that, had it been Cromwell's cue to destroy, It is said of John Knox that he wished the nests we should not find them in their present state. destroyed, as the best way of extirpating the rooks. But Cromwell was not moved by a petty spite of this sort. Had his soldiers been the destructive which I have alluded, and the traditions of sexagents that those who read history in the way to tons, would make them appear, those soldiers would not, on their return to their homes, have received from Pepys that tribute which is so well known.
A deep debt of gratitude is due from every lover of Gothic architecture to the memory of the Whartons. What would Beverley have been by them have been devoted to the preservation without their munificence? The funds provided and reparation of the Minster. Dilapidations and decay of modern times might have been added to the burthen of the song, "Cromwell and his Soldiers."
I afterwards went to another fine structure in
the same town-St. Mary's church, which has just and the sexton told me it had been put up by the been restored. I was admiring a new corbel head, late Mr. Pugin. He added, "that a stupid workcoronet." I replied, "It was a good job it was man let his ladder fall and break off a part of the not the nose, or it would have been attributed to Cromwell." The man laughed, but this was not a greater, more ludicrous, or more uncommon anachronism than that of my friend the mechanic, who thought a hundred years "all the same." Alas! they are not, with man or his monuments.
[Deplorable, indeed, as were the acts of spoliation in the churches of England from the reign of King Henry VIII. to that of Queen Elizabeth, we have yet the testimony of authentic history to convince us that the same fanatical zeal was displayed by the adherents of Oliver Cromwell. We have only to open Milner's History of Winchester (i. 408) to be informed of the systematic aggressions on its venerable cathedral, when the soldiery
were permitted to break down with axes and hammers the carved work of Wykeham's sacred shrine. Moreover, in that invaluable book, Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, which has handed down to us some of the most exalted acts of Christian heroism that England has ever witnessed, anyone may read how the sanctity of the tomb was violated, and the sacred edifices profaned in the most indecent manner during the Protectorate.
The most curious work, however, illustrative of the indiscreet zeal of the parliamentarians is, "The Journal of William Dowsing of Stratford, Parliamentary Visitor, appointed under a Warrant from the Earl of Manchester, for Demolishing the Superstitious Pictures and Ornaments of Churches, &c. within the County of Suffolk in the years 1643, 1644," first printed in 1786. The following is a copy of the warrant, which we have never seen in print:
"A Commission from the Earle of Manchester. "Whereas by an Ordinance of the Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament, bearing date the 28th day of August last, it is amongst other things ordained, that all crucifixes, crosses, and all images of any one or more persons of the Trinity, or of the Virgin Mary, and all other images and pictures of saints and superstitious inscriptions in or upon all and every the said churches or chapels, or other place of public prayer belonging, or in any other open place, shall before November last be taken away and defaced, as by the said Ordinance more at large appeareth. And whereas many such crosses, crucifixes, and other superstitious images and pictures are still continued within the associated counties in manifest contempt of the said Ordinance, These are therefore to will and require you forthwith to make your repair to the several associated counties, and put the said Ordinance in execution in every particular, hereby requiring all mayors, sheriffs, bailiffs, constables, headboroughs, and all other his Majesty's officers and loving subjects to be aiding and assisting unto you, whereof they may not fail at their peril. Given under my hand and seal this 19th of December, 1643. MANCHESTER.
"To William Dowsing, gent. and to such as he shall appoint."
Master Dowsing was a man of business, and went to his sacrilegious work in right earnest. He tells us, that on "Jan. 6, 1643, at Clare we brake down 1000 pictures superstitious; I brake down 200; 3 of God the Father, and 3 of Christ and the Holy Lamb, and 3 of the Holy Ghost like a Dove with wings; and the 12 apostles were carved in wood on the top of the roof, which we gave orders to take down; and 20 Cherubins to be taken down; and the sun and moon in the east window, by the King's arms, to be taken down." Again, "On Jan. 27, at Ufford we brake down 30 superstitious pictures; and gave direction to take down 37 more; and 40 Cherubins to be taken down of wood, and the chancel levelled. There was a picture of Christ on the cross, and God the Father above it; and left 37
*This Ordinance is printed by Scobell, Collection of Acts and Ordinances, 1658, p. 53.
superstitious pictures to be taken down; and took up 6 superstitious inscriptions in brass." At Buers on Feb. 23, he tells us that "We brake down 600 superstitious pictures, 8 Holy Ghosts, 3 of God the Father, and 3 of the Son. We took up 5 inscriptions of quorum animabus propitietur Deus, and one Pray for the soul; and superstitions in the windows, and some divers of the apostles."
