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THE PERIODICALS REVIEWED.
wails, under the title of "Another Graceful Concession," the permission given to Prince Henry and his German squadron to visit and use British bases in Irish waters. After Count Bülow's insolence to Mr. Chamberlain, this courtesy is, the writer affirms, sure to be misunderstood by Germany. Sir Rowland Blennerhassett, as reported elsewhere, sees in the rapid extension of the Pan-Germanic idea a deadly menace to England. Mr. Maurice Low reports that, in spite of Prince Henry's visit, it is always the German navy by which the American navy compares itself.
OCTROIS OR CUSTOMS?
Sir Vincent Caillard replies to Sir Robert Giffen's Nineteenth Century argument against "the dream of a British Zollverein." He explains that what he asks for is, first, free trade between the colonies and the mother country, leaving free trade among themselves as an after consideration. He would distinguish duties on goods coming from other parts of the empire as octroi duties from the customs imposed on foreign goods. The editor rests his hope of the coming conference with colonial ministers resulting in a preferential system on Mr. Chamberlain, and Mr. Chamberlain alone. He even urges Mr. Chamberlain to leave the government and set up a new standard, rather than allow the colonies to think that Great Britain values her shibboleths more than her children.
Mrs. Francis Darwin writes on "Lady Servants" as the one way left of establishing domestic service on a reasonable and dignified basis. She mentions "The Guild of Dames of the Household," established in 1900. She insists that the arrangement by which servants sleep out of the house, possibly in boarding houses set apart for the purpose, is essential to a right basis of domestic service.
M. J. Cornély, late editor of the Figaro, writes on the meaning of the French elections. They demonstrated the devotion of France to the Republic and to M. Waldeck-Rousseau's form of republicanism.
The editor applauds the Times history of the war, with its damning disclosures of British incapacity, but is courageous enough to adopt Mr. Seddon's views of the peace negotiations, that nothing short of unconditional surrender will be acceptable to the empire. So the National ushers in the month which sees peace established, but certainly not a peace based on the unconditional surrender of the Boers.
THE WESTMINSTER REVIEW.
HE June number enforces the duty of national amendment with sermonic earnestness. Mr. W. D. MacGregor continues his review of the cause of the South African war, and refers to the annexation of the Kimberley diamond fields as a national disgrace. Mr. Alfred Marks neatly turns the tables on British critics of the Boer by showing how the English invented the expansive bullet and hailed the invention with delight; "how we rejected with lofty scorn all remonstrances against its use, how the invention has been turned against us, first by the Afridis, later by the Boers, till at last we have come to denounce as a criminal worthy of instant execution, without trial, an enemy using the weapon which we ourselves invented."
"Tory Finance Exposed" is a vigorous attack on Great Britain's "patriotic" government. The writer contrasts the new taxes on "the workers" with the doles, old and new, to "the shirkers," and finds that during the last three years the "balance against workers and in favor of shirkers" reached the figure of £82,000,000 ($410,000,000). The favorite specific of levying the land tax of four shillings in the pound on present values is insisted on; and with the £43,000,000 ($215,000,000) which would be the result a democratic Chancellor of the Exchequer might pay members and election expenses (one million), abolish breakfast-table duties (five millions), give an old-age pension of seven shillings a week to every person over sixty-five (twentyfive millions), and repeal "Black Michael's" twopenceon-income tax, halfpenny a pound on sugar, and the shilling a ton on exported coal. The writer waxes jubilant over the statement that 750,000 persons affiliated to the Labor Representation League are paying 3d, a quarter, making an annual total of £37,500 ($167,500). OTHER ARTICLES.
"Mugwump" strenuously pleads the cause of federaand another article, on tion versus imperialism; "Liberalism and Empire," urges on nations, as on individuals, the principle of "the liberty of each limited only by the equal liberties of all.”
Mr. Lydston S. M. Newman contributes an eloquent plea for justice to Ireland. Mr. P. Barry argues for the development of South Africa, apart from the gold mines, by means of liberal outlay of credit. Mr. H. H. Smith would encourage the hard-working small proprietor, who has been the backbone of the West Indies, as opposed to the insatiable large landlord.
A very salutary lesson in critical humility is taught by J. M. Attenborough, in a paper on the first Edinburgh school of literary critics. The judgments passed by Hume and Blair on Shakespeare are ludicrous.
THE MONTHLY REVIEW.
HE Monthly Review for June opens with an editorial article upon "Profit and Loss on the Atlantic Deal," which we have dealt with elsewhere.
THE POSITION OF NAVAL ENGINEERS.
