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of Education for the amount so used, which bond shall be held on the same terms and conditions, and subject to the provisions of Section 191, concerning the bond therein referred to.
SEC. 197. No portion of any fund or tax now existing, or that may hereafter be raised or levied for educational purposes, shall be appropriated to, or used by, or in aid of, any church, sectarian or denominational school.
AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION OF MAINE ADOPTED NOVEMBER, 1892.1
No person shall have the right to vote, or be eligible to office under the Constitution of this State, who shall not be able to read the Constitution in the English language, and to write his name: Provided, however, That the provisions of this amendment shall not apply to any person prevented by physical disability from complying with its requisitions, nor to any person who now has the right to vote nor to any person who shall be sixty years of age or upwards at the time this amendment takes effect.
THE CONSTITUTION OF NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER 28, 1894.
SEC. 1. The Legislature shall provide for the maintenance and support of a system of free common schools, wherein all the children of the State may be educated. SEC. 2. The corporation created in the year one thousand seven hundred aud eighty-four, under the name of The Regents of the University of the State of New York is hereby continued under the name of the University of the State of New York. It shall be governed and its corporate powers, which may be increased, modified, or diminished by the Legislature, shall be exercised by not less than nine regents.
SEC. 3. The capital of the common school fund, the capital of the literature fund, and the capital of the United States deposit fund shall be respectively preserved inviolate. The revenue of the said common school fund shall be applied to the support of common schools; the revenue of the said literature fund shall be applied to the support of academies; and the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars of the revenues of the United States deposit fund shall each year be appropriated to and made a part of the capital of the said common school fund.
SEC. 4. Neither the State nor any subdivision thereof shall use its property, or credit, any public money, or authorize or permit either to be used, directly or indirectly, in aid or maintenance other than for examination or inspection of any school or institution of learning, wholly or in part under the control or direction of any religious denomination, or in which any denominational tenet or doctrine is taught. [The date given is that of the adoption of the revised Constitution of the State by the Constitutional Convention.]
THE PROPOSED CONSTITUTION OF UTAH.2
SECTION. 1. The legislature shall provide for the establishment and maintenance of a uniform system of public schools, which shall be open to all the children of the State, and free from sectarian control.
SEC. 2. The public school system shall include kindergarten schools, common schools, consisting of primary and grammar grades; high schools; an agricultural college; a university, and such other schools as the legislature may establish. The
'Printed from copy furnished by the attorney-general of the State.
2 This constitution was adopted by a convention held in Salt Lake City, pursuant to the provisions of an enabling act for Utah, approved July 16, 1894. It bears the date May 5, 1895. It will be submitted to the popular vote of the Territory the first Monday of November, 1895. The copy here used 18 that published by authority of the convention, under the supervision of Hon. Richard G. Lambert, chairman of committee on printing, Salt Lake City.
common schools shall be free. The other departments of the system shall be supported as provided by law: Provided, That high schools may be maintained free in all cities of the first and second class now constituting school districts, and in such other cities and districts as may be designated by the legislature. But where the proportion of school moneys apportioned or accruing to any city or district shall not be sufficient to maintain all the free schools in such city or district, the high schools shall be supported by local taxation.
SEC. 3. The proceeds of all lands that have been, or may be, granted by the United States to this State for the support of the common schools; the proceeds of all property that may accrue to the State by escheat or forfeiture; and all unclaimed shares and dividends of any corporation incorporated under the laws of this State; the proceeds of the sale of timber, minerals, and other property from school and State lands, other than those granted for specific purposes; and the 5 per cent of the net proceeds of the sales of public lands lying within the State, which shall be sold by the United States, subsequent to the admission of this State into the Union, shall be and remain a perpetual fund, to be called the State school fund, the interest of which only, together with such other means as the legislature may provide, shall be distributed among the several school districts according to the school population residing therein.
SEC. 4. The location and establishment by existing laws of the University of Utah and Agricultural College are hereby confirmed, and all the rights, immunities, franchises, and endowments heretofore granted or conferred are hereby perpetuated unto said university and agricultural college, respectively.
SEC. 5. The proceeds of the sale of lands reserved by an act of Congress approved February 21, 1855, for the establishment of the University of Utah, and of all the lands granted by an act of Congress approved July 16, 1894, shall constitute permanent funds, to be safely invested and held by the State; and the income thereof shall be used exclusively for the support and maintenance of the different institutions and colleges, respectively, in accordance with the requirements and conditions of said acts of Congress.
