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N that rude ftate of fociety in which there is Introduct. no divifion of labour, in which exchanges are feldom made, and in which every man provides every thing for himself, it is not neceffary that any ftock fhould be accumulated or stored up beforehand, in order to carry on the business of the fociety. Every man endeavours to fupply by his own industry his own occafional wants as they occur. When he is hungry, he goes to the forest to hunt; when his coat is worn out, he clothes himself with the skin of the first large animal he kills; and when his hut begins to go to ruin, he repairs it, as well as he can, with the trees and the turf that are nearest it.

But when the divifion of labour has once been thoroughly introduced, the produce of a man's own labour can fupply but a very finall part of his occafional wants. The far greater part of them are supplied by the produce of other men's labour, which he purchases with the produce, or, what is the fame thing, with the price of the produce of his own. But this purchase

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BOOK cannot be made till fuch time as the produce of his own labour has not only been completed, but fold. A flock of goods of different kinds, therefore, must be ftored up fomewhere fufficient to maintain him, and to fupply him with the materials and tools of his work, till fuch time, at least, as both thefe events can be brought about. A weaver cannot apply himself entirely to his peculiar business, unless there is beforehand ftored up fomewhere, either in his own poffeffion or in that of fome other perfon, a stock fufficient to maintain him, and to fupply him with the mas terials and tools of his work, till he has not only completed, but fold his web. This accumulation muft, evidently, be previous to his applying his industry for fo long a time to fuch a peculiar bufinefs.

As the accumulation of ftock muft, in the nature of things, be previous to the divifion of labour, fo labour can be more and more fubdivided in proportion only as ftock is previously more and more accumulated. The quantity of materials which the fame number of people can work up, increases in a great proportion as la bour comes to be more and more fubdivided; and as the operations of each workman are gradually reduced to a greater degree of fimplicity, a va riety of new machines come to be invented for facilitating and abridging thofe operations. As the divifion of labour advances, therefore, in order to give conftant employment to an equal number of workmen, an equal flock of provifions, and a greater ftock of materials and tools


than what would have been neceffary in a ruder Introduct. ftate of things, muft be accumulated before

hand. But the number of workmen in every branch of bufinefs generally increases with the divifion of labour in that branch, or rather it is the increase of their number which enables them to clafs and fubdivide themfelves in this manner.

As the accumulation of ftock is previously neceffary for carrying on this great improvement in the productive powers of labour, so that accumulation naturally leads to this improvement. The person who employs his flock in maintaining labour, neceffarily wishes to employ it in fuch a manner as to produce as great a quantity of work as poffible. He endeavours, therefore, both to make among his workmen the moft proper diftribution of employment, and to furnish them with the beft machines which he can either invent or afford to purchase. His abilities in both thefe refpects are generally in proportion to the extent of his ftock, or to the number of people whom it can employ. The quantity of industry, therefore, not only increases in every country with the increase of the stock which employs it, but, in confequence of that increase, the fame quantity of induftry produces a much greater quantity of work.

Such are in general the effects of the increafe of stock upon industry and its productive powers.

In the following book I have endeavoured to explain the nature of ftock, the effects of its accumulation into capitals of different kinds, and the effects of the different employments of


BOOK thofe capitals.


This book is divided into five

chapters. In the firft chapter, I have endea-
voured to fhow what are the different parts or
branches into which the ftock, either of an indi-
vidual, or of a great fociety, naturally divides
itself. In the fecond, I have endeavoured to ex-
plain the nature and operation of money con-
fidered as a particular branch of the general
stock of the fociety.
The ftock which is accu-
mulated into a capital, may either be employed
by the perfon to whom it belongs, or it may be
lent to fome other perfon. In the third, and
fourth chapters, I have endeavoured to examine
the manner in which it operates in both these
fituations. The fifth and laft chapter treats of
the different effects which the different employ-
ments of capital immediately produce upon the
quantity both of national industry, and of the
annual produce of land and labour.





Of the Divifion of Stock.

HEN the flock which a man poffeffes is no more than fufficient to maintain him for a few days or a few weeks, he feldom thinks of deriving any revenue from it. He confumes it as fparingly as he can, and endeavours by his labour to acquire fomething which may fupply its place before it be confumed altogether. His

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