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`ROM Harper's Magazine for July we have selected


Prof. Simon Newcomb's account of "What the Astronomers Are Doing," and Mr. Overton W. Price's explanation of the national government's coöperation with private forest owners, for quotation in the "Leading Articles of the Month."

A pleasant feature for bookish folks is Mr. Edmund Gosse's article on Elizabethan Dedications of Books." At the close of the sixteenth century a book, or even a pamphlet, without a dedication excited suspicion that there was something disreputable in it. "The usual mode was to find some man of high social position, if possible a lord, who would accept the dedication as a gift. It has been too much taken for granted that the patron was expected, if he accepted the book, to make an immediate present of money to the author. I have come to the conclusion that, although no doubt this was sometimes done, it was not the custom in the Elizabethan age, as it became later in that of Anne."

Benjamin H. Ridgely has a delicious travel sketch in pictures and text in "Summer Life in Andalusia." Prof. George E. Woodberry, of Columbia College, contributes an essay on "Beginnings of American Literature," in which he places the first appearance of an American spirit, indigenous and of the soil, in folkliterature such as "The Song of Braddock's Men," the ballad of "Nathan Hale," and "Yankee Doodle," our first name distinctly literary being that of Philip Freneau. Vance Thompson has a capital sketch of "Falconry of To-day;" A. J. Grout describes "Some Vegetable Air-ships," and George L. Kittredge writes of "Ways of Words in English Speech."



HE July Century, an unusually attractive and well-varied number, takes up as a matter of seasonable interest "A Campaign Against the Mosquito." Dr. L. O. Howard, of the Department of Agriculture, says, to show what an interest is taken in the subject of mosquito extermination throughout the country, that during the past year he has received thousands of letters, most of them inquiring about methods for relieving individual houses, neighborhoods, and communities from the pests. Several towns in New Jersey are beginning to take scientific measures, and are doing some drainage work on a large scale. A city appropriation in Baltimore is about to be made for such work, and two physicians are making a mosquito topographic survey of the suburbs of that city. New Orleans, Nashville, Rome, Ga., Talladega, Ala., Winchester and Norfolk, Va., and a number of other places in all sections of the country either have plans under consideration, or are already beginning work. Mr. H. C. Weeks follows Dr. Howard in a detailed account of the extensive operations at Oyster Bay, L. I., undertaken by the North Shore Improvement Association of Long Island. The work there consists of the employment of drainage and petroleum. In using petroleum it is not necessary to consider the depth of a stagnant pond, as the film of of oil on the surface does the work. The preliminary

engagement with the mosquito pests at this place have already had pronounced and satisfactory results.


There is a very pleasant reminiscent article on Eugene Field and his humor by his warm friend, Francis Wilson, the actor. Mr. Wilson says that "Field loved all things that were beautiful. He had a wonderful tenderness toward childhood and motherhood. He detested sham and pretense. He lost no opportunity to assail these vices. His feeling for sweetness and truth is shown in many of his writings, but is best seen in his exquisitely written short stories, such as 'The First Christmas Tree.'"


Mr. Julian Ralph contributes a character sketch of the Marquis of Salisbury, and gives a picture of the private life of the premier. Lord Salisbury's recreations have been found in books and scientific purposes. He has been an omnivorous reader of all that is best in the old and the new literature of the times, and there has seemed to those who both shared his tastes and enjoyed his society nothing of note or moment that he has not read. "Still pleasanter to him are the hours he spends in his laboratory, which is said to be unsurpassed in completeness and modernness by any private laboratory in England. From his youth he has had a bent for this work, and in physics especially he has attained such knowledge as to be sought, for counsel and discussion, by some of the greatest minds in that field. It is even said of him that if he had not been a great statesman he would have made a greater scientist."

There is a timely article on "The Volcano Systems of the Western Hemisphere," by Robert T. Hill, a further installment of Mr. Ray Stannard Baker's valuable papers on "The Great Southwest," and a number of short stories, among them one by the late Paul Leicester Ford.