SEC. 6. In cities of the first and second class, the public school system shall be maintained and controlled by the board of education of such cities, separate and apart from the counties in which said cities are located.
SEC. 7. All public school funds shall be guaranteed by the State against loss or diversion.
SEC. 8. The general control and supervision of the public school system shall be vested in a State board of education, consisting of the superintendent of public instruction and such other persons as the legislature may provide.
SEC. 9. Neither the legislature nor the State board of education shall have power to prescribe text-books to be used in the common schools.
SEC. 10. Institutions for the deaf and dumb and for the blind are hereby established. All property belonging to the School for the Deaf and Dumb, heretofore connected with the University of Utah shall be transferred to said Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. All the proceeds of the lands granted by the United States for the support of a Deaf and Dumb Asylum, and for an Institution for the Blind, shall be a perpetual fund for the maintenance of said institutions. It shall be a trust fund, the principal of which shall remain inviolate, guaranteed by the State against loss or diversion.
SEC. 11. The metric system shall be taught in the public schools of the State.
SEC. 12. Neither religious nor partisan test or qualification shall be required of any person as a condition of admission, as teacher or student, into any public educational institution of the State.
SEC. 13. Neither the legislature nor the county, city, town, school district, or other public corporation shall make any appropriation to aid in the support of any school, seminary, academy, college, university, or other institution controlled in whole, or in part, by any church, sect, or denomination whatever.
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF TEN ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDIES, WITH PAPERS RELATING THERETO.
CONTENTS: I.-Reprint of the Report.
II.-The Reform of Secondary Education in the United States, by Nicholas Murray Butler. III.-The Curriculum for Secondary Schools, by William T. Harris. IV.-The Unity of Educational Reform, by Charles W. Eliot. V.-Report of the Committee of Ten, by James H. Baker. VI.-The Report of the Conference on English, by A. F. Nightingale. VII.-The Report from the Point of View of the Large Mixed High School, by O. D. Robinson. VIII.— Bibliography.
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF TEN.
To the National Council of Education:
The committee of ten appointed at the meeting of the National Educational Asso-. ciation at Saratoga on the 9th of July, 1892, have the honor to present the following report:
Af the meeting of the National Council of Education in 1891 a committee appointed at a previous meeting made a valuable report through their chairman, Mr. James H. Baker, then principal of the Denver high school, on the general subject of uniformity in school programmes and in requirements for admission to college. The committee was continued, and was authorized to procure a conference on the subject of uniformity during the meeting of the National Council in 1892, the conference to consist of representatives of leading colleges and secondary schools in different parts of the country. This conference was duly summoned, and held meetings at Saratoga on July 7, 8, and 9, 1892. There were present between twenty and thirty delegates. Their discussions took a wide range, but resulted in the following specific recommendations, which the conference sent to the National Council of Education then in session:
(1) That it is expedient to hold a conference of school and college teachers of each principal subject which enters into the programmes of secondary schools in the United States and into the requirements for admission to college-as for example, of Latin, of geometry, or of American history-each conference to consider the proper limits of its subject, the best methods of instruction, the most desirable allotment of time for the subject, and the best methods for testing the pupils' attainments therein, and each conference to represent fairly the different parts of the country.
(2) That a committee be appointed with authority to select the members of these conferences and to arrange their meetings, the results of all the conferences to be reported to this committee for such action as it may deem appropriate, and to form the basis of a report to be presented to the council by this committee.
(3) That this committee consist of the following gentlemen:
Charles W. Eliot, president of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. chair
William T. Harris, Commissioner of Education, Washington, D. C.
James B. Angell, president of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.
John Tetlow, head master of the girls' high school and the girls' Latin school,
James M. Taylor, president of Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.
Oscar D. Robinson, principal of the high school, Albany, N. Y.
James H. Baker, president of the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo.
Henry C. King, professor in Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio.
These recommendations of the conference were adopted by the National Council of Education on the 9th of July, and the council communicated the recommendations to the directors of the National Educational Association, with the further recommendation that an appropriation not exceeding $2,500 be made by the association toward the expenses of these conferences. On the 12th of July the directors adopted a series of resolutions under which a sum not exceeding $2,500 was made available for this undertaking during the academic year 1892–93.
Every gentleman named on the above committee of ten accepted his appointment; and the committee met, with every member present, at Columbia College, New York City, from the 9th to the 11th of November, 1892, inclusive.