So that after all the poor mechanic in Beverley Minster was not altogether wide of the mark when he exclaimed, Well, it's all the same!"-ED.]
CONTRIBUTIONS FROM FOREIGN BALLAD LITERATURE:
"FAIR AGNES AND THE MERMAN."
The following Danish ballad is found in a collection printed as early as 1591. It is also in a five-volume work by Nyerup; also in Gruntvig's collection, 1853. The translation is by a clerical friend, who is one of the most accomplished Danish scholars of the day: indeed, he may be called half a Dane, having married a Danish lady. In his accompanying letter he says:
"Fair Agnes and the Merman,' is certainly very ancient, carrying us back to the times when the heathen Danes ravaged our shores and bore away our Christian maids as booty-our Polls of Plymouth' consenting, at times, as would appear by the ballad."
From her bower Fair Agnes looked forth on the sea, When a Merman arose, and thus spake he: (Ah, ah, ah!) When a Merman arose, and thus spake he:"Oh, maiden fair, now tell me I pray, Wilt thou be my true-love for ever and aye?" "Thy true-love I'll be, if I now may go With thee to thy home in the deep below." He closed her lips, all red like the rose, And dived to his home where the sea-weed grows. For eight long years they dwelt 'neath the wave: Agnes seven sons to the Merman gave.
As Agnes sat by the cradle singing, She heard the church-bells of England ringing. Fair Agnes said to the Merman then,"I fain would go to the church agen." "To the church thou shalt go, my Agnes dear, If thou wilt come back to thy children here." He closed her rosy lips once more, And brought her again to England's shore. She stands by the shrine in the holy aisle, Her mother beside her spoke the while :"Now prithee, my daughter, truly say, Where has't' been hidden eight years and a day?" "Mother! I've been in the depths of the sea, And seven dear sons have been born to me." "And what did the Merman give to thee, To tempt my child his leman to be?" "A gay gold ring o' the purest sheen; Such ne'er shone on the hands of a queen."
The Merman entered the church, and all
His locks were yellow, and gleamed like gold, And bright were the eyes of the Merman bold. "Oh Agnes, return to thy home in the sea;
Thy children are lone, and they weep for thee." "Weep as they list, I never will go
Again to thy home, the blue waves below." "Oh think of thy children, and think of their cries: Remember a babe in its cradle lies."
"I care not for children, nor mind their cries;
Nor the babe in its cradled couch that lies."
Having a reference to a manuscript in this library, which I was very desirous to verify for a literary purpose, I made application at the library through a friend for permission to do so. ported, as I had feared he must, from paragraphs in the public prints, that there was "no admission even on business." Thereupon I took the liberty to address myself directly to his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury. My application remains. unsuccessful: but, inasmuch as his Grace has done me the honour to write me a full explanatory letter in answer, it has struck me as due to his Grace to let his explanation be known. Blame has been somewhat severely laid on the Archbishop because of his (alleged) 15,000l. a year proving insufficient to provide a librarian; but why remember his Grace's 15,000l. and forget the Commissioners' tenfold 15,000l. (also alleged)? On whomsoever the blame rests, in the interests of literature let us indulge a hope that the petty squabble will speedily be settled, and the treasures of this great library be accessible to all worthy students. I send his Grace's letter along with this note, written (self-evidently) as it is for publication. "N. & Q." seems to me the most fitting medium. Liverpool.
A. B. GROSART.
"Whitby, Oct. 16, 1867.
