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The Kernel, University of Kentucky: "The ruling *** is one of the hardest blows dealt against communistic propaganda in many years. Unpleasant as it is to many southerners, we are on the road to making the democratic principles embodied in our Constitution a fact. Unfortunately the ruling will be opposed by many of the States involved ***. We hope that with all our hearts that the University of Kentucky and Kentucky will be among the leaders to put the wheels of progress into motion."
Daily Tar Heel, University of North Carolina: "The Supreme Court has declared in powerful language *** that separated but equal is a phrase without meaning, that segregated education is inherently unequal. If the university is true to its tradition, it will not now retreat before that declaration. This is a time for yielding of personal prejudice and discrimination for the changing of opinion and practice ***. If we are wise we will welcome Negro North Carolinians to our schools and to our universities."
The Amsterdam News: "The decision is the greatest victory for the Negro people since the Emancipation Proclamation. It will alleviate racial troubles in many fields other than education."
The Pittsburgh Courier: "The conscience of America has spoken through its constitutional voice * * *. This clarion announcement will also stun and silence America's Communist traducers behind the Iron Curtain. It will effectively impress upon millions of colored people in Asia and Africa the fact that idealism and social morality can and do prevail in the United States, regardless of race, creed or color."
The Chicago Defender: "Neither the atom bomb nor the hydrogen bomb will ever be as meaningful to our democracy as the unanimous declaration of the Supreme Court * * *. This means the beginning of the end of the dual society in American life and the system of less segregation which supported it." The Atlanta Daily. World: "This case has attracted world attention; its import will be of great significance in these trying times when democracy itself is struggling to envision a free world * * *. Coming at this particular time, the decision serves as a boost to the spirit of democracy; it accelerates the faith of the intense devoutness in minorities who have long believed in and trusted the courts."
The Boston Chronicle: "*** Such presentation is the noblest patriotism in these days of international crisis, and it strengthens incalculably the diplomatic efficiency of our Government in its task at the Geneva Conference."
[The Convention and Triennial Daily]
RESOLUTION ON RACE IS VOTED BY BISHOPS
An amended resolution on race relations was adopted unanimously and without debate by the House of Bishops at its Friday morning session. The resolution, sent to the House of Deputies for its concurrence or rejection, reads:
"Whereas Holy Scripture teaches that God created man in His likeness and image and sent His Son, that in Him all mankind might find essential unity; and "Whereas the perversity of human nature is sowing the seeds of racial conflict and tension throughout the world; and
"Whereas the church's task in such conflict is to reconcile man to man and race to race, through the healing and redeeming power of Jesus Christ; and
"Whereas the difficulty of applying the Christian principle of brotherhood in specific situations is continuing to divide sincere Christians and to arouse our compassion for all who are especially involved: Now, therefore, be it
"Resolved (the House of Deputies concurring), That we call upon
"1. Our families to foster a Christian understanding of race relations and to lead their children into such Christian attitudes as will prevent prejudice and promote mutual trust,
"2. Our congregations to plan and carry forth such programs of prayer and study as will create, maintain, and strengthen the lines of communication between all races.
"3. Our church and civil leaders to direct their people beyond the easy standards of local expediency and to provide such creative and positive leadership as will establish that society in which discrimination and without separation, all opportunities in education, housing, employment, public accommodations, and all other aspects of church and civil life.
"4. Our people to implement loyally and effectively the Lambeth trilateral of 'mutual understanding, calm reason, and constant prayer,' through which our Heavenly Father will grant us that peace and righteousness which He alone can give.
THE LAMBETH CONFERENCE-1958
THE ENCYCLICAL LETTER FROM THE BISHOPS TOGETHER WITH THE
CONDEMNATION OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION
110. The Conference affirms its belief in the natural dignity and value of every man, of whatever colour or race, as created in the image of God. In the light of this belief the Conference affirms that neither race nor colour is in itself a barrier to any aspect of that life in family and community for which God created all men. It therefore condemns discrimination of any kind on the grounds of race or colour alone.
