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Doubtless warfare can be abolished more easily and quickly by promulgating and advocating Peace principles and Arbitration than by considering the evils of warfare. It is better to crowd out the harmful by the good, to discuss the blessings of Peace more than the cruelties of war. Women can do much in training their children. There is great hope with them. If they are rightly trained in this generation, in the next generation the world will be at Peace, and the prophecy of Victor Hugo will be fully verified, that, "in the twentieth century war will cease."
There is much encouragement in the fact that large labor organizations, including many women, have declared against military burdens and tyrannies which affect them.
There is a resolute demand for the light of publicity on the causes of the quarrels of clans in the industrial world and for fairness in the adjustment of such troubles. These are some of the waves of a new era of human brotherhood in which "love shall tread out the baleful fire of anger and in its ashes plant the tree of Peace."
Thinking people throughout the civilized world are realizing as never before that love is the only power that can cement and bind together, and that hate, anger and fear are disintegrating forces, not only in the relations of individuals to their fellows, and nation to nation, but in the human system as well, medical science having now discovered that anger, grief and fear generate a poison in the system.
The Woman's Arbitration League and other organizations of women, besides the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, are exerting an influence in all the civilized world. They are promulgating the principles of Peace and Arbitration by the aid of the public press, by lectures, public meetings, mothers' meetings, children's organizations, distributing literature, circulating petitions, and by personal efforts with legislators and influential persons. They are sending petitions and also words of appreciation of good deeds to earthly monarchs, and are sending their appeals to the King of Kings, the Lord of Lords, the Prince of Peace.
Let us hope that the optimistic prophecies of many Peace advocates in this new century will come to pass, and let us work as if we hope, and in proof of our faith. If we do this some of
us may celebrate the glorious bloodless victory of Peace over warfare.
I am particularly glad that Mrs. Bailey touched upon this question of patriotism. I believe that the teaching of patriotism in the schools is very closely connected with this whole question of internationalism. Unless it is rightly taught, it will do vastly more harm than good. Our children have been in the past brought up to connect the idea of patriotism with a gun, and it is for the mothers and the teachers of to-day to recognize that there is no necessary connection between those two; that we have had Peace in this country nine-tenths of the time, and that only a tiny fraction, perhaps not more than 100,000 of all the eighty millions of people in this country are to-day under arms in our army and navy. It is an astounding thing that we allow a generation of young children to grow up fancying that patriotism is something that is peculiarly connected with the army and navy more than with the professional man, or business man, laborer, farmer or craftsman. We must endeavor to change this false emphasis and show that service of country is the duty of every citizen every month of every year. Good citizenship is the larger part of patriotism. Let us not think of it as a dull, tame duty, but ennoble it with all the honor that is attached to that sacred word -patriotism.
We have as our next speaker a lady who comes in a double capacity; she is connected with one of the New York school boards, and therefore can speak with authority as to what is being done in the schools in New York; she also comes as the representative of the Woman's Peace Circle of New York, which started before the present New York Peace Society. I have the great pleasure of presenting to you Mrs. Harry Hastings.
Peace in the Public Schools
MRS. HARRY HASTINGS
MADAM CHAIRMAN AND FRIENDS: It is my peculiar privilege to talk to you this morning as a New York woman representing the various women's societies in this state and city working for the Peace Movement. The ones which I particularly
represent are the Woman's Peace Circle of New York City, the Wm. Lloyd Garrison Equal Rights Association, and the New York State Woman Suffrage Association.
The Woman's Peace Circle, as it is an organization of this city, is, perhaps, of more immediate interest. It was organized by me in March, 1905, with the co-operation of Mrs. Arnold Schramm, and on the suggestion of Mrs. Lucia Ames Mead, whom we have the honor to have acting as our chairman to-day. The Woman's Peace Circle at once planned a Peace meeting, and this was accordingly held in the Madison Square Theatre on May 18, the anniversary of The Hague Conference. It was a very successful demonstration, largely attended and addressed by prominent advocates of the Peace cause.
Out of this public meeting has grown, I believe, an educational movement among the women here in New York in regard to the Peace Movement, of which before they had somewhat hazy ideas.
The Peace Circle has held regular meetings, again observed the anniversary of The Hague Conference in 1906, and intends to do so this year, also, at the Hotel Astor on the evening of May 18.