N the July Cosmopolitan, D. A. Willey describes a new social institution, "The Trolley Park." The street and suburban railway companies, realizing the profit arising from appealing to the pleasure of the people, have begun to establish parks not only for the cities, but for clusters of small communities on the trolley system. From the few acres of grove with some rough benches and a shed or so for protection from the weather, these pleasure grounds have been developed into resorts even more attractive than the public parks of the city. On a holiday one may see more than fifty thousand people gathered in some of the more extensive trolley parks owned by companies in Philadelphia, Detroit, Minneapolis, Baltimore, and other centers of population, listening to the band concerts, watching or taking part in ball games, boating on the lake or river, strolling along the shady walks, having a family picnic under the trees, or enjoying the summer opera. Except for the nickel, dime, or quarter which admits to the concert, rents the boat, or provides some other special amusement the park is free to all, the company obtaining its profit in the fares which it collects.


The Cosmopolitan continues its series of brief character sketches of American "Captains of Industry with articles on Charles M. Schwab, D. O. Mills, Charles Frohman, Andrew Carnegie, and John A. McCall.


Mr. Samuel E. Moffett, writing on Mr. Schwab, thinks that the president of the United States Steel Corporation represents the highest development of the salaried employee, and that the real value of his career is in the light it throws upon the possibilities open to those vast wage-earning masses of which Mr. Schwab has chosen to remain a member. He calls the president of the Steel Trust a socialist in disguise, because of his theory of managing labor by making it a partner in the business that employs it. "A hard overseer," says Mr. Moffett, "may make his men afraid to shirk-Mr. Schwab has learned the nobler and more profitable art of encouraging every man to do his best."


Mr. Charles S. Gleed, in his article on Colonel McCall, the president of the New York Life Insurance Company, calls attention to the connections of the insurance business with politics, both State and national. "To how many would it occur that a statute in Kansas governing railway cattle-guards had anything to do with the value of a policy in a New York insurance company held in Maine? But the connection is direct. If the new law costs a Kansas railroad a good deal of money, and if the insurance company holds the securities of that railroad, the value of the policy held in Maine is more or less affected. The enactment of an insurance-commissioner law in California or Minnesota or Texas has a very direct effect upon the policies of the companies doing business in that State. If the effect of legislation in Washington is to depreciate the value of government bonds, then every insurance company is harmed by such legislation." Such considerations suggest sufficiently why great insurance companies find it absolutely necessary to have a man of broad understanding and the first ability at its head.


One of the departments tells of the magnitude of the great Krupp gun factories of Germany: "The present head of the great Krupp works represents the third generation of this family of gun-founders. The original Krupp was named Friedrich. His son Alfred, who died in 1887, first gave world-wide fame to the Krupp establishment. Alfred's son, Friedrich Alfred, is now the director and owner of the vast enterprise, whose principal seats are in Essen and Kiel. A few figures will give an idea of the magnitude of these establishments, where practical science achieves some of its greatest results. The Krupp works altogether consume more than five thousand tons of coal per day, and employ more than forty-six thousand men, of whom not far short of four thousand are engineers, superintendents, accountants, clerks, etc. At Essen alone, where the great gun shops are located, between six and seven hundred million cubic feet of gas are burned annually, enough to supply all the needs of a city of four hundred thousand inhabitants. The amount of water used is no less surprising -between five and six hundred million cubic feet in a year, which is also on the scale of a great city's consumption."



ROM the July McClure's we have selected Dr. Henry C. Rowland's account of "Fighting Life in the Philippines" for quotation among the "Leading Articles of the Month." The magazine begins with an exact recital of "The Oversea Experiments of Santos Dumont." In his last winter's flights over the Mediterranean the balloonist was occupied with experiments very different from those which took him around the Eiffel Tower in Paris. There the goal was to win a prize by accomplishing a special task. In the Mediterranean he was experimenting scientifically for his own information. Leading aeronautists think that Santos Dumont's Mediterranean experiments, in spite of his final catastrophe, are as important as any that have been made. Mr. Heilig, the author of this article in McClure's, describes a novel feature of the Mediterranean experiments in the maritime guide-rope,a long thick rope dangling from the air-ship, with eight or ten feet of its still thicker extremity dragging in the water. The very slight dragging resistance through the water does not sensibly retard the motion of the air machine, and according to its greater or less immersion the dragging rope ballasts or unballasts the airship. The great and essential virtue of this new form of ballasting a balloon is that the effect is produced without loss of ballast. Santos Dumont is now in possession of his seventh great balloon, the first one of his machines which is designed to carry an assistant with the owner, and there is a job open for an aspiring engineer. Mr. Heilig calls attention to the fact that in Europe, Santos Dumont is the only navigator of the air who actually navigates.

