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BOOK two or three diftinct operations; to put it on, is a peculiar bufinefs, to whiten the pins is another; it is even a trade by itfelf to put them into the paper; and the important bufinefs of making a pin is, in this manner, divided into about eighteen diftinct operations, which, in fome manufactories, are all performed by diftinct hands, though in others the fame man will fometimes perform two or three of them. I have feen a fmall manufactory of this kind where ten men only were employed, and where fome of them confequently performed two or three diftinct operations. But though they were very poor, and therefore but indifferently accommodated with the neceffary machinery, they could, when they exerted themselves, make among them about twelve pounds of pins in a day. There are in a pound upwards of four thousand pins of a middling fize. Thofe ten perfons, therefore, could make among them upwards of forty-eight thousand pins in a day. Each perfon, therefore, making a tenth part of forty-eight thousand pins, might be confidered as making four thou fand eight hundred pins in a day. But if they had all wrought feparately and independently, and without any of them having been educated to this peculiar business, they certainly could not each of them have made twenty, perhaps not one pin in a day; that is, certainly, not the two hundred and fortieth, perhaps not the four thou fand eight hundredth part of what they are at prefent capable of performing, in confequence of

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a proper divifion and combination of their c HA P. different operations,

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In every other art and manufacture, the effects of the divifion of labour are fimilar to what they are in this very trifling one; though, in many of them, the labour can neither be fo much fubdivided, nor reduced to fo great a fimplicity of operation. The divifion of labour, however, fo far as it can be introduced, occafions, in every art, a proportionable increase of the productive powers of labour. The feparation of different trades and employments from one another, feems to have taken place, in confequence of this advantage. This feparation too is generally carried furtheft in thofe countries which enjoy the highest degree of industry and improvement; what is the work of one man in a rude state of society, being generally that of feveral in an improved one. In every improved fociety, the farmer is generally nothing but a farmer; the manufac turer, nothing but a manufacturer. The labour too which is neceffary to produce any one com, plete manufacture, is almost always divided among a great number of hands. How many different trades are employed in each branch of the linen and woollen manufactures, from the growers of the flax and the wool, to the bleachers and fmoothers of the linen, or to the dyers and dreffers of the cloth! The nature of agriculture, indeed, does not admit of fo many fubdivifions of labour, nor of fo complete a feparation of one bufinefs from another, as manufactures. It is impoffible to feparate fo entirely, the bufinefs of

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AND F.R.S. OF LONDON AND EDINBURGH:

ONE OF THE COMMISSIONERS OF HIS MAJESTY'S CUSTOMS
IN SCOTLAND;

AND FORMERLY PROFESSOR OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY

IN THE UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW.

WITH AN ACCOUNT OF

HIS LIFE AND WRITINGS

BY DUGALD STEWART,
PROFESSOR OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY IN THE UNIVERSITY, AND
FELLOW OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY, OF EDINBURGH,

&c. &c. &c.

IN FIVE VOLUMES.

VOL. II.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR T. CADELL AND W. DAVIES; F. C. AND J. RIVINGTON; OTRIDGE
AND SON; F. WINGRAVE; LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN;
JOHN RICHARDSON ; J. BOOKER; B. CROSBY; E. JEFFERY; W. STEWART;
BLACK, PARRY, AND KINGSBURY; S. BAGSTER; J. MAWMAN; J. ASPERNE;
AND R. SCHOLEY; AND W. CREECH, AND BELL AND BRADFUTE, AT
EDINBURGH.

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