"I would most gladly comply with your wishes, but I am now absent from home for some weeks, and there is no librarian at Lambeth who can attend to your request. It was my desire to place that library upon a footing which should answer all the requirements of the public. In regard to the salary of the librarian, my predecessor was never charged with it, the Ecclesiastical Commissioners undertaking to pay it; and on my accession to the see, the Commissioners finding that they had exceeded their powers in making this payment out of the surplus revenue of the see, of their own accord procured the sanction of Parliament for taking all the charges of the library upon themselves. In carrying out,
however, the provisions of this act they came to the conclusion that they could only allow 150l. a year for all the expenses incident to the library-e. g. (1) librarian's salary, (2) repairs of books, which required a considerable outlay, (3) cleaning and all other incidental expenses. The sum allotted was obviously entirely inadequate to the several requirements, and I declined to undertake the duty which it was thus sought to impose upon me. The Rev. Mr. Stubbs, now Regius Professor of Modern History at Oxford, had for four years discharged the functions of librarian on the old fixed salary of 401. a year, thus rendering his valuable services almost gratuitously. His duties at Oxford rendered it impossible that he should any longer hold the office as he had done; and I should be ashamed to offer any gentleman really competent for the duties of a librarian such a sum as would have remained after the necessary outlay from the 1507. a year-a sum probably beneath the salary of the lowest menial in the British Museum. Although, therefore, the Act of Parliament imposes on the Ecclesiastical Commissioners the duty of bearing the charges of the Lambeth Library, I intend to bear all those charges myself, except the salary of a librarian, whose services would be required solely for the use of the public.
"With a thoroughly good catalogue, and a clerk at hand to fetch the books I want, I need no librarian for my own use. The amount of the stipend which used to be paid to the librarian by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners I shall now devote to the repair of the books. I think you will see by this statement that it is not my fault that Lambeth Library is at this moment not open to the public. It was my wish and intention to render it as useful as possible in this direction; and I considered that the surplus revenue from the see of Canterbury, which was very large at first, and which has been increasing, as I am led to believe enormously, from building at Croydon and Norwood, might amply have supplied a fair allowance to the library.
"As you are the first applicant whom I have been obliged to disappoint, I have thought it right to enter thus fully into the cause of that disappointment. "Yours faithfully,
"I am, Rev. Sir,
"C. T. CANTUAR."
I am glad to see by the answer to my query ("N. & Q." Oct. 19, p. 311) that it has evoked, as I think, an interesting and probably important statement relative to Scottish MSS. in the Lambeth Palace Library. The gentleman at whose request I originally sought the information was a Dr. Macleod (accidentally met in the Highlands), and I am now uncertain from memory whether the same as Dr. Norman Macleod, so distinguished in our literature, or only a namesake; but whoever it may concern, I hope the voice of "N. & Q." may reach his ears, or the ears of others equally impressed with their national interest, and lead to a thorough investigation of these papers. The mere announcement in the manuscript catalogue, that inter alia they include "An Abstract of the Ancient Laws and Constitution of Scotland" is enough to stamp their value, and prompt every literary antiquary, whether Scotch or English, to seek a thorough examination of the collection. My time is past. BUSHEY HEATH.
"En attendant that answer; let me take you to the Picture Exhibition at Antwerp, where the quantity awfully preponderates over the quality. At that Exhibition there are something more than 1500 paintings. About three of them are worth buying. Therefore, if I speak of the Antwerp Exhibition, it is not so much to warn you about buying than to favour you with a dainty episode, in which Rubens and Van Dyck, his pupil, play the first parts.
"Once upon a time Rubens went out of his studio, his face radiating with self-satisfaction. He had just given the last touch to his splendid Crucifixion,' to which he had devoted so many years.
"Van Dyck, his faithful disciple, had fallen in love with Rubens's daughter. But it seems that he was not held in very great esteem by his master, who took good care not to encourage his attentions to the young lady.