Capt. A. T. Mahan gives an estimate of the late Admiral Sampson's professional service and character in "Sampson's Naval Career." Captain Mahan reviews the services to the nation of Admiral Sampson, and especially those in the Santiago campaign, and has frequently to call attention to Sampson's really marvelously calm and equable temperament, which made responsibilities of the heaviest sort sit on him easily. "Disregardful of all but the necessity of success, he was heedless of personal danger and daring in professional risk. The mastery which the service had over his interest and affections, united to entire self-mastery in temper and under responsibility, assured his eminence as an officer, which history will unquestionably recognize and affirm." There is a further installment of Miss Stone's experiences among the brigands, dealing with Mrs. Tsilka and her little baby; several first-class stories appear in this number, with further chapters of Booth Tarkington's serial.


EN. O. O. HOWARD writes in the July Munsey's

of Cumberland Gap,"


the Lincoln Memorial University is doing for the people of the Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia mountains in this neglected corner of the United States. Within a radius of 50 miles from the university there is a population of more than 230,000 people, with no well-equipped school. The Lincoln University has admitted as high as 368 in one year. The students are given an academic education, and many of them are also given work in typesetting, carpentering, gardening, and farming. The university has sent more than twenty teachers into

neighboring districts. The students pay their way entirely at the university, but some of them pay it in money, some in work, and some part in work and part in money. The board averages only two dollars a week for the students, and General Howard says that a scholarship of $100 will carry a student through one year. He thinks it one of the greatest opportunities, if not the greatest, in the country for the effective use of half a million dollars in furthering education where it is most needed and will have the best use made of it.

Mr. Frank S. Arnett, in an article on "American Country Clubs," shows how they had their origin in Boston, and how they have become an important element in the social life of America, this country being the only one having such institutions. Mr. Arnett thinks the country club was originally a protest against the old-time summer hotel, "probably the most ghastly aid to the killing of time ever devised."

Katherine Hoffman discusses some "Memorials of Ruskin," chiefly the medallion in Westminster Abbey, the monument on Friar's Crag, and the tomb at Coniston; John Brent describes "The World's Bathing Places," such as the Belgian Ostend, the English Brighton and Scarborough, our own Atlantic City, and the Dutch Zandvoort; Douglas Story writes on "The Art of the Needle Point," the fascinating form of artistic expression of which Dürer was the first, and Rembrandt the greatest master, and of its modern renaissance in Rajon, Flameng, Evert van Muyden, and Henner; there is a Martinique article by F. A. Ober under the title, "A Ruined American Eden," and an interesting essay on "Railroad Superstitions," by Herbert E. Hamblen. With the locomotive engineer Friday is a bad day, as with others, but it is number nine that is fatal, and not thirteen.



HE July Country Life, in its series of articles on "The Making of a Country Home," treats this month various architectural details, especially the porch, or doorway. Mr. Buckham emphasizes the importance, architecturally, of the entrance to the home, and says it should express both refinement and hospitality. "It should smile, like the host, yet not too blandly nor too consciously. If it is too severe or too sumptuous, it vitiates, to a degree, the whole exterior of which it is the focus. It is unfortunate that in so many otherwise beautiful houses the doorway is overshadowed by the great piazza or belittled by the portecochère."

Mr. John Burns makes a "Plea for the Pony," as a really useful member of society. He calls attention to the effective familý use of ponies in England, where large horses are more valuable proportionately than in this country. "People in moderate circumstances dwelling in the country, clergymen, small farmers, physicians, and others who cannot afford to maintain a regular stable, would indeed be at a loss without the familiar pony, which does twice as much work as a large horse could do, on half as much food and care.”

Mr. James Watson has an authoritative article on the beagle in America-apropos of the revival of interest in these animals. A beautifully illustrated discussion of "The Japanese Garden in America" will make every suburbanite want to have one of his own. The most elaborate feature of the number is a sumptuously illustrated description of the beautiful Sloane estate at Lenox, in the Berkshire Hills.



