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HE Bay View Reading Club provides choice Reading Courses for systematic home study and club work after an improved educational plan. Many people want to organize to do literary work, and feel the need of help in deciding what to do and how to do it. It offers as the most effective of all club work, definite and systematic Reading Courses, with a great number of helps. Its Courses are planned for people of too limited time for elaborate work, and yet who are ambitious to advance in intelligence by turning their spare moments to good account. It is for people who want to enlarge their world by studying outward and upward into inspiring subjects.
The Club was started in 1893 to meet the wide demand for a thoroughly directed, short, and low-priced reading course. It has now a membership of over 25,000, with more than 1,600 local clubs distributed in nearly every State and in other countries. These courses have been adopted by more than 1,000 woman's clubs.
THE NEW MAGAZINE COURSE.
Broadly speaking, the new volume of the Bay View Magazine will bring into true and immediate relation the Courses of Study that are ready, and the changing world of the current year.
It is not the function of the Magazine to make its pages of mere current interest. Momentous as the times are through which we are passing, it is more important for the purpose of our readers to emphasize the principles underlying and the results following upon current events.
Within the Magazine year much attention will be devoted to a broad consideration of what is best and newest in civilization. We shall have much to say about the great new lights of literature which have arisen in many lands. In the very midst of war's turmoil, some of the most prodigious reforms of the centuries have occurred, and these make most inspiring reading. Then there is the new drama of which so much may be told of beauty and fine thought. The work of women, and the wonderful developments in child culture and education will claim a place in our interest. The realm of books will be laid under contribution so that the Bay View Magazine will share in the literary guidance of its readers.
It will be readily apparent to all that this plan is one of equal attraction even to the member who has taken one or many of the Courses available. Every Course becomes enriched by this treatment.
COURSES NOW AVAILABLE.
The Courses of Study with books and magazines now ready are:
The price of all courses, for Magazines and Books, is uniformly $3.50 each. This year the purchase price includes the new volume of the Magazine in addition to the Magazine and Books of the Course that may be selected.
Descriptive Circular and sample Magazine of any course sent on request. Address Trumbull White, Pres., Bay View Reading Club, 165 Boston Boulevard EastDetroit, Michigan.
THE GRAND DUCHESS OF LUXEMBURG, MARIE LOUISE ADELHEID, AND HER FIVE SISTERS The German military authorities suggested to the young monarch that an isolated residence in the country was no place for her younger sisters, and advised her to send for them. "Why should they not be safe?" she asked. "They have nothing to fear from my people. It is not fitting that my family give the signal for flight to my distracted people."
By Marion Sydney
GGLED down among and hemmed in by Germany, France and Belgium lies the present little monarchy of Luxemburg. To the north, Germany impends; to the south, France smiles a neighborly greeting across the border, while the Belgian province on its western frontier is a twin sister with the same surname.
Sympathy for Belgium's position in the present world struggle has overshadowed the almost more poignant tragedy of this little country, helpless to defend her trampled dignity when the Kaiser's troops made of her territory a public highway.
From time immemorial, this principality has been the scene of wars and invasions. Caesar came and went. The Gaul, returning from an invasion of Greece, left belongings and booty behind. For a while the Frankish empire drew Luxemburg within it. Then came the Merovingians and the wars and conquests of the blood-thirsty Clovis, leaving only some scattered weapons and graves. Charlemagne created his empire and brought into the Luxemburg country thousands of Saxons, who are traced by the English words left on the map and in the language of the people.
In the fifteenth century we find it was included in the Burgundian dominions and later fell to the Hapsburgs. Two centuries later it was forced to relinquish some of its territory, but still remained a part of those Spanish and Austrian provinces which had Brussels for their capital.
By the eighteenth century, together with what is now Belgium, it became a part of the French Republic under the modest title of "Department de Forêts." After the battle of Waterloo, however, Prussia annexed a portion of this territory and the rest was converted into a Grand Duchy for the benefit of the Prince of Orange, now made King of the Netherlands.
Now it happened that the Catholic population desired to be released from Dutch control and to join with Belgium. Their revolt was not entirely successful and a compromise was effected whereby one-half of the population and two-thirds of the territory was annexed to Belgium (the twin sister of which I spoke) while the remainder was restored to the Dutch king as a 'personal possession.
In 1890, upon the death of William III, King of Holland, the title of Grand Duke reverted by a former compact to the elder branch of the House of Nassau and Adolf of Nassau, grandfather of the present reigning Duchess, became the Grand Duke of independent Luxemburg. Both Adolf and his son, William, were invalids and made long sojourns outside their country. Upon the death of the latter in 1912, the eldest of his daughters, Marie Louise Adelheid, only just come of age, became the present ruler, so beloved of her people.
You can readily see how all this has spelled the most bewildering and confusing changes to the country and its people in allegiance, boundary lines, customs and conditions. Each succeeding civilization has left its mark and the country is interesting to both archeologist and geologist. Everywhere are altars, Celtic and Roman remains, sepulchers, mosaics and Roman roads. Six thousand Roman coins and several hundred Celtic ones are now preserved in the Museum in the city of Luxemburg.
Just as the country carries traces of all its previous people while retaining its own individual charm withal, so the language has borrowed from the Celtic, Saxon,
Roman, French and German until the resulting patois is a sort of Germanic dialect, though quite unintelligible to Germans. French, however, is the language of the educated people, and many of the common people use it for the simple terms of greeting as a great many become servants in Paris. The Constitution of 1848 recognized the equality of both French and German, making the country practically bi-lingual. But though German is taught in all the primary schools, French is almost exclusively used in the higher schools because of its being the accepted official language.
A sidelight on the relations between the Luxemburgers and their Prussian neighbor is shown in the circumstances under which neutrality was guaranteed. Since 1815 the Prussians had kept a garrison in the Luxemburg capital, and its withdrawal had been asked and denied. The French empire wanted Luxemburg, and the known sympathies of the people made it not impossible. So the King of the Netherlands in 1867, suggested to Bismarck a scheme to sell her to France for a consideration. To this Bismarck, who knew the Germans were not yet ready to fight Napoleon III., readily acquiesced as a means of adding yet another excuse to fight at the psychological moment. Public opinion, however, became alarmed in both France and Prussia, and the Congress of London was the result. France, Austria, Great Britain, Switzerland, Russia, Prussia and Italy all shared in this and ordered the destruction of the fortress of Luxemburg and its evacuation by Prussian troops and collectively guaranteed the neutrality of the Grand Duchy.
Long considered the Cinderella of the Ardennes, it is only within later years that Luxemburg has been appreciated by travelers and sight-seers. But its charm is insidious and once visited it is safe to say the wanderer will return. For geographically it offers as much variation as in rulers and tongues-from the somber Eisland of the northern part to the "little Switzerland" of the eastern highlands and on down to the Gutland of the south. Here the hills are of moderate height, with the plains extremely fertile and the vegetation luxurious to an almost semi-tropical degree. From Echternach to the Ereng Noire the sea has left a majestic region where there is cleft