Lieut. Carlyon Bellairs, R.N., has a paper on "The Navy and the Engineers," in which he criticises unfavorably the contentions of naval engineers. The engineer performs mechanical duties in which ordinary professional ability qualifies for promotion by seniority; while the combatant officers, having the entire direc tion of the ships and a power of choice involving judgment, initiative, and courage to an abnormal extent, have to be carefully selected for employment and promotion. The navy must be based on the requirements of naval efficiency, and the directive power of a fleet cannot be undermined merely because the heart of the ship is mechanism.
"Greater responsibility for the safety of the ship must carry with it enlarged powers, and in all seriousness it must be asked, Is this the time to introduce into our ships a royal navy corps of engineers, with the titles and none of the essential functions of executive officers? Such a division of the part from the whole is known in politics as an imperium in imperio, and in a navy we know it well as the dry rot of a fighting force."
THE TRUTH ABOUT SPION KOP.
Mr. Basil Worsfold contributes a defense of General Warren under the title of "The True Story of Spion Kop." His article is illustrated with a very good map. His contention is that the two allegations against Warren, that he failed to carry out Buller's instructions for the turning movement, and that he failed to make adequate arrangements for providing the force on Spion Kop with reënforcements and supplies, are both unfounded. Mr. Worsfold's argument is too elaborate to be summarized here, but he undoubtedly makes out a good case for Sir Charles Warren.
There is an interesting story from "A British Official's Station Studies." The article deals with the customs of the Bechuanas in a charming manner, and it is a pleasure to find some one who can write sympathetically of the South African natives, and who does not regard them merely as potential mine-labor. There are two poems,-one by Mr. Newbolt; the other, a very short one, by Mr. Thomas Hardy. The illustrated article this month deals with musical instruments in Italian art. It is written by Mrs. Kemp-Welch. Mr. M. A. Gerothwohl deals with Maeterlinck's new play, "Monna
Vanna." Mr. Horace Round writes on the history and functions of the office of Lord Great Chamberlain.
HE June number of Blackwood's Magazine recognizes the grave import of the Times history of the war for England's national reputation. The writer of "Musings Without Method" girds at Mr. Carnegie's depreciation of university education, and observes sardonically that his gift to the Scottish universities must have been intended to injure the business aptitudes of a whole nation. The writer laments that "presently the American ideal of life will be our own. 'All round people are ringing bells,' once wrote a witty critic of New York, 'telephoning, telegraphing, stenographing, polygraphing, and generally communicating their ideas about money to their fellow creatures by any means rather than the voice which God put in the larynx for the purpose of quiet conversation.' Before long London will tell the same tale; and though we are confident that reaction will follow some day, it is not an agree. able interlude that lies before us." The villain of the whole South African drama, the writer later avers, is Mr. Gladstone, with Mr. Froude next in turpitude.
THE CONTINENTAL REVIEWS.
REVUE DES DEUX MONDES.
E have noticed elsewhere M. Dastre's article on "Life and Death." In addition to this paper, the most important contribution to the first nur ber of the Revue deals with German ambitions in the East. The anonymous writer regards the incessant movements of Germanism, its ebb and flow, and the transformations of the German power as forming in reality the history of Continental Europe. Toward the West the rehabilitation of France, which has followed the war of 1880, is rightly regarded as forming a counterpoise to German expansion in that direction. But toward the East the domestic difficulties of Austria, the decay of the Ottoman Empire, and the feuds of the Danubian and Balkan nationalities have smoothed the path of German activities. In fact, Germanism tends more and more to concentrate on the East the whole force of its national action, and to regard the Slav race as its most serious adversary.
THE BEGINNINGS OF TAINE.
Some early letters of Taine, the great historian, are noteworthy as revealing the state of mind of those struggling men of letters who flourished in the late forties and early fifties,-that is, on the eve of the Second Empire. That period of French history is beginning to prove very fascinating to the modern writer; and this is further shown in the second number of the Revue, containing several very good articles, of which profoundly interesting to the student of modern history is M. Ollivier's account of Napoleon III.'s halfbrother, the brilliant and unscrupulous Duc de Morny, who may be said to have engineered the coup d'état, and who, had he lived, would certainly have prevented the Franco-Prussian war. It is often said that the existence of no human being is really indispensable to his friends and his country; that of Morny seems to have been of practically indispensable value to his
sovereign and to France. Louis Napoleon never alluded to their common origin; to have done so would have been to throw a slur on his much-loved mother's memory, but he was well aware that in his half-brother he had had a devoted friend and helper, and that his premature death struck a blow at the Second Empire from which it never recovered. M. Ollivier gives a striking account of Morny's last interview with the Emperor and with the Empress, but the same scene has been described with incomparable art by Alphonse Daudet, who made Morny the hero of one of his novels under the transparent pseudonym of "Duc de Mora." IN FAR UKRAINE.
