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and eighty rooms, exclusive of bathrooms, at the owner's option, in lieu of an additional stairway, the stairs and public halls throughout the entire building may be made at least one-half wider than is provided in this chapter.

465. Stairs-entrance to-treads and risers.] Every flight of stairs required in a tenement house shall have an entrance on the entrance floor from a street or alley, or from a yard or court which opens into a street or alley. All stairs except rear stairs, in new tenement houses, shall have risers not more than seven and three-quarters inches high and treads not less than nine and one-half inches wide, exclusive of nosings, except in winding stairs, where all treads at a point eighteen inches from the strings on the well side shall be at least nine and one-half inches wide, exclusive of nosings.

466. Fire escapes.] Every tenement house four or more stories in height shall be provided with a fire escape or fire escapes, such as are required by this chapter. In every case each separate apartment shall have direct access to at least one such fire escape unless such apartment shall have direct access, without passing through any other apartment, to at least two separate flights of stairs leading to the ground, one of which is placed in front and one in the rear of such building, and one of which may be placed outside of the building; but where such separate apartment shall not have access to two such flights of stairs, then such apartment shall have direct access to a stairway fire escape. Every court in which there is a fire escape shall have direct and unobstructed access along the surface of the ground to a street or alley or to a yard opening into an alley or street without entering into or passing through or over any building unless by a four-foot wide fireproof passage on the court or ground level. Except as herein specifically provided, the number, location, material and construction of fire escapes shall be controlled by the general provisions of this chapter on fire escapes.

467. Stairways and fire escapes to be free from obstruction.] No obstruction of any kind shall at any time be placed before, upon or against any stairway, steps or landings or fire escapes in or upon any tenement house. All fire escapes upon tenement houses shall be kept in good order and repair, and every exposed part thereof shall at all times be protected against rust by durable paint.

468. Shafts, courts, yards, graded-drained.] In every now existing and new tenement house, the bottom of all shafts, courts or yards shall be provided with sanitary drainage and shall be graded or paved. 469. Access to rooms-otherwise than through bedroom.] In each apartment in every new tenement house, access to every living room and bedroom, and to at least one water closet compartment, shall be had without passing through any bedroom.

470. Water closets-windows in-artificial light.] (a) In every new tenement house there shall be a separate water closet in a separate compartment within each apartment, except that where there are apartments consisting of only one or two rooms, in which case there shall be at least one water closet for every two apartments.

(b) Every water closet compartment in every existing tenement house shall be ventilated by such a window, or else by a vent shaft of at least one-half the minimum area required in section 443. Every

water closet compartment in every tenement house shall be provided with proper means of artificially lighting the same. If fixtures for gas or electricity are not provided in any such compartment, then the door thereof shall have ground glass panels or transoms.

471. Sinks-requirements.] In every new tenement house there shall be in each apartment at least one kitchen sink with running water. In every existing tenement if there be not one such sink in each apartment there shall be on every floor at least one kitchen sink with running water, accessible to all the tenants of the floor, without passing through any other apartment. In no tenement house shall there be woodwork inclosing sinks; the space underneath sinks shall be left entirely open.

472. Pipes through floors-catch basins-water closets.] (a) In every new tenement house where plumbing or other pipes pass through floors or partitions, the openings around such pipes shall be sealed tight with plaster or other incombustible material, so as to prevent the passage of air or the spread of fire from one floor to another or from room to room.

(b) In the premises of a tenement house the catchbasin shall, whenever practicable, be placed in a court or yard, and shall be covered with a stone or iron cover, flush with the surface so that access to such basin shall be convenient.

(c) Where it is for any reason impracticable to place a catchbasin in a court or yard, the commissioner of health may authorize the use of an iron catchbasin with air-tight cover, located in the cellar or basement.

47212. Buildings damaged by fire, etc.] If any existing tenement house is hereafter damaged by fire or other cause, including ordinary wear, so that at any time its value be less than one-half its original value exclusive of the value of the foundations, such building shall not be repaired or rebuilt except in conformity with the provisions of this ordinance applicable to new tenement houses.