In preparation for this meeting a table had been prepared by means of a prolonged correspondence with the principals of selected secondary schools in various parts of the country, which showed the subjects taught in 40 leading secondary schools in the United States, and the total number of recitations, or exercises, allotted to each subject. Nearly 200 schools were applied to for this information; but it did not prove practicable to obtain within three months verified statements from more than 40 schools. This table proved conclusively, first, that the total number of subjects taught in these secondary schools was nearly 40, 13 of which, however, were found in only a few schools; secondly, that many of these subjects were taught for such short periods that little training could be derived from them; and thirdly, that the time allotted to the same subject in the different schools varied widely. Even for the older subjects, like Latin and algebra, there appeared to be a wide diversity of practice with regard to the time allotted to them. Since this table was comparative in its nature-that is, permitted comparisons to be made between different schools-and could be easily misunderstood and misapplied by persons who had small acquaintance with school programmes, it was treated as a confidential document; and was issued at first only to members of the committee of ten and the principals of the schools mentioned in the table. Later, it was sent-still as a confidential paper-to the members of the several conferences organized by the committee of ten.
The committee of ten, after a preliminary discussion on November 9, decided on November 10 to organize conferences on the following subjects: (1) Latin; (2) Greek; (3) English; (4) other modern languages; (5) mathematics; (6) physics, astronomy, and chemistry; (7) natural history (biology, including botany, zoology, and physiology); (8) history, civil government, and political economy; (9) geography (physical geography, geology, and meteorology). They also decided that each conference should consist of ten members. They then proceeded to select the members of each of these conferences, having regard in the selection to the scholarship and experience of the gentlemen named, to the fair division of the members between colleges on the one hand and schools on the other, and to the proper geographical distribution of the total membership. After selecting 90 members for the nine conferences, the committee decided on an additional number of names to be used as substitutes
for persons originally chosen who should decline to serve, from two to four substitutes being selected for each conference. In the selection of substitutes the committee found it difficult to regard the geographical distribution of the persons selected with as much strictness as in the original selection; and, accordingly, when it became necessary to call on a considerable number of substitutes, the accurate geographical distribution of membership was somewhat impaired. The lists of the members of the several conferences were finally adopted at a meeting of the committee on November 11; and the chairman and secretary of a committee were then empowered to fill any vacancies which might occur.
The committee next adopted the following list of questions as a guide for the discussions of all the conferences, and directed that the conferences be called together on the 28th of December:
"(1) In the school course of study extending approximately from the age of 6 to 18 years—a course including the periods of both elementary and secondary instruction— at what age should the study which is the subject of the conference be first introduced?
"(2) After it is introduced, how many hours a week for how many years should be devoted to it?
"(3) How many hours a week for how many years should be devoted to it during the last four years of the complete course; that is, during the ordinary high school period?
"(4) What topics, or parts, of the subject may reasonably be covered during the whole course?
"(5) What topics, or parts, of the subject may best be reserved for the last four years?
"(6) In what form and to what extent should the subject enter into college requirements for admission? Such questions as the sufficiency of translation at sight as a test of knowledge of a language, or the superiority of a laboratory examination in a scientific subject to a written examination on a text-book, are intended to be suggested under this head by the phrase 'in what form.'
"(7) Should the subject be treated differently for pupils who are going to college, for those who are going to a scientific school, and for those who, presumably, are going to neither?
"(8) At what stage should this differentiation begin, if any be recommended?
"(9) Can any description be given of the best method of teaching this subject throughout the school course?
"(10) Can any description be given of the best mode of testing, attainments in this subject at collego admission examinations?
"(11) For those cases in which colleges and universities permit a division of the admission examination into a preliminary and a final examination, separated by at least a year, can the best limit between the preliminary and final examinations be approximately defined?"
The committee further voted that it was expedient that the conferences on Latin and Greek meet at the same place. Finally, all further questions of detail with regard to the calling and the instruction of the conferences were referred to the chairman with full power.
During the ensuing six weeks, the composition of the nine conferences was determined in accordance with the measures adopted by the committee of ten. Seventy persons originally selected by the committee accepted the invitation of the committee, and 69 of these persons were present at the meetings of their respective conferences on the 28th of December. Twenty substitutes accepted service, of whom 12 were persons selected by the committee of ten, and 8 were selected under the authority granted to the chairman and secretary of the committee in emergencies. One of these 8 gentlemen was selected by a conference at its first meeting. Two gentlemen who accepted service-one of the original members and one substitute-absented themselves from the meetings of their respective conferences without giving any