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Travail, labor, pain
Travel, to change place
Vane, a wind indicator
Vain, fruitless

Vein, a blood-vessel
Wail, to lament

Wale, the texture of cloth

Wait, to tarry
Weight, heaviness
Ware, merchandise
Wear, a dam, friction
Weal, prosperity
We'l, we will
Wood, hard vegetation
Would, was willing

You, 2d personal pronoun
Yew, a kind of tree
Ewe, a female sheep

Your, of or belonging to you
Ewer, a kind of water-pitcher

Vale, a valley

Veil, a covering for the face
Vial, a little bottle

Viol, a musical instrument
Vice, immoral conduct
Vise, a screwing instrument
Waist, middle of the body
Waste, careless loss
Waive, to pnt off
Wave, a body of water
Way, a road

Weigh, to test heaviness
Weak, feeble
Week, seven days

Weather, state of the air
Wether, a gelded sheep
Yule, Christmas, Lammas
You'l, for you will


On the Common Alphabet, or the old Signs of the Forty Important Primary Sounds in the English Language, together with the different discovered Methods of expressing them.

NOTE 1. Under the number of each sound, I shall give the most appropriate sign, and then the other and irregular signs by sounded letters, or such as cannot be fully ascertained to be silent.-2. In putting down the various old modes of representing our sounds, I sometimes employ two, and even three letters for the true expression of the sound, when it is doubtful which letter gives it, or whether both, or all united, give it; as ou in soup, eau in beau, ea in heart, ssi in

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passion, gg in craggy, sc in science.-3. In presenting the different methods of expressing the same sound, I take but few names of individuals, and these such as are often used and well known ;-and no words but purely English, or such as have become fully Anglicized; though some appear in their ancient or foreign modes of spelling them.-4. The words cognate and correlative signfy those pairs of sounds or their letters, each of which is the nearest like the other, and requires the organs of speech to be put in similar manner to pronounce it, as, p—b, k—g, t―d, o.-5. Some things here were suggested near the beginning of this book in teaching the alphabet. I now give the sounds in due order, and numerically.

1. This sound is that of a in mate. It is also expressed by ay in say; ai in strait; ea in great; the first e in ne'er; ei in eight; ey in they; i in possibly; y in analysis. This sound has of course eight irregular modes of expression.

2. The second sound is that of a in part. This has also three irregular methods of expression; as, aa in baa; e in sergent; and ea in heart.

3. This is the sound of a in hall. There are two other methods of expressing it; as, o in storm; oa in broad.

4. This is expressed by a as in hat, hare; also by e in there; aa in Aaron; ei in heir (an inheriter.) 5. A as in ah! aha! haha, sirrah, Elah, last, fast, past; also, by now. This is a as in part, shortened about one half; or is the short correlative of a in part. The different methods of expressing the sounds of a, the five regular, and the irregular, are 22. It is also used as a substitute for the regular

sounds of other vowels, especially o as in not. It is very frequently silent, and then it is often employed to show that the e or the o placed immediately before it, is long, as in treat, bloat. It is the only vowel in our language used wholly as such; all the others being sometimes used as consonants.

6. This sound is that of b in babe; also p in cup. board; bb in cobble. It is the loose, or open, or vocal cognate of P, and is always silent before and after m in the same syllable. It has three methods of expressing its sound.-C represents no one of our primary sounds, only as an unnecessary substitute for other letters, as you will see in the proper places. It is usually silent before k, and often in other conditions. It is a great misfortune that it is used, so abundantly, in our language,

7 This is the sound of d in did. It is expressed also by dd in adder. It is the flat or loose correla tive of t, and is silent in some few words. Its methods of expression are two.

It is

8. This is the sound of long e as in mete. also expressed by ee in feet; ei in seize; a in quay (kee, a wharf ;) i in shire; ea in seat; ie in siege; æ in ægis; œ in esophagus; ia parliament. There are ten different ways of expressing this sound..

9. This is the sound of short e as in pet. It is also represented by ea in dread; ei in heifer; a in any; æ in diæresis; ai in said; y in many; i in equity; ay in says; ie in friend; u in bury; ey in valley; ue in guess; œ in asafoetida. There are fourteen different methods of expressing this sound. Of course all the different methods of expressing the two sounds of e are twenty four. This letter is frequently silent, and in such case, it is often put at the

end of a syllable to show that it is long, called e final, as in mete, late, bite, duke, note, prove, and is often doubled in a syllable for the same purpose, as in street, feet. It is sometimes used for y when it is a consonant, as in ewa, ewer; and for y consonant and short e together, as in vignette.

10. This is the sound of f in fife. It is also expressed by ff in stiff; ph in phlegm; pph in sapphire; gh in cough. It has five different methods of expression, is the close or sharp cognate of v, and is never silent. It is a labial and an aspirate.

11. This is the sound of g in go. It is also express. ed by gg in goggles. It is usually found before a, o, u, I and r, and at the end of syllables, and sometimes before e, i and y, as in get, gig, foggy. It is silent before m and n in the same syllable, and often in connec. tion with h, as in light, though. It is the loose or flat cognate of k. It has two methods of expression.-G soft as in gem, is of no use, only as a very common, and a very vexatious substitute for j, to which it should always give place.

12. This is the sound of h in hot, what. It is the strongest aspirate, and its sound is elways initial, or used before the syllabic vowel. It should be called he. It is formed by a sudden, close, and strong expi. ration of air, striking on the following vowel. His not misplaced, as some say, after w in when.. It does not with w form a distinct or inseparable primary sound, although they easily and strongly unite. It is often silent, and always when placed after the syl. labic vowel; or rather, it there represents an implied aspirate, and of course is of no use, as in sirrah, Meribah. It has but one method of expression.

13. This is the sound of i in pine; and also of y

in try. It is an inseparble diphthong, formed of its own peculiar sound terminating always on a light sound of short i. 1ts sound of course is primary, but not simple. Some form it of a light sound of short o and short i,-others of a as in fast and short i,—and some will even put a light sound of short i each side of the peculiar sound of long i, as in the word kind. But I think all three err in their pronunciation.— This sound justly has but two methods of expression. 14. This is the sound of i in pin. It is also expressed by ie in sieve; ei in forfeit; a in courage ; ai in certain; e in pretty; ee in been; o in women; ia in marriage; y in lynx; u in busy; ui in build; eo in pigeon; oi in connoisseur;-fourteen different methods of expression; and of course sixteen for both the sounds of i. This letter is often a consonant, and before a vowel answers for y consonant, as in filial, clothier. It is seldom silent, except after long a and long u, and before long e.

15. This is the sound of j in just, embracing vocal g. It is also expressed by g in ginger; gg in suggest ; dg in edge; di in soldier; din gradual. It is an inseparable consonant -diphthong, formed of a light sound of d and y consonant. It is the vocal cognate of ch as in church.-It has six different methods of expression.

16. This is the sound or power of k in strike. It is also expressed by c in cat; ch in chord ; cc in succor; ck in kick ; q in quit; gh in hough; x in excel. It is the close and sharp cognate of g in go. It is silent before n. Like ch, p, and t, it is at the beginning of syllables, a pure mute; but like them not quite pure at the end of words, or immediately before any cessation, of voice. It has eight different methods of expression.

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