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Dr. William H. Maxwell, Superintendent of Schools, New York.
Miss Clara B. Spence.
Miss Mary J. Pierson.
Mrs. Anna Garlin Spencer.
Miss Grace H. Dodge.
Mrs. Robert Abbe.
(The motion was adopted.)
MRS. MEAD: This is the first National Congress we have held. In organizing the first National Congress we were sure that it would be the beginning of a series and we did not reckon without our host. Some invitations have already come in; one from Chicago, with a definite assurance that $25,000 would be raised there to meet the expenses of this Congress if we will come to Chicago next time; we have an invitation from the Pacific Coast, of which you will hear more later.
I am Chairman of the Committee that met yesterday to consider this matter, with representatives from Cincinnati, Chicago, Madison, Wis., New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and we unanimously came to this recommendation, and I submit this as a resolution to you. I must say at the beginning that the executive committee of this Congress consisted of fifteen members, men and women, of whom eight were placed in New York, in order to give definiteness to the work here, and seven members of the committee representing other cities. I move that the committee be authorized at their discretion to fix the date and place of the next National Peace Congress, and then to call a conference, as was done with reference to the organization of this Congress, to call representatives from all the peace organizations of the country, and to appoint an executive committee to arrange for the details of the second Congress. I offer this as a resolution.
MR. PEABODY: You have heard the resolution of Mrs. Mead, which has been seconded. All in favor of the adoption of this resolution signify it by saying "Aye." Contrary minded, "No." It is carried. The Chair will recognize Thomas Nelson Page of Virginia.
MR. PAGE: The resolution which I now wish to offer has been submitted to a number of gentlemen here who represent various
organizations, and I understand it has been made acceptable to them all. I have changed the number from fifteen to ten.
"Resolved, That a Committee, not to exceed ten, be appointed by the President of this Congress, to confer with the permanent Executive Committee, with the Committee of which Mr. John W. Foster is Chairman, for the purpose of considering measures for the advancement of International Arbitration especially through the instrumentality of the International Court at The Hague."
I do not feel it necessary to speak on the resolution at all, and I will just submit it.
MR. MOORE: I second the resolution. This is a resolution of a practical kind. We adopt general resolutions here, setting forth what we consider should be accomplished. Then it is necessary that somebody should take up the particular things and give them practical form, and devise or suggest measures by which they may be carried out. That is the object of this resolution.
(The resolution was approved.)
DR. RICHARDS: I would like to have a congress where those questions of Mr. Trueblood's might be discussed and where everyone might bring out points; amongst the hundreds, there might be one or two good points that we could make use of. I think that at a National Congress there ought not to be given only two hours and a half to people who have devoted their lives to the work of Peace and know all the ins and outs of it. There should be a congress for two or three days to talk about other questions. What we have heard here to-day and what we have heard all these other days is, after all, only a very small part of what we have to do and ought to do. I offer the following resolution:
"Resolved, That Mr. Trueblood, Mrs. Spencer, and Mr. Love be appointed a committee, with power to appoint others to co-operate with them, to consider the forming of a permanent national federation of organizations interested in the cause of Peace and Arbitration."
Let me say one other word. I have a message to you from Germany, and in spite of everything that has been said I can assure you that if you go to Germany, you will come in contact
with a peaceable people. I can assure you that you will see that the German people do not spend all their money on soldiers, but you will see that every day in Germany they are paying out a million and a half of marks to the widows and orphans of workmen and to sick workmen who cannot work, and even to those who are convalescing but are not able to go to work right away. Why don't you take up those things and not talk about soldiers all the time? I shall not talk about it here I have no time. I hope there will be a day when I shall have opportunity to say to you a few words about militarism in Germany, and I hope you know that I am with you heart and soul for Peace forever. As Prof. Münsterberg says, if you want to talk to Germans and if you want them to listen to you, you must know these things. You cannot argue with people, if you don't know what you are up against. Now the people of Germany fifty years ago were so poor that, for instance, Prof. Bunsen (you all know the Bunsen burner; you know perhaps that if it was not for the Bunsen burner there would not be so many millions in the iron works to-day), who was one of the greatest men that ever lived, was so poor that he had to smoke potato leaves instead of tobacco. That was only fifty years ago, and to-day Germany, with all its military burden, is a wealthy country, and German professors can travel all over the world and come to America and tell you a few things. Now, you cannot make people who do not go deep into things, as we do, believe that militarism is a great burden. There are good arguments against militarism, which I should like to give if there were time.
There is coming a great Peace Congress at Munich this fall, and I have been asked by the official who has charge of the arrangements to give you the sympathy of the friends of Peace in Germany. After what has happened in this country, you must help these friends of Peace. Things have been said here which will make it very much harder work for them. You Americans should go down to the President and ask for a warship to carry you over to the Peace Congress, that you may show the German people that you want to live in Peace with all nations, as you really do.
And now I want to call your attention to the motion I have made. We ought to take some steps to form a permanent organization of peace societies and peace workers, such people as
are not exactly in the peace societies but are with us heart and soul and are interested in other great societies which are willing to join in this movement.
MR. PEABODY: You have heard the resolution
MR. TRUEBLOOD: I see no objection to the resolution, if you will add to it the words, "if it is deemed desirable, in their judgment."
MR. PEABODY: I will put the motion with that understanding. (The resolution was adopted.)
MR. PEABODY: Mr. Pugsley, representing the Harvard students, desires to speak in reference to intercollegiate work.
MR. PUGSLEY: I am not a graduate of Harvard, but I am a member of the National Intercollegiate Peace Committee, composed of under-graduates from the colleges and universities of the country, which was formed at Columbia University yesterday. I desire to make a motion that a committee be appointed from this Congress to co-operate with the general students' committee with a view to establishing peace societies in the various colleges and universities in the land and interesting college men in the Peace Movement.
DR. RICHARDS: This resolution has been in substance already placed before the Committee on Resolutions by the committee on peace propaganda of the colleges and universities of New York City, so you will not be astonished if I speak in support of the motion. I am myself secretary of that committee and we have in preparation a circular to go to all the colleges and universities in the country, as we have circularized all the twenty-five institutions in Greater New York that give degrees, to form this local committee, and if the Congress will give us the support of a resolution, we will be very thankful and our work will be more effective.
MR. PEABODY: The Chair suggests that the appointment of this committee be referred to the Executive Committee of which Prof. Dutton is Chairman.
MR. PUGSLEY: The resolution reduced to writing reads as follows: "Resolved, that a committee be appointed from this Congress by the Executive Committee to co-operate with the General Students' Committee with a view of establishing peace societies in the colleges and universities of the country and interesting college men in the peace movement."
REV. ANNA SHAW: May I make an amendment that in place of the words "college men" be substituted the words "college students."
MR. PEABODY: The amendment is accepted.
PROF. DUTTON: I offer the amendment to add "and professors."
DR. TRUEBLOOD: There is an Intercollegiate Peace Association already established; it was established two years ago this spring at Goshen College, Indiana. Last year it held a conference at Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana. This year it is to hold, on the 17th and 18th of May, its third conference at the University of Cincinnati. The Intercollegiate Peace Conference is especially intended for professors in those institutions, and it now embraces more than thirty of the Middle West colleges. This movement among the students for a students' organization is intended to complete the work in the colleges and get the whole college body interested in the movement. So I do not quite see the necessity of putting in the words, "and professors." We have a well-organized association for them now, and the students will probably work better without them.
(Prof. Dutton withdrew his amendment, and the resolution as amended by Rev. Anna Shaw was adopted.
(The meeting then adjourned.)