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yet the State legislatures this winter are doing more in the direction of rate legislation than for many years past. There is a general movement for the restriction of railroad passenger fares to two cents a mile. Bills for this purpose have been introduced in the legislatures of New York, Delaware, North Carolina, Missouri, Minnesota, Kansas and Nebraska. The Governors of Michigan and Nebraska have discussed the subject in their annual messages. It is also to be noted that "anti-pass" legislation, which began a few years ago in Wisconsin and was then considered a radical innovation, is now discussed not only in the Middle West but in some of the Eastern and Southern States as well. The Governors of New Hampshire, West Virginia, Nebraska and Montana have thought it worth while to allude to the subject at some length in their messages. It was, of course, to be expected that insurance would have a prominent place in the State legislation of the current season, and we find recommendations on the subject in the messages of most of the Middle Western Governors, while bills have been introduced in the New England State legislatures. The pure food question is attracting much attention in the West, and it is also discussed by the Governor of West Virginia.


Taxing and

Taxation has always occupied a Regulating the large proportion of the time of Corporations. our State legislatures, and of late years the propositions advocated by Governors and tax commissions have been increasingly radical. A few years ago the reforms advocated by Governor LaFollette, of Wisconsin, had little support beyond the borders of that State, but at the present time, to judge from the recommendations of Governors Folk, of Missouri, and Johnson, of Minnesota, public opinion has advanced to a point where most of the La Follette measures seem fairly conservative. Thus, Governor Johnson dwells at length on the immense mineral wealth of his State, which the steel trust is now exploiting, while the State of Minnesota has received in the form of taxation but a mere pittance. The most advanced position taken by any of the States thus far on the question of an income tax is that indicated by Governor Davidson, of Wisconsin, who, it will be remembered, was supported at his election last fall by the socalled conservative element of Wisconsin's Republicans as distinct from the LaFollette régime. Governor Davidson declares that

HON. WILLIAM ALDEN SMITH. (Michigan's Senator-elect.)

such a tax is unsurpassed as a leveler of the public burden, and that it most nearly satisfies, with proper enforcement, the conception of an ideal tax. He urges the passage of the constitutional amendment providing for such a tax. This form of taxation is also advocated by Governor Dawson, of West Virginia. Among the first States to follow the lead of New York in adopting a system of regulation of public-service corporations are Michigan and Wisconsin. In these, as in other populous American commonwealths, the electric-railroad corporations have obtained valuable franchises and become increasingly powerful in the business world. without attracting the attention of the State governments. It is now realized that some form of regulation is a necessity, and the people are looking to their State governments to perform this function. Not only do the Governors of some of these States advocate such regulation through State commissions, but both Governor Folk, of Missouri, and Governor Davidson, of Wisconsin, come out squarely in favor of municipal ownership, and such utterances are no longer regarded as sensationally radical.



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paraiso, fire almost immediately followed upon the first tremors of the earth, and scenes of horror and destruction indescribable ensued. The buildings in the city resembled in construction those of San Francisco rather than those of Valparaiso, and the entire business section suffered severely. There was comparatively little disorder, and it is gratifying to note the fact that

American sailors assisted British regulars and native soldiers in guarding the destitute survivors and the ruined buildings. Most of the fine hotels and public buildings were completely destroyed, and for four nights the city was in darkness. Governor Sir James A. Swettenham, assisted by such officials and courageous private citizens as had escaped injury, at once instituted measures of relief for the sufferers. Two British warships at once hurried with aid, and supplies from Admiral Evans' warships, which had been stationed at Guantanamo, Cuba, were promptly made use of. The loss of life among the white citizens was comparatively light, and no deaths were reported of American tourists, many of whom visit Jamaica at this season of the year.

The third of the terrible earthKingston quake visitations to afflict popuEarthquake. lous cities during the past 10 months practically destroyed the city of Kingston, Jamaica, last month. The first shock, which was the most destructive one, occurred at 3.30 in the afternoon of Monday, the 14th. Other shocks followed. There was great destruction of buildings, and it is known that 1700 lives were lost. For several days there was a serious shortage of food and medical supplies, but official and private generosity was immediate and effective. As at San Francisco and Val

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a city of 60,000 inhabitants, suffered most severely from the earthquake, which, however, was severely felt also at Port Royal and Port Antonio, other points on the island." Port Royal, which is a heavily fortified post, lost many guns and batteries from the sinking of the beach line after the shock. The calamity may so alter the shore line as to take from Kingston's harbor its proud title of being one of the finest in the world.