IN the New England Magazine for July, Mr. G. F. Mellen writes on "Thomas Jefferson and Higher Education," sketching the latter's broad influence on the development of American educational institutions. Mr. Mellen considers that Jefferson, more than any other American, Franklin not excepted, interested foreign scholarship in America and brought foreign educators to this country. Attention is drawn to the fact that all through the building up of Albemarle College and the University of Virginia, Jefferson kept in view the same end--a real university for Virginia, manned, in the main, by European specialists.

Under the title "Whale Oil and Spermaceti," Mary E. Starbuck writes of Nantucket and its vanished industry of whaling. The decline of whaling which swept away Nantucket's wealth and population was due chiefly to two causes,-the increasing rarity of the whale supply, and the introduction of petroleum.

In "The Stars and Stripes a Boston Idea," George J. Varney tells how "Old Glory" came to be devised. In 1775 Congress appointed a special committee to confer with General Washington, and to devise a flag for the army. The committee consisted of Dr. Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Col. Thomas Lynch of Carolina, and Hon. Benjamin Harrison of Virginia. The committee were the guests of a lady at Cambridge, Mass., who has left a diary telling of the choice of the flag design. An old college professor was staying in the house, and he and the hostess were invited to furnish the motive and composition of the flag. Their suggestion of a design consisted of alternate red and white stripes, thirteen in number, for the field, with the union jack in the upper flag corner. The model was received and adopted. It was later, in June, 1776, that General Washington, together with Col. George Ross and Hon. Robert Morris, brought to Mrs. Ross the rough design of a flag with thirteen red and white stripes, and bearing a union with thirteen stars.



MONG the many pleasant summer and vacation subjects presented in the July Outing there is a description of a new field for sportsmen by Alger M. Fredericks, who tells of the country lying west of Lake Temiskaming, the boundary between the provinces of Quebec and Ontario. In this part of northern Ontario, Mr. Fredericks says, the big game is just as plentiful and the country is just as wild as in the province of Labrador, where there is a population of only one man to every thirty-five square miles.


Mr. Edwyn Sandys gives complete advice to vacation venturers into the wilderness, in "A Chat About Camping," advocating, instead of the regulation tent, a big sheet of waterproof stuff with an eyelet and a long tie string in each corner, with a thirty-foot clothesline, to use instead of a pole. The most important part of this coaching for camping parties he considers an injunction to put out the fire beyond any possibility of life, "so that you can go away satisfied that no criminal carelessness on your part will add a scar to the face of North America."

Miss A. C. Laut, in her serial, "The Story of the Trapper," considers this month "The Buffalo Runners." Mr. Alexander Kidd tells in detail how A. F.

Duffey recently cut down the world's record for a hundred-yard sprint to nine and three-fifths seconds, and J. P. Thompson furnishes "A Short Cut to Swimming," with a suggestion of the easiest and most natural method of learning the art.



IPPINCOTT'S" for July contains an account of the operation of laying a modern cable, by Percie W. Hart. At present there are forty-two fully equipped vessels employed solely in laying and caring for the telegraphic cables of the world, which aggregate 180,000 nautical miles. Deep sea cables weigh about two tons to the mile, while the inshore variety weighs about fourteen tons to the mile, so that it requires a stout vessel to carry any considerable length of cable. The cable is coiled in big iron tanks thirty or forty feet in diameter in the cargo hold of the vessel. "There seems to be no logical reason why cables cannot be laid across any section of the oceans of the world, no matter how great the depth. Some portions of the Atlantic cables are over three miles below the surface, and this is not necessarily the extreme depth, for the cable may, and probably does, pass from the top of one submarine hill to another without drooping materially into the deep valleys between. The greatest depth of the sea is 40,236 feet, or seven and three-fifth miles, found in the South Atlantic about midway between the island of Tristran d'Acunha and the mouth of the Rio de la Plata."

This midsummer number of Lippincott's is chiefly occupied with fiction and verse, the complete novelette of the month being Mabel N. Thurston's "On the Road to Arcady."

lowed by a description of the coronation ceremony
proper by Curtis Brown; there is printed in this
number the personal narrative of Chief Officer E. S.
Scott, of the Roraima, describing the destruction of
that vessel in the harbor of St. Pierre, on May 8, and a
discussion of the representation of the Southern States
in the House and the Electoral College, by the Hon. E.
D. Crumpacker, author of the plan to cut down the
Southern delegation to Congress.

