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A SINGULAR character, of Norwich, England, who, in her zeal for mortification, confined herself for several years within, four walls. She wrote "Sixteen Revelations of Divine Love showed to a devout Servant of our Lord, called Mother Juliana, an Anchoret of Norwich, who lived in the days of King Edward III.," published in 1610.
A WOMAN who possessed great influence at the court of the Mogul emperors of Hindostan, in the early part of the last century. She was born in Bengal, in 1658, and was the daughter of a Portuguese named Augustin Diaz d'Acosta. Being shipwrecked, she went to the court of the great Mogul, Aurengzebe, whose favour she conciliated by presenting him with some curiosities. Being appointed superintendent of the harem of that prince, and governess of his son, Behadur Shah, she rendered important services to the latter, who succeeded to the crown in 1707, under the title of Shah Aulum. He was obliged to defend his authority against his brothers by force of arms; and in the battle, Juliana, mounted on an elephant by his side, encouraged and animated both him and the troops, and he was indebted to her for the complete victory he obtained. Her services were rewarded with the title of princess, the rank of the wife of Seu Omrah, and a profusion of riches and honours. Shah Aulum often said, "If Juliana were a man, she should be my vizier." Jehander Shah, who became emperor of Hindostan in 1712, was equally sensible of her merit; and though she experienced some persecution when that prince was deposed, in 1713, by his nephew, she speedily recovered her influence, and retained it till her death, in 1733.
JUNOT, LAURA, DUCHESS D'ABRANTES,
Was born in Montpelier, 1785. Constantine Comnena, a scion of the imperial stock, emigrated from the Peloponnesus, in 1676. He was followed by a body of three thousand Greeks. After two years of wandering they settled in the island of
Corsica, then a savage and uncultivated region, which they brought to some degree of culture and civilization, although the fierce and restless spirit of the native inhabitants kept them in a state of perpetual, sharp, yet petty warfare. When Corsica was sold to France, under Louis XIII., another Constantine, a man of approved valour and worth, was at the head of the Comnena family. He was the father of three sons, and a daughter, called Panona, who married a Frenchman by the name of Pernon. Upon the breaking out of the Corsican revolution, he was driven to seek shelter in France. From this union sprang the Duchess d'Abrantes. Destined to experience the most extraordinary vicissitudes, her very cradle was disturbed by the agitations which convulsed France at that period. In an autobiographical sketch, she speaks of her childish terrors, when, in the absence of her parents, she was placed at a boarding-school among strangers; the terrible days of September (1792) are particularly commemorated. Her father, for whom she appears to have entertained a particularly tender affection, died while she was still a child: she also lost the sister nearest her own age-to these afflictions were added most straitened pecuniary circumstances. latter difficulties, after a time, diminished, and Madame Pernon established herself comfortably in Paris, where her house soon became the resort of all the most noted men of that day. The attractions, personal and mental, of her daughter, were not undistinguished. A man of rank and wealth made an offer of his hand: he was old enough to be her grandfather, but this seemed no objection in the eyes of the mother, who with difficulty yielded to Laura's repugnance, and gave up a match which held out so many mercenary advantages. Another matrimonial proposal soon was presented, which came to a more fortunate conclusion. Among the generals who distinguished themselves in the wars of Napoleon, was Junot, born of respectable parents at Bussy-le-Grand, in 1771. Before entering the career of arms, he had studied jurisprudence, with his friend Marmont; but the cannons of the revolution roused him to visions of fame, and he enrolled himself in the very first battalion that was formed in his province. At the siege of Toulon he was a sergeant of grenadiers: an accident was the beginning of his advancement. Napoleon called out, on some exigency, for somebody to step forward who possessed a good hand-writing. Junot came from the ranks, and began a letter, under the great man's dictation. Scarcely had he formed the last sentence, when a bomb cast by the English, bursting at ten paces from him, covered the writer and the writing with earth. "Capital!" said Junot, smiling, "here is exactly what we want, sand to dry the ink." Such intrepidity was not lost on Bonaparte; he kept the heroic soldier in his eye, and soon after obtaining his generalship, he made Junot his adjutant. This man, on his return from the expedition to Egypt, was introduced to the house of Madame Pernon. He soon manifested an attachment to the young Laura; and as his military grade, and favour with the first consul,