The Conference would urge that in multiracial societies members of all races shall be allowed:
(a) a fair and just share in the government of their country;
(b) a fair and just share in the control, development, and rewards of the natural resources of their country, including advancement to the highest level of attainment;
(c) the right to associate freely in worship, in education, in industry, in recreation, and in all other departments of the common life.
A. THE RACIAL PROBLEM
The Committee asks that attention should not be confined to any one section. It has been thought good to make a general statement in the context of one area in order that, when seen more vividly in that context, its importance for others may be the better appreciated.
Within any land in which members of different races meet, there are the seeds of racial tension and conflict, not least in those territories into which the white man has penetrated. Tensions there will always be in every part of the world; yet it is one of the primary tasks of the Church not so much to resolve such tensions as, by the power of Christ through whom man is reconciled to God, through whom man's at-one-ment has been wrought, to reconcile man to man, and race to race. In Christ the Church is to transform all tensions from being fruitful for evil to being fruitful for good.
At the root of every conflict lies human sin, provoking situations which may become inflammatory and problems which may seem to be insoluble. Yet, for Christians, the fact of man's essential unit in Christ is paramount. In every sphere of his activity man is called to unity and brotherhood in the Family of God, the Church. Therefore no permanent class or racial separation, no oppression of the weak by the strong, no denial of opportunity for advancement, can be justified.
The Church itself must bear witness to this truth in its own life. Interracial worship, interracial meeting, both formal and informal, freedom of all races to enter and use educational, social, and health facilities, equal economic opportunities these and other activities must be seen within the pattern of the Church's life and witness without compromise, self-consciousness, or apology. There may be no easy answers to special and local difficulties; nevertheless, the Church must affirm that any form of segregation or separation solely on the basis of race is contrary to the Divine Will.
(a) United States of America
(I) AREAS OF UNREST
On 17 May 1954 the Supreme Court of the United States handed down a decision ruling racial segregation in the public schools to be unconstitutional, and brought into focus one of the most acute social problems the nation has faced in generations. Together with other religious bodies, the General Convention of the Episcopal Church has also declared it would "consistently oppose and combat discrimination based on colour or race of every form, both
within the Church and without, in this country and internationally", while its National Council has passed a separate resolution regarding the Supreme Court's decision as "just, right, and necessary". No diocesan council or convention of the Church is segregated according to race. More and more Church organizations are disregarding colour lines.
Unquestionably these independent actions of Church and State have combined to make possible some of the encouraging progress now being seen in the attainment of broader civil rights for minority groups. The Negro is entering upon a new era of educational and political freedom in the United States. Better housing and greater economic opportunities are becoming available to the people of many races and tongues. Many social barriers are coming down.
However, the degree of this attainment has not been the same everywhere. There are still unresolved conflicts resulting from the influx of immigrants into seaport cities; the special problems connected with Puerto Ricans, Poles, Jews, and Irish still demand attention; the South-West is at grips with its LatinAmerican difficulties; the West Coast is concerned with its proper relation to Orientals; the position of the American Indian has not yet been clarified. Beyond all these conflicts of varying intensity, the Negro is now moving North in great numbers, and aiready this area is being increasingly faced with the necessity of solving this fresh integration problem.
Meanwhile the eyes of the nation and of the world are fixed upon the problem as it presents itself in the South, where Christians are finding themselves on opposite sides. The Negro with natural impatience is exercising a persistence which many whites find irritating. Mutual fear and suspicion and prejudice are, as so often, delaying the process of reconciliation. The controversy has engendered deep differences not only between the white man and the Negro but between members of the same family and race. The situation, with its accompanying political implications, has also prompted the passage of many segregation Bills by Southern State legislatures in an attempt to circumvent the Supreme Court's ruling. This has created a further division of loyalties. These are some of the elements of a complicated and confusing situation in which the Church is speaking and living. Its clergy and, in increasing numbers, its laity are working, not only to ensure to members of all races a free participation in divine worship, but also to ensure that educational and health services as well as equal economic opportunities are available to all. This the Church is consistently trying to accomplish without submitting to any tempting policy of expediency. It is striving to go forward in the knowledge that to stand still is a denial of its belief in God's guidance and its own responsibility to its brothers in Christ.