473. Provisions of this article not to apply to existing buildings, except under certain circumstances-then commissioner to notify.] (a) Nothing in this article contained shall be construed as requiring alterations in the construction or equipment of buildings in existence at the time of the passage of this article and which at the time of their construction were built in compliance with the ordinances then in force, unless they are in conflict with the requirements of sections 447, 466, 471, 475, 476, 477, 468, or unless such buildings shall not have sufficient or adequate means of egress therefrom, by reason of insufficient or inadequate stairways, improperly located or insufficient or inadequate elevators or elevator equipment, doors, fire escapes, windows or other means of egress or ingress.

(b) Where it shall appear to the commissioner of buildings that any such building has insufficient means of egress therefrom as aforesaid, he shall notify the owner, agent or person in possession, charge or control of such building of such fact and direct him forthwith to make such alterations and changes in the construction or equipment of such building, as are necessary to be made in order to promote the safety of the occupants of such building and of persons using the same and of the public.

474. Rooms and halls-additional.] Every room or hall that may hereafter be constructed or created in an existing tenement house shall comply in all respects with the provisions of this ordinance as to size, arrangement, light and ventilation of rooms and halls.

*475. Rooms change in existing.] No room in any now existing tenement house shall hereafter be constructed, altered, converted or occupied for living purposes, unless it contains a window having a superficial area not less than one-twelfth of the floor area of the room, which window shall open upon a street or alley or upon a yard or court having a superficial area of not less than twenty-five square feet and a minimum width of not less than two feet six inches, or unless such room adjoins another room in the same apartment, which other room shall have such a window opening upon such a street, alley, yard or court, between which two adjoining rooms there shall be an alcove opening equal in extent to at least 20 per cent of the entire wall surface of said room; provided, however, that all of the requirements of sections 439 and 440 of The Chicago Code of 1911 shall be complied with.

Where a frame tenement house is moved from one lot to another, or from one location to another on the same lot, it shall comply with the provisions of section 452 of this chapter.

476. Windows-courts-attic.] No room in any now existing tenement house, which has no such window as aforesaid, opening upon a street or alley or upon a yard or court having a superficial area of not less than twenty-five square feet, shall hereafter be constructed, altered, converted or occupied for living purposes, unless it contains a floor area of at least sixty square feet and also at least six hundred cubic feet of air space; nor unless every part of the finished ceiling of such room be at least seven feet six inches distant from every part of the finished floor thereof; provided, that an attic room need be seven feet six inches high in but one-half of its area, and provided, further, that such attic room has not less than seven hundred fifty cubic feet of air space therein; and such attic room shall not be used for purposes of human habitation other than as a sleeping room.

+477. Existing tenements-living rooms in cellars or basements— when permitted.] In every existing tenement house, no room in an existing cellar or basement shall be occupied for living purposes unless such room shall be at least seven feet six inches high in the clear, and have not more than four feet eight inches of such cellar or basement below the finished grade at building; provided, that no such room shall be used for living purposes unless such room shall have a window opening upon a street, alley, yard or court, and, provided, that when the windows of any living room front solely upon a street and the floor of such basement is four feet eight inches below the sidewalk grade, such windows shall be located not less than three feet back of the lot line; provided, however, that in every case where the height of ceiling of any living room is less than eight feet six inches in the clear, the window area of such room shall be at least fifteen per centum of the floor area. (b) When a brick or frame tenement house is moved from one lot to another, or from one location to another on the same lot, and a base

* As amended July 8, 1912. As amended July 8, 1912.

ment or story, or both, is constructed under the same, the total height of which is more than six feet six inches from the floor to the ceiling, the walls of such basement shall be constructed of masonry according to the provisions of section 658 of The Chicago Code of 1911, and the habitable rooms therein shall comply with the provisions of section 475 of The Chicago Code of 1911, and the space on the lot shall comply with the provisions of section 430 and section 440 of The Chicago Code of 1911.