Everything Russian is still the fashion in France, and Mme. Bentzon will find many readers for her vivid account of a journey through that portion of the great northern empire known as Little Russia. She considers that the peasantry of Ukraine have remained mediæval in many of their personal habits, in their ardent patriotism, and notably in their love of religious observances. While not caring for the Greek Orthodox rites, she was touched and charmed to find that in the Greek Church little children communicate, brought to the altar by their mothers in response to our Lord's words, "Suffer little children to come unto me."
Leopold II., the astute sovereign of Belgium to whom one of the smallest of European states owes what may develop into one of the most important of African territories. A little over twenty-five years ago Leopold II. convened at Brussels a meeting of explorers, of famous travelers, and of scientists. From this conference sprang the International African Association, and in the five years which followed six Belgian African expeditions admirably organized, and in each case commanded by Belgium military officers, had started for Central Africa with the full approval of the King. And so, little by little, Belgium acquired more and more territory, until, in 1885, King Leopold was proclaimed sovereign of the Independent Congo State. Leopold II. is apparently a believer in chartered companies, and at the present moment there are twentyfive such associations in the Congo State.
FROM GREECE TO SOUTH AFRICA.
M. Bérard is represented by two very different articles. The one entitled "Greek Origins" deals with the topography of old Greece. Under the somewhat ominous title of "The South African Affair," the same writer gives a most careful and intelligent analysis of Mr. Conan Doyle's now famous pamphlet, written avowedly with a view of presenting the British Imperialist case to the world at large. M. Bérard treats his adversary,-for adversary he considers the author of "The Great Boer War" to be,-with admirable courtesy and fairness; indeed, he goes further, and when telling the story of the concentration camps he admits frankly that far more was done to remedy the state of things than would have been done by any other country in a state of war. As he puts it, the famous English novelist's contribution to the war literature is a piece of very clever special pleading. Of course, M. Bérard entirely denies that the British empire has any special mission to fulfill to the world at large. In a striking passage he sums up the character and aspirations of Cecil Rhodes. Those who styled him the Napoleon of the Cape, he writes, were wrong; the title which would have best fitted him was the Alexander of Africa. Like Alexander the Great, his outlook was nobler and greater than that of Bonaparte. He bases his view of Rhodes' character on two articles which have appeared in the REVIEW OF REVIEWS, -that of November, 1899, and that published this last May. He tells the story of the negotiations which led to the outbreak of the war, and of the press agitation in favor of the Uitlanders; but he is willing to admit that the outbreak of hostilities would probably not have taken place when it did had it not been for the action of "that strange knight-errant, who, with his all-powerful name, William II., signed the famous telegram on the morrow of the Jameson raid."
'HE May numbers of the Nouvelle Revue are not as interesting as is sometimes the case with this publication.
Algiers has always been supposed to be the one prosperous French colony. M. de Pouvourville, who has made a special study of France's colonial empire, views the whole state of things there with profound pessimism. He points out that the French population of the colony does not increase, and indeed shows a tendency to grow less; while the native races, notably the Arabs, become more powerful, and are practically untouched by French
civilization. The Jew element is taking larger and larger proportions, and includes many Jews who, while nominally of French nationality, are really by birth Levantines, Greeks, Egyptians, and Italians. So important a part do the Jews now play in Algerian commerce and society that there has arisen a powerful antiSemite party, composed in a great measure of members of the old colonial families, who were very indignant at a law passed in 1870, which admitted every Jew showing a very short residence in Algiers to the full privileges of French nationality.
THE ROMANCE OF AUGUSTE COMTE.
Positivists will read with mixed feelings M. Pascal's very frank account of the curious love episode which so powerfully influenced Auguste Comte during the whole of the last part of his life. Unhappily married to a woman who from first to last proved utterly unworthy of him, and yet whom he had rescued from a degraded and wretched life, he came across, when forty-six years of age, the now famous Clotilde de Vaux, who, some sixteen years younger than himself, lived a life of austere grass widowhood, also the victim of a wretched marriage. Till this lady's death Comte cherished for her what must be called for want of a better name a platonic passion which powerfully influenced his whole views of life, and which seemed to increase in feeling after her somewhat premature death.
A REPUBLIC IN SPAIN?