Jamaica in the

At many other widely scattered Earthquake points of the earth's surface Belt. earthquake tremors were noted at about the same time as the shock at Kingston. Distinct earthquake manifestations. were felt at points in Russia, Norway and Sweden, and in several different sections of the United States. While there may not be, as is insisted by earthquake specialists, any definite, close connection between earthquake shocks and volcanic action, it is a significant and important fact that while these earth tremors are occurring the old volcanoes of Etna in Sicily, Mauna Loa in Hawaii, and several lesser known peaks in South America have resumed sending forth lava after many years of quiet. While the destruction of life and property in Kingston is no doubt very great, the rest of the island of Jamaica is apparently uninjured by the quake, and thc great fertility of its soil and the mildness of its climate will prevent any serious suffering for food. The banana crop of the island is reported absolutely uninjured. Jamaica, which is a British possession, is an island a little smaller than the State of Connecticut, with a population of 640,000 (approximately that of the State of Maine), lying 90 miles south of Cuba. It has had a checkered, stormy history, including many earthquake visitations, and has figured in a number of the tragic scenes of exploration and conquest since the day of Columbus. The soil is of volcanic origin, and several mountain chains traverse the island. Jamaica is the nearest European-held possession to the Panama Canal.

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Dame Europe to the South American nations: "Be careful, young ladies, of that old beau (Uncle Sam). He is a stranger and perhaps not to be trusted."-From Caras y Caretas (Buenos Ayres). most unworked in the South-American plains and mountains. And yet, even to-day, the era of manufacturers has set in. Our readers will find on page 177 a comprehensive article on this subject by two students of SouthAmerican conditions who have already contributed other articles to these pages. American merchants are now awakening to the opportunities in trade with these republics and before many years we shall have steamship lines to South-American ports, which will make it impossible for any future Secretary of State to declare, as Mr. Root did recently, that the best way to send a letter to South America is to send it first to London,-for "to-day, not one American steamship company runs to any Latin-American port beyond the Caribbean." The appointment of Mr. John Barrett to the post of Director of the Bureau of American Republics indicates an intention on the part of our Government to take up in earnest the reorganization of our commercial relations with the countries south of the Isthmus. Mr. Barrett's experience in dealing with LatinAmerican governments and peoples will be invaluable in his new position. Our relations with Mexico continue on the most cordial footing, and it is believed in Washington, as well as in Mexico City, that the appointment of Señor Enrique Creel, who is not only an accomplished diplomat but a successful busi

ness man, thoroughly familiar with American as well as Mexican life, to be Ambassador to this country, will be useful in strengthening these ties of friendship.

Mr. Root's
Visit to

Secretary Root's visit to Canada, which began with his arrival at Ottawa. Ottawa on the morning of January 19 to pay his respects to GovernorGeneral Earl Grey and to discuss informally questions of common interest to the peoples

of both countries, now seems such a perfectly natural and proper thing to do that the only wonder is it was not done before. Of course, the foreign policies of the Dominion must be conducted from London, and it is not even certain as yet,-although repeatedly announced in the newspapers, that Ambassador Bryce will have a Canadian aide at Washington. Much, however, can be done in the way of finding out just how governments and peoples stand. For some time our Northern neighbors have felt, as a prominent Dominion statesman recently insisted in Parliament, that Canadians owe British statesmen nothing, "save our forgiveness as Christian men for the atrocious blunders which have marked every treaty, transaction, or negotiation they have ever had with the United States, where the interests of Canada were concerned, from the days of Benjamin Franklin to this hour."


Secretary Root's talks with Earl Differences Grey and Premier Laurier will with Canada. no doubt result in great benefit to both Canadians and Americans. In 1897 a determined effort was made to clear up all differences between the two peoples, and the famous Joint High Commission was appointed for their consideration. Meeting in Quebec in August, 1898, and continuing in session in Quebec and Washington until February, 1899, the commission accomplished much in the way of discussion; but no official meetings have been held since the last-named date, and since then the issues have remained it. what might be termed a state of suspended animation. The most important of the issues considered by the Joint High Commission has now been settled, the Alaskan Boundary Question, determined by a special tribunal, in London, in September, 1903. The problems remaining unsolved include deep-water sealing, Atlantic and Lake fisheries, including whaling in Hudson Bay; the bonding of American merchandise in transit through Canada and of Canadian merchandise through the United

States, alien labor legislation, warships on the Great Lakes, the preservation of Niagara Falls, the much-discussed question of trade reciprocity, and the new postal treaty. The last-named problem will demand speedy solution, since the Ottawa government has already announced that, on May 7 next, it will abrogate the present postal convention concerning second-class matter. Canada's earnestness in the preservation of Niagara Falls is indicated by her recent decision to put an export duty on electric power.