were united to personal beauty and pleasing address, he was successful in the suit: they were married in 1800. A very brilliant course awaited this couple, to be terminated with respect to both in a manner singularly unfortunate. Title, riches, and honours, were showered upon them; the duchess d'Abrantes was attached to the imperial household, and no less favoured by the ladies of the Bonaparte family than her husband was by its chief. Junot, in the very height of his fortunes, became suddenly a raging lunatic. His cure being despaired of, by the consent of the best physicians, he was placed in a celebrated asylum for the insane: here his sole object appeared selfdestruction. Taking advantage of a momentary absence of his keeper, he violently wrenched away the window-bolt, and threw himself out: he was taken up in the street below, without a sign of life. The death of the duke d'Abrantes was followed by the destruction of the empire, and the unfortunate widow found herself in a position which combined want of friends with want of means. It was then that she determined to have recourse to literature to aid her in the maintenance and education of her family. Her first work of importance was "Historical Recollections of Napoleon, the Revolution, the Consulship, the Empire." She has been charged with a blind admiration of the hero of these scenes, perhaps justly; but it was difficult for those who rose through that meteor's course, and partook of its brilliancy, to preserve cool and unbiassed the judgment. We may safely grant the author good faith in all she advances. This production was followed by various successful works of history, biography, travels, and romances. But for the descendant of the Greek emperors, the authoress of fifty volumes, the member of learned societies, what a sad end was reserved! She had been for twenty years troubled by a painful malady, to alleviate which she indulged in the use of opium, and it is supposed this pernicious drug accelerated the progress of her disease. Worse than physical pains, a hard-hearted creditor, seeing the increasing illness, and fearing death might step in to withdraw his victim, actually brought an execution to her death-bed, and for the miserable sum of four hundred francs, sold the furniture of her apartment under her very eyes. She had not yet sunk deep enough in misery: it remained for her to be taken to the hospital to die! Removed from splendid apartments, she was cast into a bare, unfurnished cell, and left to the cares of a hireling nurse, whose venal attentions were distributed among many others. But earthly difficulties were fast passing away. On the night of the 7th June, 1838, she received the sacrament from the hands of the archbishop of Paris, who came to this humble couch to administer comfort to one who was the favourite of his flock. She died the next morning in the arms of her children, in a state of perfect resignation, confiding in the promises of the Saviour. She left four children, two daughters and two sons, all estimable, and worthy of the attention their mother had ever bestowed on them.
After the death of Kamehameha, his son Liholiho succeeded to be king of Hawaii, and all the islands of the group; and Kamamalu was queen, and his favourite wife, though he had four others. This was in 1819; the following year was the advent of the Gospel and Christian civilization to these miserable heathen. As has ever been the case, women joyfully welcomed the glad tidings of hope and peace and purity. Kamamalu was among the first converts, and eagerly embraced the opportunities for instruction. In 1822, she was diligently prosecuting her studies, could read and write, and her example was of great influence in strengthening the wavering disposition of her husband, and finally inducing him to abandon his debaucheries, and become, as he said, "a good man."
As proof of the wonderful progress made by this people in the manners of civilized life, and also marking the thoughtful benevolence of Kamamalu, we give an extract from a valuable work by Mr. Jarves on the Hawaiian Islands.
"On the 26th of March, 1823, his majesty held his annual festival in celebration of the death of Kamehameha I. On this occasion he provided a dinner in a rural bower, for two hundred individuals. The missionaries and all respectable foreigners were present; and the dresses were an improvement upon the costune of the preceding year. Black was the court colour, and every individual was required to be clothed in its sombre hue. Kamamalu appeared greatly to advantage.
The company were all liberally provided for by her attentions; and even a party of sailors, to the number of two hundred, who were looking on with wistful eyes, were served with refreshments." In the autumn of the same year, Liholiho determined to visit England first; and then the United States. Kamamalu, his favourite wife, (polygamy was not then abolished,) was selected to accompany him; they left Honolulu, November 27th, 1823. The people were greatly distressed at the departure of their king and queen. Kamamalu remained on shore to the last, mingling her tears with those of her attendants, to whom her amiability and attention to domestic concerns had greatly endeared her. Before stepping into the boat, she, after the manner of her forefathers, thus chaunted her farewell: "O! heaven; O! earth; O! mountains; O! sea; O! my counsellors and my subjects, farewell! O! thou land for which my father suffered, the object of toil which my father sought. We now leave thy soil; I follow thy command; I will never disregard thy voice; I will walk by the command which thou hast given me." Royal salutes were fired, and the ship soon disappeared before a favourable breeze.
