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house more than three stories and basement high, but not more than five stories and basement high shall be of slow-burning or fireproof construction. In case slow-burning construction be required, the cellar and basement construction, including the floor construction of the first story above the cellar or basement, shall be of fireproof construction. 451. Frame tenement-requirements.] In every new frame tenement house outside the fire limits, each suite of apartments shall be separated from the next suite in such building by a partition of fourinch tile or of metal studding and metal lath, and the enclosing walls around the stairs, where there are two or more apartments on a floor, shall be of fire-proof construction or of solid masonry of the same dimensions as are required by section 519.

*452. Frame additions to frame tenement houses within fire limits not permitted-removal of frame tenement houses.] No frame addition shall be permitted to any frame tenement house within the fire limits, either by adding to its height or its superficial area.

If a tenement house, standing on wooden supports, is moved to another lot, it shall not again be placed on wooden supports, but shall be placed on a masonry or concrete foundation.

If a frame tenement house, not more than two stories high, is moved from one location to another upon the same lot, it may be set upon wooden posts and a basement or cellar not to exceed six feet six inches in height from the floor to the ceiling thereof may be maintained thereunder, and no habitable rooms shall be constructed or occupied in said basement or cellar.

453. Entrance halls-solid masonry-exceptions-ceilings.] Every main entrance hall in a new tenement house shall be at least three feet six inches wide in the clear from the entrance up to and including the stair enclosure and beyond this point at least three feet wide in the clear. In every new non-fireproof tenement house, except where there be only one apartment on each floor, such entrance hall shall be iuclosed with solid masonry walls and with ceilings covered with incombustible material and shall comply with all the conditions of the following sections of this ordinance as to the construction of stair halls. If such main entrance hall is the only entrance to more than one flight of stairs, the several portions of such main entrance hall which separate the entrance of the building from the several flights of stairs, respectively, shall be increased respectively at least one foot in width for each additional flight of stairs.

+454. Stair halls-construction of.] (a) The stairs and stair halls in all new tenement houses more than three stories and basement or cellar high shall be constructed of incombustible material throughout, except that the treads of stairs may be of wood not less than one and threeeighths inches thick and all handrails may be of hardwood.

(b) In every new non-fireproof tenement house all stair halls shall be enclosed on all sides with walls of solid masonry of the dimensions required by section 519. All windows in stair halls, except where same open into a street, alley, outer court, or yard, shall have metal frames and sashes, glazed with wired glass. This section shall not apply to

* As amended July 8, 1912.

† As amended February 8, 1915.

tenement houses which are not more than three stories and basement high with only one apartment on each floor.

Where the main entrance vestibule and entrance hall or corridor of said building, including the floor and ceiling thereof, are of fireproof construction as defined in this chapter, from the outside face of the building at said entrance to and including the floor of stair hall, and all doors leading therefrom or thereto except the street doors are fireretarding doors, the floor of said entrance and vestibule may be built at a level of two inches above the level of the outside grade of the building at the entrance of same, without changing the definition of the word "Basement" with regard to height of floors, as contained in section 432 of The Chicago Code of 1911, as amended.

455.

Apartments divided by masonry.] (a) There shall be a wall of solid masonry, of thickness as required by section 519, extending from the ground to the roof between each set of apartments and around each court and each light shaft, except as hereinafter provided; (a) provided, however, that a wall between apartments and extending from the main stair hall to the outer wall of the building may be offset at the second story floor line to some point nearer the center of the building, or of the group of apartments, to admit of an even distribution of space in the rooms adjacent to such wall, if such wall is supported at the second story floor line on fireproofed steel or iron beams which extend from the brick wall surrounding the main stair hall to the outer wall of the building; and provided, further, that such offset wall may be reduced to the thickness of eight inches, if supported at each floor line above the first story on fireproofed steel or iron beams carried by masonry walls as above specified; (b) and provided, however, that, in case there is a store or stores in the first story of a building of this class, a masonry dividing wall between apartments may begin at the second story floor line, if such dividing wall is supported on fireproofed steel or iron beams carried by masonry; and provided, further, that such dividing wall may be reduced to the thickness of eight inches, if supported at each floor line above the first story on fireproofed steel or iron beams carried by masonry. And provided that in buildings of fireproof construction the partitions between apartments, and around stairs may be of burnt clay tile not less than three inches in thickness or reinforced concrete partitions not less than three inches in thickness.