Is Spain drifting toward a republic? Yes, says M. de Ricard, and to prove his belief he analyzes the various forces which are now contending against one another under the feeble rule of the newly crowned King. Unlik most foreign critics, he is no believer in the Queen mother, and indeed goes so far as to say that at no time during the last ten years has she known how to find a solution to any of the difficulties which confront the responsible ruler of Spain; on the contrary, she has gone on,-and so probably will her son, who is wholly under her influence,-much as did Napoleon III. during the later years of the Second Empire.
LA REVUE. 、
A REVUE" for May contains, as usual, a number of excellent literary articles, among which are some notes on Ibsen contributed by Mme. Rémusat, and a long article weighing the pros and cons as to whether Petrarch's house at Vaucluse still exists; and if so, which it is. An article which is really fact, though it reads like fiction, is on Langallerie, a seventeenthcentury adventurer, in the toils of Mme. de Maintenon. M. de Croze discusses the ravages of alcoholism in Lower Brittany. Out of 6,385 young Bretons who came up for examination last year, 1,657 were referred to a second examination, and 702 exempted altogether,—and this largely because of the perpetual habit of drinking, especially among the women.
A curious article, suggested by the recent Holy Shroud discussions, is contributed by Dr. Cabanès on "The Death of Jesus in the Light of Contemporary Science." Dr. Cabanès' impartiality sums up the views of all the different scientists on the subject of how the crucifixion actually took place; to what death was actually due,whether to exhaustion, to strain on the heart, or what; where the piercing with the spear took place, and the possibility of burial alive. Dr. Cabanès concludes that no definite theory is possible.
NOTES ON RECENT AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS.
BIOGRAPHIES AND MEMOIRS.
`WO handsome volumes recently issued contain the Hon. George S. Boutwell's "Reminiscences of Sixty Years in Public Affairs" (McClure, Phillips & Co.). To few American public men has it been granted to participate actively in political movements for so long a period of time. Mr. Boutwell began his service in the Massachusetts Legislature in the forties, became governor of Massachusetts more than half a century ago, represented his State in Congress during and after the Civil War, was Secretary of the Treasury in President Grant's first administration, and served as Senator from Massachusetts in the seventies. During the last quarter of a century, while Mr. Boutwell has held no public office, he has written and spoken much on political topics, retaining a virility of thought and expression such as many a younger man might envy. The fact that his career has included long periods of activity in the legal profession has made his experiences the more varied, and contributes greatly to the interest of his memoirs. His acquaintance with men in many walks of life has been extensive, and his recollections are vivid. Not since the appearance of Blaine's "Twenty Years in Congress" has so important a collection of personal reminiscences in American politics come from the press.
"Herbert B. Adams: Tributes of Friends" is the title of a memorial volume published by the Johns Hopkins University at Baltimore in recognition of the distinguished service rendered by the late Professor Adams as head of the department of history. A unique and fitting contribution to the volume is the bibliography of the members of the department for the entire quarter-century of Dr. Adams' leadership. Many of the books and articles enumerated in this list were directly due to the suggestions of this inspiring teacher. Few, if any, university instructors in this country have influenced the literary activities of so large a number of students.
In the Appletons' series of "Life Histories," Secretary Thwaites, of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, contributes an interesting sketch of "Father Marquette." Mr. Thwaites, as editor of the last complete edition of the famous "Jesuit Relations," has made a thorough and scholarly review of all the documentary materials pertaining to the historic Mississippi expedition of Marquette and Joliet. Mr. Thwaites, moreover, is intimately acquainted with the region traversed by Marquette, having himself made canoe voyages over the inland waterways made memorable by the Jesuit explorer, and from his knowledge of the country he is able to impart an unusual sense of reality to the entire narrative of Marquette's adventures. Marquette and Joliet, in the month of June, 1673, entered the Mississippi from the Wisconsin River, and descended as far south as the mouth of the Arkansas. They returned northward by way of the Illinois and Chicago rivers and the west shore of Lake Michigan, reaching the Jesuit mission at the rapids of De Pere, Wis., in September. Two years later, Marquette died on the site of the present city of Ludington, Mich., and the following
year some friendly Indians removed his bones to St. Ignace, where they were buried by his fellow Jesuits in a vault beneath the floor of their mission chapel.
The oration delivered by Mr. Samuel W. McCall at the centennial of Daniel Webster's graduation from Dartmouth College, which was celebrated in September last, has been published in book form (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.). This address has been generally accepted as a truthful and well-balanced estimate of Webster's character and career, and it well deserved the attractive garb in which it now appears.