They reached London safely; and the first appearance of Kamamalu was rather novel; she wore loose trowsers and a long bed-gown of coloured velveteen. However, the whole party were soon fitted with clothes of the newest fashion. Kamamalu for the first time encircled her ample waist in corsets; and as she was really a finelooking woman, and had an air of native majesty, and was moreover a queen, many of the London ladies sought patterns of the turban that graced her brow.
This party of semi-barbarians was flattered and feasted, and hurried from one rout to another, in a manner which their tropical constitutions could very ill bear. The king, Liholiho, took the measles; and, in a few days afterwards, his wife Kamamalu was seized with the same disease. Liholiho appeared to be recovering rapidly, when his wife was found to be dying. The mutual grief of the royal couple was affecting. They held each other in a warm and protracted embrace, while the thought of dying so early in their career, so far from their loved islands and friends, caused the tears to gush freely. In the evening she died. This sad event so affected the depressed spirits of the king, that although hopes of his recovery had been entertained, he sank rapidly, and on the 14th, after much severe suffering, breathed his last. Previously to his death, he drew up a rough memorandum, in which he expressed his wish to have his body and that of his consort conveyed to their native land; his personal effects he distributed among his retinue.
The will of the dead was observed; the bodies of Liholiho and Kamamalu were taken to Honolulu; and, with a mingling of barbaric pomp and Christian observances, interred.
Kamamalu was about twenty-six years of age at the time of her decease. Had her life been prolonged, with her uncommon talents and the
earnest purpose she manifested of learning the true and doing works of goodness, she would doubtless have been of great aid in the improvement of the people of Hawaii.
WAS wife of Naihe, hereditary counsellor in the court of king Liholiho, at Honolulu. As wife of one of the highest chiefs, Kapiolani had great influence, which she used in favour of the missionaries, and in aid of the improvement of the people of Hawaii. She did much to prevent infanticide, debauchery, and drunkenness; but the heroic deed which distinguishes her name was the overthrow of the idolatrous worship of Pele. The immediate region around the crater of Kilauea, being remote from all the mission stations, remained for several years under the influence of the priesthood of this goddess, the most fearful of all the deities of Hawaii. Sacrifices were there offered, and the wicked rites of heathenism practised. The priests taught that whoever insulted the tabu or withheld the offerings required, would be destroyed by Pele, who would spout forth liquid fire, and devour her enemies; and their poor ignorant followers believed them. But early in the year 1825, their credulity was staggered by the boldness of Kapiolani, who, with a daring which, when her previous associations are considered, does her infinite credit, determined to convince its votaries of the falsity of their oracles. She visited the wonderful phenomenon; reproved the idolaty of its worshippers, and neglected every rite and observance which they had been taught to consider as necessary for their welfare. In vain the priests launched their anathemas, and denounced upon her the vengeance of the offended deity. She replied, she feared not; and would abide the test of daring Pele in the recesses of her domains: the fires of the volcano were the work of the God she worshipped. Venturing to the brink of the abyss, she descended several hundred feet toward the liquid lava, and after casting the sacred berries into the flames, an act than which none more sacrilegious according to their ideas could have been done, she composedly praised Jehovah amid one of the most sublime and terrible of his works. There is a moral grandeur in this deed, worthy of a Christian philosopher. The sincerity of her faith could not have been put to a severer test.
KARSCH, ANNA LOUISA,
A GERMAN poetess, was born December 1st, 1722, in a small hamlet called Nammer, on the borders of Lower Silesia. Her father kept an alehouse; but, dying before Louisa was eight years old, she was taken by a great-uncle, residing in Poland, who taught her to read and write.
Having remained three years with this relative, she returned to her mother, who employed her in household labour and in taking care of the cows. It was at this time that Louisa began to display her fondness for intellectual occupations; but her mother checked her inclinations as much as possible. When she was seventeen she was married to
a wool-comber; and, being obliged to share his labour, as well as attend to her household, she had but little leisure to cultivate the muses. She, nevertheless, composed verses while she worked, and on Sunday committed them to paper. After living with this husband for eleven years, she obtained a divorce.