"The last period of utter disheartening made heroes more than once: so it was with Van Dyck, who said to himself Aux grands maux les grands remèdes,' and set to work accordingly. He contrived to enter unobserved Rubens's studio, and began dotting his Crucifixion' with flies, bees, and Maybugs. He painted a fly upon the Christ's nose, two wasps on the hands, a half-dozen of gnats on the feet; and then there were flies on the sky, flies on the earth, flies on the holy women, flies everywhere.
"Van Dyck glanced at those legends of flies, smiled, and whispered 'All right.'
"On his return Rubens stood aghast before his masterpiece. After awhile he recovered, summoned his servant maid, Jeannette, and scolded her for having left the window wide open.
"Van Dyck follows with much perplexity the movements of his master, who extends his hand to send the winged tribe to its whereabouts. The flies take no notice of his bidding. He goes nearer the picture, touches one of the flies with his index finger, and suddenly falls into a fit of enthusiasm. His features clear up, his eyes are moistened with sweet tears, he pounces upon a chair, and gambols around the studio. After having thus danced a few minutes with the chair, he sits down upon his partner and exclaims: 'There is only one man who could have done such a master-piece! It is you, Van Dyck. My daughter is yours.' "Echoes from the Continent,"
Standard, Sept. 12, 1867.
The Irish echo, which to "How do you do?" replied, "Very well, thank you," hardly varied more than this from the original. It is said that, while Rubens was absent from his studio, Diepenbeck accidentally smeared the arm and chin of a newly-painted Virgin. The pupils chose Vandyk as best suited to repaint the damaged parts. Rubens detected the stranger's hand, was delighted, and confirmed the belief already entertained of Vandyk's future greatness. that Rubens offered his eldest daughter to Vandyk A story after the latter had returned, full of honours, from Italy, has been shown to be impossible. The winning a wife by painting one fly is told of several painters. How much time would be required for painting the legion of insects enumerated above, well enough to deceive Rubens, or even his servant Jeannette? Enough of this ; but I wish to ask a question about rapidity of
"Vandyk alla un jour à Harlem, voir l'excellente peintre de portraits François Hals, son compatriote. II le trouva au cabaret, où il passoit sa vie. Vandyk se fit passer pour un amateur étranger, et lui demanda son portrait, en le prévenant qu'il ne pouvoit passer que deux heures. Hals se mit à l'œuvre, et exécuta dans le temps voulu le tableau, auquel Vandyk donna les plus grands éloges. Puis il ajouta que puisque la peinture était si facile, il avoit envie d'essayer aussi. Hals posa, et s'étonna de voir un novice manier si agilement la brosse. Mais quand il put examiner l'œuvre, il s'écria que Vandyk seul pouvoit travailler ainsi, et il l'embrassa avec effusion."-Biographie Générale, art. "Van Dyck."
Can a portrait be painted in two hours? Had the word been pinceau, instead of "brosse," I should feel little difficulty; but oil requires some time to dry, even in house-painting. How then as to portraits? Could an eye, which requires at least three colours, be finished in that time? FITZHOPKINS.
RICHARD DERBY NESS.
NESS, eldest son of the late Rev. Richard Ness, D.D., rec"On the 11th inst., in his 71st year, RICHARD DERBY tor of West Parley, Dorset."-The Times, Oct. 16, 1867.
The subject of the above notice was for many years a correspondent of "N. & Q.," under the signatures of P. H. in the early numbers, and W. D. in the later. He graduated as A.M. at Lincoln College, Oxford; and was a friend of Praed, whose acquaintance he made at Eton, where for a short time each was a private tutor. He was a thorough classical scholar, well versed in modern languages, and his knowledge of history was extensive and accurate; but he valued himself much less for these attainments than for his familiarity with the fugitive literature of the time of George III. His talents were of a very high order, and might have led him to eminence; but, being shy and reserved, and not obliged to the reading-room of the British Museum, seldom work, he spent the last forty years of his life in missing a day unless kept away by illness. The day before his death, he said to me: "I have a scrap for 'N. & Q.' I will dictate to you to-morrow if I am not well enough to write it for myself." When I called, he was dead. H. B. C.