(b) In buildings of ordinary construction two separate thicknesses of metal lath and fire-resisting plaster shall be used as fireproofing as required by this section.

456. Ceilings over stores-courts and shafts beginning above first story.] (a) In every new non-fireproof tenement house in which there is a store or stores in the first story, if the building is three stories or less in height, the portions of the first story ceiling directly under all public halls shall be slow-burning construction, and if the building is four or more stories in height the entire basement and first story construction and the second story floor construction shall be of fireproof construction.

(b) In every new non-fireproof tenement house the masonry walls enclosing every court or light or vent shaft beginning above the first story shall be supported on fireproofed steel or iron beams carried by masonry or by fireproofed steel or iron columns; and such court or shaft

enclosing walls may be reduced to the thickness of eight inches if supported at every intersecting floor line on fireproofed steel or iron beams carried as above specified.

457. Damp-proofing-basement walls to be masonry-cement floor.] In every new tenement house constructed of brick or frame, the foundations and basement walls shall be built of masonry or concrete not less than twelve inches in thickness, except as provided in section 519, and shall have all outside walls below the adjacent ground level plastered on the outside with Portland cement or treated with other approved damp-proofing material, and such walls, as high as the ground level, shall be laid in cement mortar. The basement or cellar of every existing and new tenement house shall have a floor of Portland cement concrete not less than three inches in thickness laid on not less than six inches of sand or cinders.

458. Bay windows-courts-vent shafts.] (a) The walls of every bay window and every court in masonry constructed new tenement houses shall be built of brick or other fireproof construction as required for exterior walls.

(b) The walls of every interior vent shaft in masonry constructed tenement houses shall be built of masonry or of fireproof material not less than four inches in thickness, supported by steel or iron.

+459. Porches.] (a) Where porches are constructed in courts of now existing or new tenement houses, the amount of area of unobstructed space in such courts shall be exclusive of space occupied by stairs and porches. No additional rear porch shall be constructed on any existing tenement house in such way that the buildings on the lot with all their porches shall occupy a greater proportion of the lot than is permitted in section 440 of this chapter. No rear porch on any existing tenement house where the total area of buildings and all porches exceeds the proportion of the lot permitted in section 440 of this chapter shall be reconstructed until the plan for such reconstruction shall have been submitted to and approved by the commissioner of buildings. No rear porch built of combustible materials and more than eight feet in width, excepting stairways, shall be constructed on any new tenement house nor added to, nor reconstructed on any existing tenement house.

(b) Front porches of buildings in existence at the time of the passage of this amendatory ordinance may be enclosed temporarily from the first day of November in each year to the first day of the following May with wood sash glazed with ordinary glass; provided, that the glass area shall be as large as is consistent with good construction and the ordinances of the city; and further provided, that the sashes are fitted with hinges or hung in such a manner as to allow them to open at least one-half of their area, or that one-half of all the sash installed are so fitted or hung as to open their entire area, and the area of such open sash shall be at least twice the area of all windows from adjacent rooms opening on to porches so enclosed, unless such room adjoining said porch shall have windows opening on to a street, alley, yard or court of proper legal dimensions as required by this chapter for habitable rooms in addition to the windows opening on to the porch, in which case the amount of movable sash in porch enclosure shall be not less

As amended March 2, 1914, and February 19, 1915.

than ten per cent of the floor area of said porch and in no case less than ten square feet of glass area.

(c) Rear porches and side porches of buildings in existence at the time of the passage of this amendatory ordinance, where every part of said porch is at least ten feet distant from any other building, porch or structure located upon the same lot with the building of which such porch is a part, may be enclosed temporarily from the first day of November in each year to the first day of the following May with wood sash glazed with ordinary glass; provided, that the glass area of the enclosure shall be as large as is consistent with good construction and the ordinances of the city; and further provided, that the sashes are fitted with hinges or hung in such a manner as to allow them to open at least one-half their area, or that one-half of all the sash installed are so fitted or hung as to open their entire area, and in no case shall be less than three times the area of all windows, doors and transoms opening on to said porch, and that in every case the top of the sash in such enclosure shall be at least six inches higher than the top of the windows and doors opening on to such porch. The framing of the porch enclosure may be of wood, and the glass area of each side and of each end of such porch shall be not less than fifty per cent of the entire side or end of such porch enclosure measured from the floor of the porch to the under side of joists immediately above such porch in each story. (d) In every building erected after the passage of this amendatory ordinance, every front porch, rear porch or side porch which is intended to be enclosed must have enclosing walls as required by the ordinances of the city for enclosing walls of a building of the type of which said porch is a part, and every porch so enclosed shall be considered a separate habitable room and shall comply with all the requirements of this chapter for habitable rooms, and such porch enclosure shall not in any manner intercept the light or the ventilation of any adjoining room.