Frank Leslie's opens with an article on "Crowning a British King," by His Grace, the Duke of Argyll, fol



R. PETER MACQUEEN advocates in the July National Magazine "An Island Republic for the Filipinos." He thinks Dean Worcester gave the wrong impression of the situation in merely making the statement that there are about ninety different tribes in the islands. Dr. MacQueen says eighty-seven of these tribes do not number a half a million, whereas the three great Malay divisions number nearly seven millions. This writer suggests the formation of three cooperate states under a central republican government. The Tagalos, the Visayans, and the Morros each to have a state, and the national capital to be located at Manila. Douglas Malloch describes the unveiling of "The First McKinley Statue," at Muskegon, Mich. The statue was presented to the city by the philanthropist, Charles H. Hackley. It was the work of the sculptor Niehaus, and was unveiled last Memorial Day in the presence of 50,000 people. The commission for the statue was given within a few weeks after the President was shot.

Harriet O. Clendenin describes "An Army Woman's Voyage to Manila," the journey being taken by way of the Suez Canal. There is a sketch of Gen. E. S. Bragg, recently appointed to be the first consul-general of the United States at Havana, another of Secretary Cortelyou, and other timely features.



RANK LESLIE'S" for July is enterprising in printing an illustrated article on the Martinique disaster containing the actual observations of the ex


plorer, C. E. Borchgrevink, who was one of the party Wainwright describes "The New Naval Academy"

N World's Work Commander Richard

that visited the scene of the cataclysm. He says that
it is not at all probable the recent eruptions have ter-
minated the present geological events in the West In-
dies. "There evidently still exists a very strong pres-
sure below the earth-crust in this locality. The escape
of steam from the craters will momentarily lighten the
pressure, but when the molten conglomerate stiffens a
fresh outbreak is likely to take place wherever the
facilities for breaking are the best." This writer thinks
that electricity plays a much larger part in the erup-
tions than has hitherto been supposed, and that the
study of volcanic problems will have to be pursued
along very different lines from those which have hither-
to been followed by scientists.

and the imposing buildings that will cost $8,000,000.
Commander Wainwright, who is superintendent of the
academy, says that the plans designed by Mr. Flagg
will produce not only commodious buildings well
suited to the needs of the academy, but also a splendid
architectural masterpiece well worthy of the country.
The buildings the Naval Academy has had to get along
with have always been behind the needs of the institu-

In "Drying Up a Sea," Mr. R. Beckles Wilson gives a very good account of the enormous undertaking of the Dutch in reclaiming the greater part of the Zuyder Zee, a sea covering no less than 1,400 square miles. The lands to be reclaimed should support from 20,000 to 50,000 persons in comfort and plenty, whereas at present 3,500 fishermen only get a precarious living from the waters. The engineering aspects of this huge work were presented in the May number of the REVIEW OF REVIEWS.


The Rev. David M. Steele, writing on "The Ministry as a Profession," says that no clergyman can become rich. According to him, the largest incomes ever had by any clergymen were those of the late Drs. Brown, Hall, and Babcock, of New York, each of whom received nearly $30,000 a year; but in the entire Episcopalian and Presbyterian denomination Dr. Steele says there are not ten men to-day in the United States with salaries of $10,000 a year, while there are men at work with salaries of not $1,000 in ten years. He gives the average salary of the average clergyman of the average denomination in the average community as about $900. Dr. Steele calls attention to two dangers to which a clergyman is subject, and to which other professions are not subject. The first is that of being a failure, the second is that of

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Mr. Samuel P. Verner, of Stillman Institute, Alabama, has an account of a very interesting educational experiment with two cannibal boys from Central Africa who are now in an American school. One is the son of a chief, the other the son of a fisherman. The country from which they came is the most remote from outside influence in Africa, two thousand miles from either coast, and just south of the equator. The tribe are such confirmed cannibals that it has been repeatedly asserted that they eat their own dead, and have boneyards instead of cemeteries. Mr. Verner carried the boys to Alabama, and is educating them at the Stillman Institute. He proposes to carry them even to the university, and to some special education if their progress and promise demand it. The progress so far has been extraordinary. They can read and write, and know elementary geography and arithmetic, write letters, have professed Christianity, and have decided and decidedly good character. They are faithful workmen on the farm, and can use the ordinary mechanical tools fairly well. One is leading his class with an average of 93, and the other is not far behind. Mr. Verner hopes ultimately to secure a concession of land for them from King Leopold of Belgium, that they may return to elevate their people.

