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neighbor to the North. With the first day of 1907 Persia became a constitutional monarchy, the instrument providing for a bicameral Parliament having been signed several days preceding by the late monarch. The national council consists of 156 members;. a Senate is also provided for, of a membership to be settled hereafter. General elections will be held every two years. The former Minister of Commerce, Sanleh-edDaouleh, has been elected president, and the first session, held on January 3, was devoted to a consideration of the national, finances.
What Will Although Persia is comparatively the New secluded and remote from the Shah Do? chief centers of interest, for years there has been going on in this ancient land a silent but momentous struggle between Great Britain and Russia for dominating influence which should eventually expand into absorption. We may now look for a revival of discussion of the Bagdad Railroad, largely engineered by Germans. These three modern European nations have long been struggling for commercial ascendancy in Persia, which, even in its decline, remains great. Its 10,000,000 people, as recent events amply demonstrate, are both physically and mentally worthy of their illustrious ancestry. Moreover, desolate as a large part of the empire iş, it still contains resources of vast potential wealth, and, considered for its strategic position in war and commerce, it is of the first importance. The deceased Shah was a man of strong mentality and an honest wellwisher of his people. The new monarch is in his thirty-fifth year, and is regarded as a man of progressive tendencies. His foreign policy, it is claimed by students of middleAsiatic politics, will consist largely in playing off England against Russia.
MOHAMMED ALI MIRZA, THE NEW SHAH OF PERSIA (CROWNED ON JANUARY 19.)
tional self-government are advocating that sympathizers with Indian aspirations for nathis anniversary be marked by some larger least disposition to question the benefits of recognition of Indian rights. Without the British rule in India, Americans can sympathize heartily with the aspirations of the great Hindu people for a more complete expression of their national desires. Mr. Naoroji's closing words are significant:
Be united. Persevere and achieve self-government, so that the millions now perishing from poverty, famine, and plagues, and the scores of millions now starving on scanty subsistence, may be saved, and India once more occupy her proud position of yore among the greatest civilized nations of the world.
Although the sensational news- panic in the island empire at an early date if papers of this country and Eu- Japanese banks do not call a halt in the prorope continue to discuss, with motion mania, which has now reached a fever more or less positiveness of detail, what they heat. He advocates a contraction of the curcall the coming war between the United rency. Persistent reports of a disagreement States and Japan, the relations between the between the Japanese and Russian commistwo governments and peoples as a whole sioners over the working out of those clauses have never been better than they are to-day. of the Portsmouth peace treaty which reThe Japanese viewpoint in the matter of the fer to Japanese fishing rights off the SiSan Francisco school question is set forth on berian coast, as well as the claims of Rusanother page (220) in quotations from sian and German merchants that Japan is Tokio dailies. As a matter of precaution violating her pledges about the open door in against possible hostile demonstrations on the Manchuria, are denied from Tokio. Pacific Coast, the Tokio government has decided not to send the Japanese training squadron to visit this country, as had been its original intention, although a Japanese fleet will probably visit the Jamestown Exposition this summer. While her energies are being absorbed in exploiting Manchuria and Korea, Japan begins to feel at home the reaction from the nervous temperamental and financial tension of the late war. In a recent interview Baron Shibusawa, one of the most prominent of Japanese economists and a large holder in financial institutions, predicted a
SHAKESPEARE AND TOLSTOI.
The Immortal William (in Paradise) to Goethe,
who was largely instrumental in starting Shakespeare's fame, (pointing to Tolstoi, who has just written a book on the faults of the Avon bard): "My dear Wolfgang, if I had only known of him I should have put him into my plays as my best clown."-From Ulk (Berlin).
Some months ago an influential
(From December 19, 1906, to January 20, 1907.)
PROCEEDINGS IN CONGRESS.
December 19.-In the Senate, President Roosevelt's message on the discharge of the colored troops of the Twenty-fifth Infantry is read.
December 20.-Both branches adjourn for the holiday recess.
January 3-Both branches reassemble after the holiday recess....In the Senate, the resolution of Mr. Foraker (Rep., Ohio), directing an inquiry into the discharge of the colored troops at Brownsville, Texas, comes up, and Mr. Lodge (Rep., Mass.), offers an amendment recognizing the President's right to discharge the troops.
January 18. In the Senate, Mr. Whyte (Dem., Md.) speaks against encroachment by the federal Government on the powers of the States, and Mr. Kittredge (Rep., S. D.) attacks the lumber trust....The House adopts an amendment to the Legislative Appropriation bill, increasing the salary of the Vice-President, Speaker, and members of the cabinet to $12,000 and of Congressmen to $7,500 a year.
POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT-AMERICAN.
January 8.-The House debates the Army Ap- new investigation of the trouble at Brownsville, propriation bill. Texas, in which United States negro troops were implicated, to be made by Assistant Attorney-General Purdy.
January 7-In the Senate, Mr. Lodge (Rep., Mass.), offers a new resolution for an inquiry into the dismissal of the negro troops....The House passes the bill providing for a judicial review of the facts before a fraud order is issued by the Post Office Department.
January 9.-The Senate considers the bill limiting the hours of work of railroad employees.... The House strikes out, on a point of order, the provisions in the Army Appropriation bill abolishing the rank of lieutenant-general.
January 10.-The Senate, by a vote of 70 to 1, passes a substitute presented by Mr. LaFollette (Rep., Wis.), for his bill to regulate the hours of employment on railroads.