Her poverty induced her to marry Karsch, a tailor, whose dissipated habits threw all the support of the family on Louisa, and rendered her very unhappy. It was at this time that she first began to sell her poems; and she also wandered about the country as an improvisatrice. Her writings having fallen into the hands of several gentlemen, she was encouraged by them to persevere. In 1755, she removed with her family to Great Glogau, where, for the first time, she gained access to a bookseller's shop.
In 1760, she became acquainted with Baron Cottwitz, a Silesian nobleman, who, travelling through Glogau, was struck with her talents; and, commiserating her distress, he took her with him to Berlin, and introduced her to the circle of literati, and to the king, Frederic William II. Here she composed most of the poems that were printed in her collection.
Several small pensions were bestowed upon her; but as she had two children and a brother dependent on her, they proved insufficient for her support. Frederic William II. had a house built for her, and she was so anxious to occupy it, that she went into it before the walls were dry. This imprudence cost her her life. She died, October, 1791. Her daughter published her memoirs and some of her poems, in 1792.
KAUFFMAN, MARIA ANGELICA,
Was born in 1742, at Coire, the capital of the Grisons. She was instructed in the elements of painting by her father, whose talents were moderate, and whom she soon excelled. She loved music, and her admiration of the beautiful was early developed. At the age of fourteen her father took her to Milan, where her talents and personal accomplishments rendered her an object of general admiration. In 1764 she went to Venice, and the
following year accompanied Lady Wentworth, the wife of the British ambassador, to England. Here she painted the whole royal family, which increased her reputation and improved her circumstances; and she was soon elected a member of the royal academy. In London she contracted a most unfortunate marriage, the details of which, from their romantic character, we are apt to assume, are only to be found in the pages of fiction. An English artist who had addressed her and been refused, stung by his disappointment, determined to be revenged upon her. He selected a very handsome young man from the lowest ranks some say he was a footman-and passing him off for a German count, introduced him into the house of Angelica, where he soon became a suitor. Angelica was deceived, and married him. The rejected artist now disclosed the deceit, and Angelica obtained a divorce; not, however, without suffering great ill-usage from her low-minded husband, who fled, after robbing her of three hundred pounds. Seven years after, her husband having meanwhile died, Angelica married a Venetian painter, Signor Zucchi, with whom she lived very happily. She continued to retain her maiden name, and never had any children. Signor Zucchi also died long before her. Angelica resided seventeen years in England; she then went to Rome, where she devoted herself to painting till her death, in 1807. In 1808, her bust was placed in the Pantheon. She left a select library, some beautiful original paintings of old masters, and a considerable fortune, which she divided among several individuals and charitable institutions. She painted many portraits and historical pictures, the latter chiefly after the antique; she treated poetical subjects in a fascinating manner that was peculiarly her own, drew well, coloured beautifully, and etched in a spirited style. Her works are remarkable for grace, though the critic may discover in them incorrectness of style and sameness of plan.
KELLEY, FRANCES MARIA,
WAS born at Brighton, England, December 15th, 1790. Her father was an officer in the navy, and brother to Michael Kelley, under whom Frances studied music and singing. She made her first appearance at Drury Lane, in 1800, and in 1808 was engaged at the Haymarket, and afterwards at the English Opera House, where she was very successful. As an actress, Miss Kelley's talents were very versatile. Her character was always irreproachable.
KERALIO, MADAME DE,
WAS born at Paris, in 1758. She is known principally as a translator of several works from the English and Italian. She also wrote a voluminous "History of Queen Elizabeth," several novels, and edited a collection of the best French works composed by women.
"A GRACE for beauty, and a Muse for wit," as Wood says, was the daughter of Dr. Henry Killi
grew, one of the prebendaries of Westminster, and born in London, a little before the restoration of Charles II. She showed indications of genius very early, which being carefully cultivated, she became eminent in the arts of poetry and painting. She painted a portrait of the duke of York, afterwards James II., and also of the duchess, to whom she was maid of honour. She also painted some historical pictures and some pieces of still-life, for her own amusement. She was a woman of exemplary piety and virtue. Dryden speaks of her in the highest terms, and wrote a long ode to her memory. She died of the small-pox, June, 1685, in her twenty-fifth year. She was buried in the Savoy Chapel.