47712. Insanitary condition-nuisance.] A tenement house or part thereof which is in an insanitary condition by reason of the basement or cellar being damp or wet, or by reason of the floor of such basement or cellar being covered with stagnant water or by reason of the presence of sewer gas, or by reason of any portion of such building being infected with disease, or being unfit for human habitation, or which by reason of any other insanitary condition is a source of producing sickness among the inhabitants of this city, or which in any way endangers the public health, is hereby declared to constitute a public nuisance.

ARTICLE X

CLASS VII

478. Class VII defined.] In Class VII shall be included every building used for the sale at retail of dry goods and other articles of general merchandise and commonly known and described as a department store.

47812. Must comply with general and special provisions.] Every building of Class VII shall comply with the general provisions of this chapter, and, in addition to the general provisions, shall comply with the following special provisions:

479. Buildings of Class VII-Construction of.] Buildings three stories or less in height, used either wholly or in part for the purpose of Class VII, may be of ordinary construction. Such buildings more. than three and not exceeding five stories in height shall be of slowburning, mill or fireproof construction. Such buildings over five stories in height shall be of fireproof construction.

480. Stores used for retail sale of goods or manufacturing purposes -occupation of basement-lockers.] (a) Not more than the lower twelve stories above the street grade shall be used for the retail sale of goods, or for locker provisions in excess of accommodations for the number of employes on the floor on which they are employed, or for manufacturing purposes in a building devoted wholly or in part to purposes of Class VII except as hereinafter provided; provided, however, the stories above the twelfth story may be used for these or other purposes when equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system approved by the fire marshal; and provided further, that all such buildings hereafter erected to be used for these purposes, or so used, above the twelfth story, shall in addition to being equipped with an approved automatic sprinkling system have enclosed stairways.

(b) Not more than one floor of any basement or cellar shall be used for the retail sale of goods. Such floor shall be the floor nearest to the

inside street grade. Such floor used for the retail sale of goods shall not be more than twenty feet below the inside street grade.

(c) No sub-basement, cellar or part of a basement below such floor shall be used for the sale of any goods in any manner, but locker and dressing rooms may be placed in the sub-basement, provided the space thus occupied be separated from the remainder of the basement by fireproof partitions, and that there be at least two flights of stairs placed as far apart as practicable leading therefrom to the first floor, inclosed in fireproof partitions. Such stairs from such locker or dressing rooms shall be in addition to other stairways required by this chapter for such buildings, and at least one of such stairways shall open directly on a street, alley or court opening on a street or alley, or on a fireproof passage leading to the street, alley or such court. Where more than five lockers are in one room, such lockers shall be of incombustible material.

(d) Where stories above the twelfth story are used for the purposes of Class VII as hereinbefore described for locker provisions in excess of accommodations for employes on the floor on which they are employed, then the stairways from the first to the topmost floor shall be built and inclosed as described in section 668, but the stairways shall be in number and aggregate width as required in the table for stairways set forth in section 666 of this chapter.

ARTICLE XI

CLASS VIII

*492. Class VIII defined-provisions of.] In Class VIII shall be included every building used for school purposes and every building containing class rooms for special or general instruction, other than halls for the purpose of instruction as included in Class IV, where such building so used shall have a seating capacity of more than fifty students. 49212. Must comply with general and special provisions.] All buildings of Class VIII shall comply with the general provisions of this chapter wherever the same are applicable thereto, and in addition to the general provisions shall comply with the following special provisions: 495. Portable frame buildings.] Portable frame buildings used wholly for the purposes of Class VIII, not larger than 28 by 36 feet and not over one story high, may be erected, provided exterior walls and roof of same are covered with metal or other incombustible material, and the interior woodwork painted with fire-retarding paint approved by the commissioner of buildings, and provided, further, that the location of such buildings shall be approved by the commissioner of buildings. Such portable buildings shall not be located nearer than ten feet to any other building, and shall not be maintained on any one lot or block for a longer period than two years after the date of the issuance of the original permit.

506. Basement when used for class rooms.] (a) In every such building in which the lower or basement floor is below the surface of the

*As amended May 17, 1915.

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