A paper on Webster introduces a little volume of "Biographical and Other Articles," by William C. Todd (Boston: Lee & Shepard). Caleb Cushing,
Thomas Hart Benton, and "Lord Timothy Dexter," of Newburyport, are among the other famous characters treated by Mr. Todd. Bits of rare and curious information, much of which was never before published, are incorporated in the papers.
At last, in "The True Aaron Burr," by Charles Burr Todd (New York: A. S. Barnes & Co.), we have an enthusiastic defense of an American in whom the historians, early and late, have found little to praise. The recently-circulated statement that the archives of the British, Spanish, and French governments reveal evidence of Burr's treason is repudiated by Mr. Todd, who challenges the production of such evidence. He asserts, on the other hand, that the Spanish archives at New Orleans and Mexico show that Burr intended by his "conspiracy" only the capture of Mexico and its ultimate annexation to the United States.
One of the most readable books of the season is a study of the Revolutionary patriot and martyr, Nathan Hale, by Mr. William Ordway Partridge, the sculptor, who has been occupied for five years in working out in marble his conception of the face and form of the young Yale graduate and school teacher whose unusual lot it was to dignify the office of a military spy and to become through this service, ennobled by its object, a national hero. (Funk & Wagnalls Company.)
A little book made up of tributes to the late Lewis G. Janes has been published at Boston (James H. West & Co.). Dr. Janes was distinguished in life for his contributions to philosophy, notably in the department of ethics. Most of the tributes included in this volume are from representative students and teachers who were associated more or less intimately with Dr. Janes in various educational activities.
"The True Napoleon," by Charles Josselyn (New York: R. H. Russell), is a chronological record of events in the life of the First Napoleon, based upon many trustworthy authorities, and making no pretensions on its own account to originality. It is, in fact, what its title-page indicates-"a cyclopedia of events." A dozen very interesting and effective illustrations are included in the volume.
The matter of chief interest to American readers in the "Diary and Correspondence of Count Axel Fersen, Grand-Marshal of Sweden, Relating to the Court of France" (Boston: Hardy, Pratt & Co.), is contained in the count's letters to Field-Marshal Fersen, who was
THE NEW BOOKS.
his father, during the American Revolution. The
"Meditations of an Autograph Collector," by Adrian H. Joline (Harpers), contains much anecdotal material of an entertaining nature relating to such historical characters as Charles Lamb, W. M. Thackeray, Laurence Sterne, Charlotte Brontë, Robert Burns, Samuel Johnson, John Keats, Joseph Addison, Alexander Pope, David Garrick, Sir Walter Scott, and Charles Darwin.
The stereograph record of William McKinley as President of the United States (New York: Underwood & Underwood) is a work of genuine historical It consists of a series of sixty interest and value. stereoscopic photographs of the late President at his official duties in Washington and on the memorable railroad journeys made across the country in the last year of his life. With the exception of the latest ones, each of the stereographs was examined through the stereoscope by the President, and received his personal approval. The descriptive text accompanying the pictures greatly enhances the educational value of the series. The stereograph as a means of instruction has already commended itself to educators, and is being introduced in a number of public schools. It offers an effective method of impressing the importance of historical events on the mind of the child. The Government uses stereoscopic photographs for instruction in the Military Academy at West Point.
A FEW RECENT VOLUMES OF HISTORY.
"Uncle Sam, Trustee," by John Kendrick Bangs
"The Rise of Religious Liberty in America," by San-
"The Story of the Mormons," by William Alexander Linn (Macmillan), may also be described as a secular, rather than a religious, narrative. The writer classifies the books on Mormonism already in existence as follows: "Histories written under the auspices of the Mormon Church, which are hopelessly biased as well as incomplete; more trustworthy works which cover only certain periods; and books in the nature of 'exposures' by former members of the Church, which the Mormons attack as untruthful, and which rest in the mind of the general reader under a suspicion of personal bias." Mr. Linn has undertaken to present a consecutive history of the Mormons, from the date of their origin to the year 1901, and as regards the facts included in his account, he has relied largely on Mormon sources of information. Notwithstanding the almost universal acceptance of the belief that Joseph Smith, Jr., was the founder of the sect, Mr. Linn declares that the real originator of the whole scheme for a new church and of its doctrines and government was the now little-known Sidney Rigdon, for many years one of Smith's influential associates.
The second volume of "The Spanish Conquest in America," by Sir Arthur Helps (John Lane), now appearing in a new edition edited by M. Oppenheim, covers the colonization schemes of Las Casas, the ex