DAUGHTER of Sir Anthony Cooke, was born at Giddy-hall, in Essex, about 1530; and married Henry Killigrew, Esq., a Cornish gentleman, who was knighted, for the good service he did his country when an ambassador. This lady, having an excellent education, and much natural talent, became, like many other women of her time, very learned. She understood Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, and was famous for her poetical skill. The following lines were addressed to her sister Mildred, Lady Burleigh; the subject of this poem has never been fully ascertained—whether a lover, a husband, or a friend, was the happy person for whom the lady pleaded. Dr. Fuller thinks the lines refer to Sir Henry Killegrew, when about to be sent ambassador to France, which, as the times were troublesome, was not a desirable mission.
LINES TO MILDRED CECIL.
Si mihim quem cupio cures, Mildreda, remitti, Tu bona, tu melior, tu mihi sola soror:
Sin malè cessando retines, et trans mare mittis,
Is si Cornubia, tibi pax sit et omnia læta;
If Mildred, to my wishes kind,
If from my eyes by thee detained
The wanderer cross the seas,
No more thy love shall soothe as friend,
His stay let Cornwall's shore engage;
KINGSTON, ELIZABETH, DUCHESS OF, DAUGHTER of Colonel Chudleigh, governor of Chelsea college, England, was born in 1720. On her father's death, as she was left without adequate provision, her friends obtained for her the post of maid of honour to the princess of Wales, mother of George III. Her wit and beauty made her very much admired, and the duke of Hamilton proposed to her. But while he was on the continent, and Miss Chudleigh was visiting her aunt, Mrs. Hanmer, she was induced, August 4th, 1744, to marry, privately, Captain Hervey, a naval officer, afterwards earl of Bristol. She soon con
ceived a violent dislike to her husband, heightened by the discovery that she had been deceived about the duke of Hamilton, and the marriage was never acknowledged. Wishing to destroy all record of her union with Captain Hervey, she contrived to tear the leaf out of the parish register in which her marriage was entered; but after he became earl of Bristol she had it replaced. When the duke of Kingston made her a proposal of marriage, she endeavoured to obtain Lord Bristol's consent to a divorce, and at length succeeded, and married, March 8th, 1769, Evelyn Pierrepont, duke of Kingston, who left her, at his death, in 1773, his immense fortune. The heirs of the duke had her arrested for bigamy, as having been divorced by an incompetent tribunal. She was tried before the house of lords, and found guilty; but on her pleading the privilege of peerage, she was discharged, on paying the fees of the office. Her fortune was not affected by the sentence. She went abroad, and died near Fontainebleau, in France, August 28th, 1788.
KIRCH, MARY MARGARET,
OF Leipsic, Germany, was the daughter of Matthias Winkelman, a Lutheran divine. She married, in 1692, Godfrey Kirch, an eminent astronomer, of Luben, in Lower Lusatia, who, when appointed royal astronomer, in 1700, in the academy of sciences at Berlin, found in his wife an intelligent assistant, and an able calculator. discovered, in 1702, a comet; and, in 1707, she observed that remarkable Aurora Borealis which the astronomers of Europe noticed in their memoirs. The husband died in 1710, and the following year his wife published A Discourse on the approaching Conjunction of Jupiter, Saturn, &c." She was equally eminent for her private virtues as for her talents, and died at Berlin, in 1720, aged fifty.
Was born, 1770, at Bruchsal. The loss of her eye-sight, in her fourth year, by the small-pox, seemed rather to have augmented than lessened her talent for music. In the sixth year of her age, she astonished her auditors by her execution on the piano. Taught by Schmittbaur, in Carlsruhe, she made the most extraordinary progress. In company with Mr. Bassler (her biographer) she travelled, in her tenth year, over Germany, where she received everywhere, great applause; and, 1794, she went to London. Her abode there, of three years, besides the perfecting of her art, was useful to her on account of her eye-sight having become partly restored. In November, 1796, she visited Copenhagen, and went from thence to St. Petersburg; and after having gained just approbation and well-merited reward in all these places, she chose the beautiful village of Gahles, near Leipsic, for her dwelling-place. She remained there until 1807, in the society of her friend, Mr. Bassler, when she intended to go back to her native country; but at Schaffhausen she experienced a violent attack of fever, of which she died, on the 9th of December, in her thirty-eighth year.