There is no easy solution to the differences which exist in regard to race relations in the United States in general. The complexities compel a sympathy for all who are involved. But this Committee believes that men of good will in all races can point the way to greater peace and harmony through the exercise of mutual understanding, calm reason, and constant prayer.
STATE OF ALABAMA,
GOVERNOR'S OFFICE, Montgomery, May 5, 1959.
Hon. CHARLES SLAYMAN,
Counsel, Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights,
U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C.
DEAR MR. SLAYMAN: I wish to apologize for my delay in furnishing you and the subcommittee the information that you requested recently when I appeared before your subcommittee in opposition to some so-called civil rights bills. I have had difficulty in locating extra copies of briefs filed by the parties in the cases involving the boards of registrars and other public officials in Federal court in Montgomery.
Enclosed herewith is a copy of the brief filed by the respondents and the Alabama Bar Association in the case in re George C. Wallace, et al. I believe that this brief amply sets out the facts of the case as well as the legal principles involved.
1 General Convention, Boston, 1952.
2 Cf. National Council Pamphlet entitled "Just, Right, and Necessary."
Also enclosed is a copy of the brief filed by the United States in said case. I call your attention to page 8 of said brief where the United States takes the position that the powers of the Civil Rights Commission are the same as the powers of a common law grand jury.
I am also herewith returning the transcript of my testimony before your committee which I have corrected.
You also requested that I furnish you certain legal citations substantiating the rule that class actions cannot be brought to vindicate voting rights, but each case must stand on its individual facts and must be brought separately. These citations are as follows:
Mitchell v. Wright (October 1945), 62 F. Supp. 580-154 F. 2d 924, 67 Supreme Court 96, 329 U.S. 733 91 L. Ed. 622.
Williams v. Kansas City, Mo. et al. 104 F. Supp. 848 (see p. 857) June 10, 1953 205 F. 2d page 47 (Kansas City, et al. v. Williams et al.) U.S. Court of Appeals 8 Cir.
Jinks v. Hodge 11 FRD 346.
Siegel v. Regain 88 F. Supp. 996.
Again, I wish to say that it was a pleasure appearing before you and the subcommittee and I appreciate the opportunity and the courtesy extended to me.
Very truly yours,
JOHN PATTERSON, Governor.
IN THE DISTRICT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE MIDDLE DISTRICT OF ALABAMA, NORTHERN DIVISION
Civil Action No. 1487-N
In Re: GEORGE C. WALLACE, W. A. STOKES, SR., GRADY ROGERS, E. P. LIVINGSTON, M. T. EVANS AND J. W. SPENCER
On Motions of Respondents To Set Aside Order To Appear Before the Commission on Civil Rights
BRIEF FOR RESPONDENTS, AND ON BEHALF OF THE ALABAMA STATE BAR, AS AMICUS CURIAE
By summary order dated December 11, 1958, this court commanded George C. Wallace, W. A. Stokes, Sr., Grady Rogers, E. P. Livingston, M. T. Evans and J. W. Spencer, hereinafter referred to as "respondents", to appear before the Commission on Civil Rights on December 19, 1958; to produce at that time certain records of the State of Alabama; and to give testimony before the Commission. The order was issued in response to an application filed December 10, 1958, by the Attorney General of the United States, and none of the respondents had notice of the filing of the application or any opportunity to be heard before issuance of the order. On December 16, 1958, the respondents filed with the court motions requesting the court to vacate its order; to deny the application of the Attorney General; to quash the administrative subpoenas which had theretofore been issued by the Commission; and, in the alternative, to suspend the order of the court pending hearing of the respondents' objections thereto. By order dated December 17, 1958, this court suspended the operation of the
prior order until January 9, 1959, and set down respondents' motions for hearing on January 5, 1959. The court further ordered that written briefs be filed with the court not later than 10:00 a.m., December 31, 1958.
