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The city has been said to possess something of Benares, Bruges and Brussels, a fascinating composition, surely. Its buildings are now Austrian and again Spanish in architecture, while down in the low town the people live as they must have lived in the time of Charlemagne.

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and cavern from which one is suddenly plunged into dense forest.

There are the bleak uplands and the winding valleys of the Moselle and its tributaries. Extensive vineyards yielding in a good year as many as 1,250,000 gallons of the "sparkling Moselle" stretch out on every side. Then there are the clear trout streams and the plains dotted with huge sandstone boulders, fantastic of shape, and mysterious gorges, each with its legend and tale of romance. Everywhere Nature has contributed to the charm of landscape and

nowhere do you escape the signposts of the past. Picture the wonderful lights and shades in the play of the sunlight and you may know why the people of this little land are children of nature, upright and pure, believing in dreams and prayers, fairies and folk-lore-for they are literally worshipers of the sun, bidding it goodmorning and good-night with prayer.

If it were not for these wonders of nature and the favorable climatic conditions the Luxemburger might well have all the resignation and monotone of the Finn. For

there needs must be a certain coldness bred in the race from years of oppression. But in spite of an innate sadness among the peasantry, they are a hardy, progressive, hospitable and honest people. It is seldom, indeed, that one meets a beggar and everywhere prosperity reigns.

There are no class distinctions here and no land hunger. No estates are held by wealthy landlords and property may be bought from State and Commune. From an economic standpoint this little Duchy can well point the way to larger countries-for it is not permitted that a father leave all his land to the eldest son, but it must be divided equally among all the children. So that at the death of a parent each child finds himself in possession of a plot of ground, whatever be its extent, and if small, so much more incentive for thrift and industry in order to bring it to the highest degree of cultivation.

Of the country's industries agriculture is the most important. The Luxemburgers furnish enormous quantities of seed and there is a large yield of wheat and flax. There is, too, a sufficient production of leather, gloves, pottery, cloth, paper, beer and spirits to permit of an export trade. The canton of Esche is the western Pennsylvania of Luxemburg and its furnaces, forges and foundries furnish no less than one-fortieth of the world's supply of iron.

While nominally independent, the Prussians long kept an economic control over the Duchy and formed large corporations to control its iron industries and its railways. This naturally brought into the country great numbers of German workmen which at first the people of Luxemburg resented but they were resigned when they found that they quickly internationalized themselves and brought no strong foreign influence.

At present, ruling over this historically and temperamentally interesting people is the beautiful young Duchess Marie Adelheid. Though the family of Nassau is not deep-rooted in the soil of Luxemburg, the people are devoted to their young ruler. She may be compared to Wilhelmina of Holland in the loyalty she inspires in her subjects and in her own simple tastes and devotion to her work and country. Adolf, the first of the present house, was South

German by birth and heretofore there has always been a strong German influence at court. Not so now, for it is worth and not a German name or title that wins its way with Adelheid.

The monarchy is constitutional in form, the Grand Duchess nominating the Upper House of fifteen members, besides which there is a Chamber of Deputies consisting of forty-eight members who are elected for six years. The Grand Duchess is assisted by a cabinet composed of the President of the Upper House and three so-called Directeurs Généraux. These four share the duties of the different departments and are responsible to Parliament for their policy.

The Duchy is divided into thirteen cantons for which the government selects the burgomasters. There is no trial by jury but each canton has its own Justice de Paix while a court of appeal, called the High Court of Justice, sits at the capital.

The character of her young but intelligent ruler was shown the people of Luxemburg not long since when an Education

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Photo by Bain News Service


Bill was brought forward in Parliament making religious instruction to all intents and purposes optional and dependent on the wish of the parent. In spite of the great pressure brought to bear by the Church to bring about a veto, Adelheid signed it without hesitation, the Church even going so far as to announce it would refuse to work under the act. The Grand Duchy stood by the law and its young queen.

For a hemmed-in little nation with limited outlook, its educational advancement is quite remarkable. There are nearly eight hundred primary schools which have compulsory education and about seven hundred "adult schools." Then there are high schools at Diekirch, Echternach and Luxemberg the latter also boasts a large training school for teachers and artisans where many grown men and women seize this opportunity to improve their condition by better industrial preparedness. EschauAlzette is the seat of another industrial institute while Ettelbruck has a large agricultural school.