Dr. W. H. Tolman, in "Lifting up the Liquor Saloon," discusses the various substitutes for the saloons that have been tried, such as the People's Refreshment House Association, in England; Donald Murray tells "How Cables Unite the World," and describes the growth of the vast system of submarine telegraphy and the recent achievements in swift automatic transmission; Waldon Fawcett gives a picture of "The President's Business Office;" H. M. Stephens writes on "Some Living American Historians;" C. H. Matson tells of the mammoth Sherman farm in Kansas, which has a fence line more than 100 miles long, and includes 52 square miles of wheat, corn, and pasturage; and "The Northwest Boundary," he there are articles on coal strike, and "The Revival of Skilled Handwork.'


N the Atlantic Monthly for July appears a careful

in Porto Rico the


years of American occupancy, by W. F. Willoughby. We have quoted extensively from this in the department of "Leading Articles of the Month." The editor of the Atlantic has the courage in his essay on Keeping the Fourth of July" to confess a boyish fondness for the old-fashioned reckless and noisy day. However grandiloquent sound the Websterian phrases of half a century ago, and however superior we think we have grown to spread-eagleism, barbecues, and buncombe, to the early firecracker and the long-awaited sky-rocket, the Atlantic's editor is willing to be awakened at an unseemly hour if only for the memory of dewy-wet dawns of long ago, and the imminent deadly breechrusty cannon under the windows of irascible old gentlemen, of real battle-flags waying, and perspiring bands pounding ou "The Star-Spangled Banner," and impassioned orators who twisted the British lion's tail until it looked like a corkscrew.

An important literary contribution to the Atlantic

is the publishing of extracts from the manuscript diaries of Ralph Waldo Emerson, appearing in this number with the consent of the philosopher's children. They describe, with utter and engaging frankness, his walks, talks, and excursions with his younger neighbor and friend, the late William Ellery Channing. Mr. Higginson well says of these extracts, in a prefatory note, "With all our previous knowledge of Emerson, it may yet be truly said that he has nowhere been revealed in so sweet and lovable a light, combined with an attitude so open and independent, as in these detached fragments."

In the course of a very pleasant article on the sport of sailing, Mr. W. J. Henderson maintains that we owe a big debt to the leading yacht clubs of the country, as they are the propagators of the true nautical spirit. The small-boat sailor but follows in the wake of the large yacht. Even the professional fishermen sailors are thoroughly versed in the doings of the cup defenders, and learn all that is to be learned from international yacht races. The yacht-club membership is a small percentage of the myriad of sailors these associations give to the country. Dallas L. Sharp presents a really delightful nature study in his symphonic description of "The Marsh;" James A. Le Roy discusses "Race Prejudice in the Philippines," and there is an essay by Edward Dowden on Walter Pater.



HE June number of the North American Review opens with an article by M. Santos Dumont on "Air-Ships and Flying Machines." The young Brazilian aeronaut makes the frank admission, at the close of his article, that "it is shorter and more convenient to pen a system of aërial navigation on paper than to set it in motion and make it perform its functions." Indeed, M. Santos Dumont seems quite aware of the fact that the American people are more interested in the coming aërial competition at St. Louis and elsewhere than they can possibly be in any series of magazine articles theorizing on the subject. Nevertheless, he announces his resolve to write a series of such articles; and, if it proves impossible to set forth the principles of aeronautics within such narrow limits, M. Santos Dumont promises to give to the world, in different languages, the voluminous manuscript in which he has summed up for his own instruction, in the form of a treatise, the scientific principles and historic facts of aërial navigation from the more remote times to the present day.


In an article entitled, "How to Curb the Trusts," Mr. Henry Michelsen makes an argument for the nationalization of railroads. He admits that the present state of affairs in our American transportation system has been brought about in a perfectly legitimate manner, and that the establishment of the business of the nation upon its present large scale is due to the genius and administrative ability of the men who handle the railroads. The rates of freight and passenger traffic, he says, are low compared with those exacted abroad, while the service is being constantly improved. What the public complains of, he says, is "not that the transportation lines are willfully and arbitrarily exacting, by means of excessive rates, undue advantages for themselves, but that they discriminate in favor of trusts and

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