Mr. Timbs, in his Curiosities of London (p. 708), describes two barges as existing in 1855; one dating from 1807, the other from 1816, both of very costly construction. Is either of these at Oxford? I saw neither of them last June, but this may have been an oversight on my part. What I did see was a very fine barge, moored with the college barges at the bank of the river, and marked as having belonged to the Skinners' Company by the arms remaining upon it—Ermine, on a chief gules three crowns or. Will some London antiquary tell us what has become of the Lord Mayor's two barges?
The remedy for overcrowding the streets by a procession seems very easy. The Lord Mayor might go by water. In the excellent Pictorial Handbook of London, published by Mr. Henry G. Bohn, at p. 328 of the edition of 1854, is a description of the appearance of the barges on the river. A procession on the water, from London Bridge to Westminster and back, would meet the whole difficulty, and would give a river spectacle of great splendour.
Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells.
CARVED INSCRIPTION.--On an oaken beam in the ceiling of a room at Old Bradley Hall, near Warrington, an ancient seat of the Legh family, is the following inscription:"Here mister doth and mistris both, agree with one accorde :
With godly mindes and zealous hartes to serve the livinge lorde. Anno 1-97. Henry Wesle."
M. D. SINGULAR VALENTINE. - The original manuscript of the following lines is in my possession, and, as he asserts, is evidently written with some of the heart's blood of the author:
"Theise loving lines which I to you have sent,
day, 1807. 2. A Catalogue of Valuable Articles, late the Property of James Bartleman, Esq. deceased. Sold by Mr. White, by order of the administratrix, "at his [Bartleman's] late house, No. 45, Berners Street, June 27, and following day, 1821." 3. A Catalogue of the very Valuable and Celebrated Library of Music Books, &c. Sold by Mr. White at his room, Storey's Gate, Westminster, Feb. 20, and eight following days, 1822.
The first sale contained little worthy of notice, save a MS. Ode to St. Cecilia by Henry Purcell, and a couple of copies of the Orpheus Britannicus. The second had a few valuable musical instruments, and some fine musical portraits in oil. Among the former I may notice a harpsichord by Ruckers of Antwerp, 1637, in a richly painted case; and another by Couchet of Antwerp, 1670. There was also a harpsichord with two rows of keys by old Kirkman (said to have been the finest he ever made), and a small chamber-organ by the celebrated Snetzler. Among the pictures were original portraits of Purcell, Handel, Geminiani, Senesino, and others, including Howard's portrait of Corelli (well known from the engraving). A drawing by Sir G. Kneller of Purcell, when a Chapel-Royal boy, is deserving of especial notice; biliac. The last sale contained Bartleman's matchas also a bust of Handel in terra-cotta by Rouless collection of old music books, including copies of many of the rare editions of the Elizabethan madrigals, the titles of which I have recorded in my Bibliotheca Madrigaliana.
EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.
BISHOP KEN'S HYMNS.-These are certainly and very beautiful ones, of three noble hymns in not original compositions. They are paraphrases, the Roman Breviary. "Awake my soul" is "Ab solis ortu"; "Glory to Thee" is "Te lucis ante terminum." The midnight hymn has a similar origin, but I forget the Latin original.
LONGEVITY.I copy the following from The Standard of September 24. Can it be verified?— "The death is announced, in the parish of St. Martin, Colchester, of Mrs. Ann Rumsey, widow, in her 104th It is an interesting circumstance that she was the daughter of the celebrated navigator, Captain Cook, who was massacred by the natives of Owhyhee, in the South Sea Islands; and that she was born only a few years after the accession of George III. to the throne of England." JUXTA TURRIM. Another correspondent (SCEPTIC) would be glad to see what evidence there is in support of the following still more extraordinary statement:
Springhead, nestling in a lovely valley of flowers and blushing fruit, sinuous with acres of watercress, has long been a popular resort of Londoners; for apart from its
*As this statement appears to be unfounded, the lady's age is probably just as inaccurately described.—ED.