The focal point of the country of Luxem

burg is its capital city of the same name. Nowhere are the changing fortunes of its people more in evidence. It has been said to possess something of Benares, Bruges and Brussels-a fascinating composition, surely.

The original city, now holding the public buildings and the business district, is perched high up in the air and sunshine, with the Petrusse and Alzette cutting deep ditches around its base. The residential district consists of the valley below, and since the evacuation of the old fortress it has been given room to expand and stretch itself farther down the plain. Once the inland Gibralter, it has retained the best that years have bestowed, all the while renewing its youth.

Its buildings are now Austrian and again Spanish in architecture, while down in the low town the people live as they must have lived in the time of Charlemagne. The upper town, too, is most romantic and interesting, with some of her streets old and narrow while others are broad and new; some of the buildings of the latest architectural mode while others belong to the stormy period of city and duchy. Yet the transition seems so gradual as not to destroy the unity, and all is welded into a harmonious whole, though the real charm and luster of the city must always be of the past.

To complete this exotic picture there is the wonderful horticulture. Luxemburg has been called the "flower city" for it is resplendent with roses of every hue and kind while trees and terraces top the dizzy walls and the battlements are covered with soft, faded mosses as if to erase all ravages of earlier times.

Adding to its picturesqueness are the numerous bridges and viaducts which with their graceful arches and spans everywhere surround the city. One of these, the new Adolf bridge, completed in 1903, crosses the deep Petrusse valley in a single stone span, 260 feet long and 135 feet in height, the largest of its kind in the world. From here one gets a magnificent view of the town beneath and its pretty park on the banks below.

The city park is popularly called "Jardin du Général," for back of the fortress here the commander of the forces used no doubt


to cultivate a pretty little patch of garden in the midst of the grim suggestions of war. The noted designer of the gardens of Monte Carlo took fifteen years to complete this park, which is a garden spot of plants and flowers and contains the finest restaurant in the city. Like many foreign cities of this type, the life and gaiety centers in the Casino and there during the season may be found society and the court.

There are many Places where the people congregate to promenade and listen to the band concerts. The largest of these is the Place Guillaume, in the center of which stands the highly-decorative equestrian statue of William II., King of the Netherlands. He is shown entering the city of Luxemburg in 1842 to respond to the enthusiastic reception tendered him by the people of that country to whom he accorded many rights, including the franchise. has a beautiful pedestal, with the coat of arms of the canton sculptured on it.



The grand ducal palace, built in 1572-3 in Spanish Rennaissance style, despite frequent repairs and renovations, has been very carefully preserved. It is delicate in charm and noble in its simplicity of style, both in keeping with its people. The Chamber of Deputies, on the other hand, which extends the frontage of the palace, is a transition from Gothic grace to gracelessness and from art to artifice.

The palace has housed many illustrious guests in its time, among them Louis XIV. who stayed there in 1637 with Racine as one of his suite, and in 1804 Napoleon I. enjoyed its hospitality for several days.

Of late years Luxemburg has been lavish in the erection of new public buildings. The Palais Municipal has a bas relief showing the Luxemburg citizens receiving their charter of liberty from the Countess Ermesiude. Then there is a new post office and not far away the synagogue, while new business houses are rapidly being erected.

It would be unfair to the city not to tell of the dignity and charm of Notre Dame cathedral, commonly called the church of St. Nicholas. This was built during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries on the site of an early Franciscan monastery and was originally a convent of the Jesuits. There are three distinct styles of architecture, the windows and arches being

Photo by Bain News Service


Gothic, with a Renaissance façade, while strangely enough, there is a distinct Moorish motive in the shaft of the columns, this probably being due to the influence of a Spanish Jesuit architect. The cathedral contains a statue of the Virgin Mary to which miraculous powers are attributed. Pilgrims and sufferers invoke it and come to be present at its feast which lasts from the fourth to the fifth Sunday after Easter. Another interesting feature of this building is a remarkable set of chimes which ring out every quarter of an hour a number of chords of Luxemburg airs and wellknown folk songs. Its tower was often a mark for the guns of besiegers and there are marks of cannon-balls on both tower and walls.

All the names of places in Luxemburg are in French or German. Sometimes the French is commonly used to designate them and again the German title may be used. Among the latter is Pfaffanthal whose narrow streets and river-side dwellings form an artistic disarray. It was here that Goethe tarried and of which he said "this

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