January 11.-The Senate passes the General Service Pension bill....The House, in one hour and thirty-five minutes, passes 628 private pension bills.
January 17.-In the Senate, Mr. Blackburn (Dem., Ky.) offers an amendment to the resolution of inquiry concerning the discharge of the negro troops, especially disclaiming any right to question the President's power of dismissal.... The House passes a bill authorizing the President to send the supply-ship Celtic with relief for the people of Jamaica.
January 16.-In the Senate, Mr. Foraker (Rep., Ohio) introduces a substitute resolution on the discharge of the negro troops....The House passes the Fortifications Appropriation bill.
December 29.-Secretary Taft announces that while he is not seeking the Presidency and does not expect to be a candidate, he would not decline the nomination if it should come to him.
December 30.-Attorney-General-elect Jackson of New York informs W. R. Hearst that he will consider an application for a recount of the ballots cast in the mayoralty election of 1905.
January 7.-The United States Supreme Court, on a division of 5 to 4, holds invalid the annual tax of 4 cents per $1000 capital stock imposed by the State of Colorado upon foreign corporations doing business in that State.... Postmaster-General Cortelyou announces his retirement as chairman of the Republican National Committee; Harry S. New will be acting-chairman....Attorney-General Jackson of New York State names Clarence J. Shearn, W. R. Hearst's counsel, as special counsel to direct the suit to oust Mayor McClellan.
January 8.-The New York Court of Appeals decides that the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company has the right to charge double fares, 10 cents, from the central part of Brooklyn to
Coney Island....W. R. Hearst is elected State chairman of the Independence League of New York.
January 9.-The Philippine Commission passes the General Election law.
January 10.-The Interstate Commerce Commission finishes the Chicago hearing on the Harriman railroad lines.
January II-Republican members of the Kansas Legislatiure nominate Representative
Charles Curtis for the United States Senate.
January 14.-Republicans of the West Virginia Legislature nominate Stephen B. Elkins for his third successive term as United States Senator....Governor Hughes of New York appoints ex-Senator Frederick C. Stevens Superintendent of Public Works and Charles H. Keep as Superintendent of Banks.
January 15-Harry A. Richardson (Rep.) is elected United States Senator for Delaware.... The Massachusetts Legislature elects Winthrop Murray Crane (Rep.) United States Senator.... The Maine Legislature re-elects United States Senator William P. Frye (Rep.).... The Montana Legislature elects Representative Joseph M. Dixon (Rep.) United States Senator to succeed W. A. Clark (Dem.)....The Nebraska Legislature elects Norris Brown (Rep.) United States Senator.... The Colorado Legislature elects Simon Guggenheim (Rep.) United States Senator to succeed Thomas M. Patterson (Dem.)
The Idaho Legislature elects William E. Borah (Rep.) to succeed Fred. T. Dubois (Dem.) as United States Senator....The Tennessee Legislature elects ex-Gov. Robert L. Taylor (Dem.) to succeed Edward W. Carmack as United States Senator....Democratic members of the North Carolina Legislature nominate F. M. Simmons for re-election as United States
January 16.—The New Hampshire Legislature re-elects United States Senator Henry E. Burnham (Rep.)....The Michigan Legislature elects Representative William Alden Smith (Rep.) United States Senator to succeed R. A. Alger.
POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT-FOREIGN.
December 19. The Victorian Parliament passes an anti-gambling bill....The British House of Lords, by a vote of 132 to 52, rejects the concessions offered by the government in the matter of the Education bill.
December 20.-The Governor of Southwest Africa arrives in London to negotiate with the British Government on frontier questions.... Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman formally withdraws the Education bill in the British House of Commons.
December 21.- -The British Parliament is prorogued.... The French Chamber of Deputies, by a vote of 413 to 166, passes the amended Separation law.
December 22.-A negro leader in Cuba issues a manifesto saying that the negroes demand a large share in the offices in return for the part which they played in the recent revolt.
December 24.-General Alfaro is formally elected President of Ecuador by the National Assembly.
December 19.-The United States Senate confirms the nominations of Henry White, of Rhode Island, as Ambassador to France; Lloyd C. Griscom, of Pennsylvania, as Ambassador to Italy; John W. Riddle, of Minnesota, as Ambassador to Russia; Irving D. Dudley, of California, as Ambassador to Brazil; and Leslie Combes, of Kentucky, as Minister to Peru.... The United States Senate ratified the Red Cross convention providing for the amelioration of the condition of wounded of armies on the field ....The Executive Committee of the Bureau of
American Republics elects John Barrett to be Director of the Bureau.
December 20.-The French Senate ratifies the Algeciras convention.
December 21.—It is announced that the British Government has been informed that the appointment of James Bryce as Ambassador will be entirely acceptable to the United States (see page 166).
December 28.-Sir Mortimer Durand, the British Ambassador to the United States, leaves Washington.
December 29.-The Russian Government publishes the text of its negotiations with Japan. · December 30.-King Edward approves the appointment of James Bryce to be British Am
bassador to the United States.
to commute the death sentence to 10 years' imprisonment....Heavy snowstorms are reported from all over England....The first instance of the closing of a church under the French Sepof 582 cases of typhoid is reported from Scranaration law ocurs at Alzay-sur-Indre....A total
December 26.-Serious earthquake shocks are reported in the province of Tacna, Chile; half of the town of Arica is destroyed....The InThe Attorney-General of Minnesota brings suit dian National Congress opens at Calcutta.... for an injunction to prevent the proposed issue of $60,000,000 stock by the Great Northern Railroad.