STATEMENT OF FACTS
The Commission on Civil Rights is a temporary agency of the United States government, created by the Civil Rights Act of 1957. It is composed of six members appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and, in addition, has a full-time director and staff. Under Section 104 (a) of the Act, the Commission is empowered (i) to investigate sworn allegations in writing that citizens are being deprived of their right to vote; (ii) to study and collect information concerning legal developments constituting a denial of equal protection of the laws; and (iii) to appraise federal laws and policies with respect to equal protection of the laws. The Commission is charged also with submitting interim reports and a final report to the President and to Congress. The final report of the Commission is to be submitted not later than September 7, 1959. Sixty days thereafter the Commission shall cease to exist. The Commission set a public hearing to be held in the City of Montgomery, Montgomery County, Alabama, on December 8, 1958. Prior to this hearing, by subpoenas dated November 29, 1958, and served on December 2 and 3, the Commission ordered respondents, as officials of the State of Alabama, to appear on December 8 and to produce at such time and place certain voting registration records of the State. The agent of the Commission who served the subpoena on respondent Wallace at the courthouse in Clayton, Barbour County, Alabama, was accompanied by a paid publicity agent of the Commission, and by a newspaperman alerted by the Commission.
Respondent George C. Wallace is a judicial officer of the State of Alabama, being the sole judge for the Third Judicial Circuit of Alabama, which includes the counties of Barbour, Bullock, and Dale. His court is one of general jurisdiction and is the only such court for the counties named.3
Respondents Stokes and Spencer are members of the Board of Registrars of Barbour County, Alabama. Respondent Evans is a member of the Board of Registrars of Bullock County, Alabama. Prior to December 10, 1958, on which date they resigned, respondents Rogers and Livingston were members of the Board of Registrars of Macon County, Alabama. Under the law of Alabama, registrars are responsible for the administration of the registration of voters in the counties with respect to which they are appointed, and under the Constitution of Alabama they are judicial officers of the state. The records which they keep with respect to registration and which were ordered produced are official records of the State of Alabama, and with respect thereto, the law of Alabama provides that "no records or papers of any court must be removed out of the county, except in cases of invasion or insurrection, whereby the same may be endangered, or unless by order of the court."
On October 29, 1958, one month prior to the issuance of the subpoenas of the Commission, respondent Wallace, acting as judge of the Third Judicial Circuit of Alabama, and pursuant to a petition filed by a resident of Barbour County, ordered all registration records of that county impounded and delivered to his court to be held pending a grand jury investigation of improper registration. On November 21, 1958, in a similar proceeding, Judge Wallace impounded the registration records of Bullock County. Thus, when the subpoenas were served upon them, respondents Stokes, Spencer, and Evans were not in possession of, and did not have access to, the records which were ordered produced.
The subpoena issued by the Commission to Judge Wallace ordered him to appear in Montgomery, Alabama, outside his judicial circuit, and to bring with him
1 Public Law 85-315, 85th Cong., Sept. 9, 1957; 71 Stat. 634; 42 U.S.C.A. Sec. 1975. 2 This so-called "hearing" was preceded by much publicity, on the part of the Commission, and the proceeding was deprived of all dignity, and of any bona fide function as an investigation of facts, by the presence of television and newsreel cameras, the facilities for which, together with those for newsmen, occupied approximately one-half of the space available in the federal courtroom in which the hearing was conducted. A large part of the remaining space was permitted by the Commission to be occupied by spectators not directly interested in the matters purportedly under investigation, with the result that there was not sufficient seating room for witnesses and their counsel.
3 See generally, Ala. Const. 1901, Article 6, §§ 139, 142-148; Ala. Code 1940, Tit. 13, Chapter 4.
Ala. Code 1940, Tit. 17, §§ 21-56.
5 Ala. Const. 1901, Amend. 91 (1951).
Ala. Code 1940, Tit. 7, § 3.