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many the studies that took their rise from her have been wealth in poverty, - liberty in bondage, health in sickness, - society in solitude? 5. Her power is indeed manifested at the bar, in the senate, in the field of battle, in the schools of philosophy. 6. But these are not her glory. 7. Wherever literature consoles sorrow, or assuages pain
- wherever it brings gladness to eyes which fail with wakefulness and tears, and ache for the dark house and the long sleep, there is exhibited in its noblest form the immortal influence of Athens.
MACAULAY: Athenian Orators.
4. [Topic] 1. The honorable member complained that I had slept on his speech. 2. I must have slept on it, or not slept at all. 3. The moment the honorable member sat down, his friend from Missouri rose, and, with much honeyed commendation of the speech, suggested that the impressions which it had produced were too charming and delightful to be disturbed by other sentiments, or other sounds, and proposed that the Senate should adjourn. 4. Would it have been quite amiable in me, Sir, to interrupt this excellent good feeling? 5. Must I not have been absolutely malicious, if I could have thrust myself forward to destroy sensations thus pleasing? 6. Was it not much better and kinder, both to sleep upon them myself, and to allow others also the pleasure of sleeping upon them? 7. But if it be meant, by sleeping upon his speech, that I took time to prepare a reply to it, it is quite a mistake. 8. Owing to other engagements, I could not employ even the interval between the adjournment of the Senate and its meeting the next morning in attention to the subject of this debate. 9. Nevertheless, Sir, the mere matter of fact is undoubtedly true. 10. I did sleep on the gentleman's speech, and slept soundly. 11. And I slept equally well on his speech of yesterday, to which
I am now replying. 12. It is quite possible that in this respect, also, I possess some advantage over the honorable member, attributable, doubtless, to a cooler temperament on my part; for, in truth, I slept upon his speeches remarkably well. - WEBSTER: Reply to Hayne.
5. [Topic] 1. But the gentleman inquires why he was made the object of such a reply? 2. Why was he singled out? 3. If an attack has been made on the East, he, he assures us, did not begin it; it' was made by the gentleman from Missouri. 4. Sir, I answered the gentleman's speech because I happened to hear it; and because, also, I chose to give an answer to that speech, which, if unanswered, I thought most likely to produce injurious impressions. 5. I did not stop to inquire who was the original drawer of the bill. 6. I found a responsible indorser before me, and it was my purpose to hold him liable, and to bring him to his just responsibility without delay.
WEBSTER: Reply to Hayne.
6. [Topic] 1. Mountains are to the rest of the body of the earth what violent muscular action is to the body of man. 2. The muscles and tendons of its anatomy are, in the mountain, brought out with fierce and convulsive energy, full of expression, passion, and strength; the plains and the lower hills are the repose and the effortless motion of the frame, when its muscles lie dormant and concealed beneath the lines of its beauty, yet ruling those lines in their every undulation. 3. This, then, is the first grand principle of the truth of the earth. 4. The spirit of the hills is action; that of the lowlands, repose; and between these there is to be found every variety of motion and of rest; from the inactive plain, sleeping like the firmament, with cities for stars, to the fiery peaks, which, with heaving bosoms and exulting limbs, with the clouds drifting like hair from their bright
foreheads, lift up their Titan hands to Heaven, saying, “I live forever!"
RUSKIN: Modern Painters, vol. I, pt. ii, sec. iv, chap. i. 7. [Topic] 1. Nor must I forget the suddenly changing seasons of the Northern clime. 2. There is no long and lingering spring, unfolding leaf and blossom one by one; no long and lingering autumn, pompous with many-colored leaves and the glow of Indian summers. 3. But winter and summer are wonderful, and pass into each other. 4. The quail has hardly ceased piping in the corn, when winter from the folds of trailing clouds sows broadcast over the land snow, icicles, and rattling hail. 5. The days wane apace. 6. Erelong the sun hardly rises above the horizon, or does not rise at all. 7. The moon and the stars shine through the day; only, at noon, they are pale and wan, and in the southern sky a red, fiery glow as of sunset burns along the horizon and then goes out. 8. And pleasantly under the silver moon, and under the silent, solemn stars, ring the steel shoes of the skaters on the frozen sea, and voices, and the sound of bells. -LONGFELLOW: Note to the Children of the Lord's Supper.