Canadian domestic problems are Pressing of an economic nature. The Problems. Dominion Parliament is now busy with its newly revised tariff and with labor legislation. The bill introduced early in January by Minister of Labor Lemieux, for the prevention of strikes and lockouts, provides for a board of investigation, absolutely forbidding any such demonstration during the period of investigation by this board. The Dominion now, as well as ourselves, has a Japanese labor problem on its hands, and in British Columbia, it is reported, the anti-Japanese feeling is running high. The present Canadian tariff schedules give a preference to Great Britain and concede nothing to this country. It is true that we have never been very accommodating to Canada in matters of trade. The commercial interests of the two peoples, however, are almost identical, and artificial political barriers cannot long stand in the way of the obvious and natural business intercourse between them. The needs of the two peoples are similar, their intercourse of necessity more frequent, their tastes almost alike, and their social, religious, and business interests constantly increasing. A few hours at most separate the commercial centers of the two countries, and a trip from one to the other incurs no more expense or time than would a trip from one State to another. It takes weeks to get a shipment from England or Germany to Canada, as compared with a few days at most to get it across the line. There is no doubt that a spirit of fairness toward the United States is growing up among the Canadian people that is far more powerful than any law placing British goods under preferential tariff. Canada's grand old man, Lord Strathcona, who has been the Dominion High Commissioner in London for the past decade, is now in his eighty-seventh year. Press dispatches late in January asserted that he had determined to resign.

The British Parliament.

King Edward's message



roguing the British Parliament until February 2, was read to both Lords and Commons on December 21. While much was accomplished during the first session under the Liberal ministry, considerable disappointment is expressed that the main project of the Campbell-Bannerman government, the Birrell Education bill, failed of passage. Unable to accept the radical amendments to this measure made by the upper house, the ministry, on December 20, announced in the House of Commons the withdrawal of the bill. This does not mean abandonment of the measure; it simply means that another bill will be framed and presented at another session. The Lords, contrary to expectations, actually passed the Trade Disputes bill. It is not thought likely that an Irish home-rule measure will be brought in during the session now about to open, since Mr. Bryce's transfer from the Secretaryship of Ireland to the British embassy at Washington involves the indefinite postponement of Irish legislation. No one but Mr. Bryce could have properly brought in an administrative Home-Rule bill. Other to see reports of England's commercial demeasures of importance passed by the session cadence will be interested to learn that the just closed are: the Workmen's Compensa- year 1906 was the record year for British tion bill, the Merchant Shipping bill, the trade. For the first time in the history of Irish Laborers' Act amendment, the Com- the empire Britain's commerce not only mercial Corruption bill, and the Colonial reached but exceeded the vast total of Marriages bill. Besides killing the Birrell $5,000,000,000. Education measure, the Lords also threw out the proposition of the Commons for the abolition of plural voting. Although considerable activity in the woman's suffrage campaign marked the last session of Parliament, no real progress in the direction of this reform has been recorded. Those Americans who have been so accustomed in recent years

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GENDARME (to evicted, destitute


Militarism and Clericalism strangling the peasant (the modern Laocoon).-From Asino (Rome).

The French

the Church.

In the struggle between the Republic and French Government and the Vatican, the situation has reached what the French call an impasse, a deadlock. By a vote of three to one, (413 to 166 to be exact) in the French Parliament, the present government has been sustained in its new bill, and the recent elections show that the people are with their representatives. Government and people have determined. upon the separation of church and state. The Pope, on the other hand (if we can trust the cabled versions of one of his recent encyclicals), maintains: that the state must be separated from the church is a thesis absolutely false, a most pernicious error." This evidently, then, is the issue, and methods or manner are of secondary importance. Meanwhile, the faithful Catholics CHURCH-A in France are completely at sea. A few declarations of intentions to hold meetings under the regular law have been made and a few ecclesiastics fined merely nominal sums for violation, but, in the main, the position of


priest) "Now, I am going to arrest you as a tramp."-By

the famous cartoonist Forain, in the (Paris).


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