It has given its special attention recently to the education of the public in regard to the Fourth of July celebration. The President of the Peace Circle, Mrs. Benedict, is greatly interested in having a more rational method of observing the anniversary of the nation's independence, and has carefully studied the question, and has shown, very clearly, the devastations in life and property all over the country on that day due to the use of toys, firearms and fireworks generally. It is planned eventually to interest the various woman's organizations in some practical plan to discountenance this barbarous method of expressing our feelings on the Fourth of July. This society also has written to the State Superintendent of Education as well as the City Superintendent requesting exercises in the schools in commemoration of The Hague Conference on May 18.
The Wm. Lloyd Garrison Equal Rights Association, as the honored name it bears would indicate, stands for Peace in all the relations of life and is most particularly interested in the Peace
It has already held a Peace celebration this spring at the Martha Washington Hotel, and was addressed by one of the Executive Committee of the present Congress, Mrs. Anna Garlin Spencer (applause), who has done such glorious service in order to make this great Congress a success, her subject being "Woman and Militarism." Prof. Ernst Richard, of Columbia University and President of the German-American Peace Society, and Mrs. Rachel Foster-Avery, Secretary of the International Woman's Suffrage Association, also spoke on various features of the Peace Movement. Mrs. Mead, our Chairman, referred to me in her introduction as a local school board member of this city, and has suggested that I say a few words in regard to working for Peace in our public schools. Miss Addams very truly said in her address yesterday that in order to do away with the ideals of war we must substitute the ideals of Peace.
The constructive policy of Peace, however, is a very difficult one for educators in the face of the intense grasp on the young mind of that of war. Moreover, just now, with the advent of this purpose to inaugurate a constructive policy which must carry with it, perforce, the destruction of the methods and aims of warfare, there is a very recent but widespread movement all over our country, that perhaps you are not aware of, to perpetuate and emphasize militarism with its spectacular and hence most attractive glory.
I believe myself this is due to the peculiar characteristics of our President, Mr. Roosevelt, and it would not be very far from the truth to denominate him, in spite of his services in the cause of Peace, the pacificator militant. We must all admit that his influence in the direction of exalting the spirit and glory of war is felt strongly throughout our country. I would not quite say that the result of this is to arouse a warlike spirit in the youth of our land, but it certainly arouses in them a strong admiration for war ideals.
How far this contemporary spirit of military glory and display is carried you may well understand by the recently issued prospectus of the Jamestown Exposition.
Two days ago I received a little pamphlet from the press of the Jamestown Exploitation Committee of the Ter-centennial Exposition. It was sent to me as an educator, and I was besought as such to bring it to the attention of the children of the public
schools, and as far as I had any influence have them consider the educational value of the Jamestown display.
This prospectus is the little pamphlet which I hold in my hand, and I will quote directly from it.
One of the first paragraphs brought to my attention is the one explaining the war exhibit, on which is laid the greatest stress. It reads: Twenty foreign nations will participate in this military exhibition by sending war vessels from their navies and crack regiments from their armies.
Now, of course, the foreign governments were directly invited to do these things, for it involves such an enormous expense that no government would volunteer to send these exhibits.
We are further told in this prospectus that there is a war museum maintained by the government in connection with the military and naval display.
"In the war museum models of fortifications and harbor defences and types of batteries on embankments will be shown."
Furthermore, there is an exhibit of the ordnance department, which "will be a complete exhibition of firearms and powder. The largest cannon and the smallest firearms will be shown. Various styles of machine guns will be exhibited. Cartridgemaking machines will be operated. Every variety of automatic death-dealing device will be exhibited," etc.
Again, what we have known hitherto in the world's fairs as the "Midway," the "Pike," etc., will at Jamestown be known as the "Warpath," thus further emphasizing the show as a military one. To increase the military attractiveness of the exposition, we are told "there will be much splendid musical entertainment of a military character, as the warships and regiments will have bands which will, of course, discourse war strains."
Thus in every way and from every side there will be presented to the youth and children of our land, who may visit the exposition, the glory and glamour of war and its enticing spectacular splendors, and yet we as educators are requested to see, if possible, that this symposium of war material and "death-dealing devices" in their highest exploitation shall be brought to the attention of our children in the public schools!
I have with me also a "Report on Rifle Practice in the Public Schools." Maybe we can influence this directly, although