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OF THE NATURE, ACCUMULATION, AND EMPLOY-
that rude state of fociety in which there is Introduct. no divifion of labour, in which exchanges are feldom made, and in which every man provides every thing for himself, it is not neceffary that any ftock fhould be accumulated or stored up beforehand, in order to carry on the bufinefs of the fociety. Every man endeavours to fupply by his own industry his own occafional wants as they occur. When he is hungry, he goes to the forest to hunt; when his coat is worn out, he clothes himself with the skin of the first large animal he kills; and when his hut begins to go to ruin, he repairs it, as well as he can, with the trees and the turf that are nearest it.
But when the divifion of labour has once been thoroughly introduced, the produce of a man's own labour can fupply but a very finall part of his occafional wants. The far greater part of them are fupplied by the produce of other men's labour, which he purchases with the produce, or, what is the fame thing, with the price of the produce of his own. But this purchase
BOOK cannot be made till fuch time as the produce of his own labour has not only been completed, but fold. A flock of goods of different kinds, therefore, must be ftored up fomewhere fufficient to maintain him, and to fupply him with the materials and tools of his work, till fuch time, at least, as both these events can be brought about. A weaver cannot apply himself entirely to his peculiar business, unless there is beforehand ftored up fomewhere, either in his own poffeffion or in that of fome other person, a stock sufficient to maintain him, and to fupply him with the ma terials and tools of his work, till he has not only completed, but fold his web. This accumulation muft, evidently, be previous to his applying his industry for fo long a time to fuch a peculiar bufinefs.
As the accumulation of ftock muft, in the nature of things, be previous to the divifion of labour, fo labour can be more and more fubdivided in proportion only as ftock is previously more and more accumulated. The quantity of materials which the fame number of people can work up, increases in a great proportion as la bour comes to be more and more fubdivided; and as the operations of each workman are gradually reduced to a greater degree of fimplicity, a va riety of new machines come to be invented for facilitating and abridging those operations. As the divifion of labour advances, therefore, in order to give conftant employment to an equal number of workmen, an equal ftock of provifions, and a greater ftock of materials and tools than
than what would have been neceffary in a ruder Introduct.
As the accumulation of ftock is previously neceffary for carrying on this great improvement in the productive powers of labour, fo that accumulation naturally leads to this improvement. The person who employs his stock in maintaining labour, neceffarily wishes to employ it in fuch a manner as to produce as great a quantity of work as poffible. He endeavours, therefore, both to make among his workmen the moft proper diftribution of employment, and to furnish them with the beft machines which he can either invent or afford to purchase. His abilities in both thefe refpects are generally in proportion to the extent of his ftock, or to the number of people whom it can employ. The quantity of industry, therefore, not only increases in every country with the increase of the stock which employs it, but, in confequence of that increase, the fame quantity of industry produces a much greater quantity of work.
Such are in general the effects of the increafe of ftock upon industry and its productive powers.
In the following book I have endeavoured to explain the nature of ftock, the effects of its accumulation into capitals of different kinds, and the effects of the different employments of thofe
BOOK thofe capitals. This book is divided into five chapters. In the first chapter, I have endeavoured to fhow what are the different parts or branches into which the ftock, either of an individual, or of a great fociety, naturally divides itself. In the fecond, I have endeavoured to explain the nature and operation of money confidered as a particular branch of the general ftock of the fociety. The ftock which is accumulated into a capital, may either be employed by the perfon to whom it belongs, or it may be lent to fome other perfon. In the third and fourth chapters, I have endeavoured to examine the manner in which it operates in both these fituations. The fifth and laft chapter treats of the different effects which the different employ. ments of capital immediately produce upon the quantity both of national induftry, and of the annual produce of land and labour.
Of the Divifion of Stock.
the flock which a man poffeffes is
no more than fufficient to maintain him for a few days or a few weeks, he feldom thinks of deriving any revenue from it. He confumes it as fparingly as he can, and endeavours by his labour to acquire fomething which may fupply its place before it be confumed altogether. His