8. 1. The troops were now to be disbanded. 2. Fifty thousand men, accustomed to the profession of arms, were at once thrown on the world; and experience seemed to warrant the belief that this change would produce much misery and crime, that the discharged veterans would be seen begging in every street, or would be driven by hunger to pillage. [Topic] 3. But no such result followed. 4. In a few months there remained not a trace indicating that the most formidable army in the world had just been absorbed into the mass of the community. 5. The Royalists themselves confessed that in every department of honest industry, the discarded warriors prospered beyond other
men; that none was charged with any theft or robbery; that none was heard to ask an alms; and that, if a baker, a mason, or a wagoner attracted notice by his diligence and sobriety, he was in all probability one of Oliver's old soldiers. -MACAULAY: History of England, I, chap. ii.
B. Develop each of the following topic statements into a brief paragraph by repetition of the idea. Remember that in the repetition it is not enough to put one word in place of another. There must be not only a change of words but a growth of ideas. With each sentence the thought should become larger, or more definite, or more emphatic. If the repetition does not immediately suggest itself, the use of such phrases as "in other words," "to speak more plainly," "to put the matter more briefly (precisely, definitely, concretely, specifically, forcibly)," will sometimes start the train of thought. Note that the significant part of each topic statement is the thing predicated of the topic: in 1, "sustained effort”; in 2, "jumped at conclusions"; in 3, "forever changing"; in 4, “no hero"; in 5, "reforming." These words of predication give the cue for the repetition.
1. It requires sustained effort to make a good writer. 2. In stating his reasons, he never jumped at conclusions. 3. Fashions in dress are forever changing.
4. The play As You Like It has no hero.
5. City governments in America need reforming.
6. There are books and books.
7. "The boy is a Greek; the youth romantic; the adult, reflective."
8. Physical training should be compulsory in schools. 9. There will always be need of charity in the world. 10. A good partisan is not always a good citizen.
By Comparison and Contrast.
22. Instead of telling what a thing is or is not, a writer may tell what it is like or what it is not like.
Thus Macaulay, in his essay on history, develops the idea "Effect of historical reading upon the student's mind," by comparing it to the effect of foreign travel.
1. The effect of historical reading is analogous, in many respects, to that produced by foreign travel. 2. The student, like the tourist, is transported into a new state of society. 3. He sees new fashions. 4. He hears new modes of expression. 5. His mind is enlarged by contemplating the wide diversities of laws, of morals, and of manners. 6. But men may travel far, and return with minds as contracted as if they had never stirred from their own market-town. 7. In the same manner, men may know the dates of many battles and the genealogies of many royal houses, and yet be no wiser. 8. Most people look at past times as princes look at foreign countries. 9. More than one illustrious stranger has landed on our island amidst the shouts of a mob, has dined with the King, has hunted with the master of the stag-hounds, has seen the Guards reviewed, and a Knight of the Garter installed, has cantered along Regent Street, has visited St. Paul's, and noted down its dimensions; and has then departed, thinking that he has seen England. 10. He has, in fact, seen a few public buildings, public men, and public ceremonies. 11. But of the vast and complex system of society, of the fine shades of national character, of the practical operation of government and laws, he knows nothing. 12. He who would understand these things rightly must not confine his observations to palaces and solemn days. 13. He must see ordinary men as they appear in their ordinary business and in their ordinary pleasures. 14. He must mingle in the crowds of the exchange and the coffee-house. 15. He must obtain admittance to the convivial table and the domestic hearth. 16. He must bear with vulgar expressions. 17. He must not shrink from