Lectures on the History of Political Philosophy
Harvard University Press, 2009 M06 30 - 496 páginas
Constantly revised and refined over three decades, Rawls's lectures on various historical figures reflect his developing and changing views on the history of liberalism and democracy. With its careful analyses of the doctrine of the social contract, utilitarianism, and socialism, this volume has a critical place in the traditions it expounds.
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amour de soi amour-propre argument artiﬁcial basic Butler C. B. MacPherson Cambridge capitalism capitalist citizens common conﬂict conscience consent constitution covenant deﬁned deﬁnition democratic desires discussion effective Sovereign equal exists Filmer ﬁnal ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁt freedom fundamental interests fundamental law God’s happiness Hobbes says Hobbes’s view human nature Hume Hume’s idea individuals inequality inﬂuence intuitionism J. S. Mill Jean-Jacques Rousseau John Locke John Rawls justice as fairness Kant kind labor law of nature lecture legitimate Leviathan liberty Locke Locke’s view Marx Marx’s means Mill Mill’s moral natural right notion one’s person point of view political and social political authority political philosophy principle of utility psychological question rational Rawls Rawls’s reason reﬂection regime role Rousseau rules Second Discourse self-love sense Sidgwick signiﬁcant social compact Social Contract social institutions Sover Sovereign speciﬁc sufﬁcient theory things thought tion University Press utilitarianism virtue
Página 112 - The state of Nature has a law of Nature to govern it, which obliges every one, and reason, which is that law, teaches all mankind who will but consult it, that being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or possessions...
Página 58 - So that in the first place, I put for a general inclination of all mankind, a perpetual and restless desire of Power after power, that ceaseth only in Death.
Página 147 - To enjoy. As much as any one can make use of to any advantage of life before it spoils, so much he may by his labour fix a property in; whatever is beyond this is more than his share, and belongs to others.
Página 123 - Men being, as has been said, by nature all free, equal, and independent, no one can be put out of this estate, and subjected to the political power of another, without his own consent.
Página 124 - Political power, then, I take to be a right of making laws with penalties of death and, consequently, all less penalties for the regulating and preserving of property, and of employing the force of the community in the execution of such laws, and in the defence of the commonwealth from foreign injury, and all this only for the public good.
Página 289 - That principle is that the sole end for which mankind are warranted individually or collectively in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number is self-protection ; that the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community against his will is to prevent harm to others.
Página 350 - The life-process of society, which is based on the process of material production, does not strip off its mystical veil until it is treated as Classics in Politics: Marx and Engels ElecBook production by freely associated men, and is consciously regulated by them in accordance with a settled plan.
Página 31 - For the savage people in many places of America, except the government of small families the concord whereof dependeth on natural lust, have no government at all, and live at this day in that brutish manner as I said before. Howsoever, it may be perceived what manner of life there would be where there were no common power to fear, by the manner of life which men that have formerly lived under a peaceful government use to degenerate into, in a civil war.
Página 303 - In an improving state of the human mind, the influences are constantly on the increase, which tend to generate in each individual a feeling of unity with all the rest ; which feeling, if perfect, would make him never think of, or desire, any beneficial condition for himself, in the benefits of which they are not included.