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(e) Where buildings do not exceed three stories in height the stairways in rear porches may be partially enclosed as follows: the end of the porch outside the stairway, also the back of the porch around said stairway not to exceed eleven feet in extent, may be enclosed with wood or frame construction and a window with glass area of nine square feet shall be placed in the back enclosure or in that part of the porch facing the yard or court on each story.

460. Flues and chimneys.] In every building used for the purposes of Class VI, the flues or chimneys shall conform to the following regulations: For one stove opening, the flue area shall not be less than forty-nine square inches. For more than one stove opening and one furnace opening, the flue area shall not be less than seventy-seven square inches. All such flues shall be constructed according to the requirements of section 584 of this chapter.

461. Bulkhead in roof-construction of-when required.] There shall be in the roof of every new tenement house, unless the pitch of the roof thereof exceeds one foot rise in four foot run, at least one bulkhead or scuttle, fireproof or covered with fireproof material, with stairs or ladder leading thereto; no such roof opening shall be less than two feet by three feet. Where such tenement house is provided with rear stairs, there shall be a bulkhead or scuttle accessible from each of

such rear stairs. No scuttle or bulkhead door shall have any lock on it, but may be fastened on the inside by movable bolts or hooks.

*462. Stairways-width and construction of.] (a) Every now existing and every new tenement house shall have at least two flights of stairs, which shall extend from the entrance floor to the top story, and which stairs shall be as far apart as practicable. One of said stairways shall be an interior stairway. Such stairs and the public halls in every tenement house shall be at least three feet wide in the clear and every apartment shall be directly accessible from both such flights of stairs without going through any other apartment. An apartment whose gross floor area does not exceed 4,000 square feet and having not to exceed six habitable rooms in an existing tenement house and which at the time of the passage of this ordinance had not access to two stairways, may have exit to a second stairway through another apartment, providing the door between the two apartments is equipped with a glass panel not less than five feet high and twenty inches wide, with the bottom of same not less than eighteen inches above the floor. Or where the floor level of said apartment is not more than twelve feet above the surface of the yard or ground surrounding the building, a balcony with an area not less than eighteen square feet equipped with a drop ladder to the ground may be attached to the outside wall of said building, accessible by a door or window from such apartment, and may be considered as a secondary means of exit from said apartment, if in the judgment of the commissioner of buildings such glass panel door, balcony and ladder will afford safe means of exit for any such apartment. Where halls or stairs in an existing tenement house have been damaged by fire or otherwise to an extent greater than onehalf the value thereof, such halls or stairs so damaged shall be repaired so as to conform to the requirements of this chapter with regard to halls and stairways relating to new tenement houses.

(b) All enclosed stairs in every tenement house shall have at least one hand rail, and where the width of such stairs is greater than 3 feet 6 inches, such stairs shall have a hand rail on each side thereof. All open stairs shall be provided with suitable and substantial hand rails on each side.

463. Stairs in non-fireproof buildings, eighty or more rooms.] Every new non-fireproof tenement house containing over eighty rooms, exclusive of bathrooms, shall have one additional flight of stairs, over and above the flights hereinbefore provided for, for every additional eighty rooms, or fraction thereof; but if such building contains not more than one hundred and twenty rooms, exclusive of bathrooms, at the owner's option, in lieu of an additional stairway, the stairs and public halls throughout the entire building shall be at least one-half wider than is provided in this chapter.

464. Stairs in fireproof buildings, one hundred and twenty rooms and upward.] Every new fireproof tenement house containing over one hundred and twenty rooms, exclusive of bathrooms, shall have one additional flight of stairs, over and above the flights hereinbefore provided for, for every additional one hundred and twenty rooms or fraction thereof; but if such building contains not more than one hundred

* As amended June 30, 1916.

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