Imágenes de páginas

The relation of the bacillus influenza: FRANCIS G. BLAKE, M.D., associate in medicine, Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York. (Introduced by Dr. A. C. Abbot.) Following Pfeiffer's discovery of Bacillus influenzæ in 1892 this organism was rather generally accepted as the probable cause of influenza, and of a characteristic type of bronchopneumonia which complicates influenza. Pfeiffer and others failed to support this possible etiological relationship by animal inoculation experiments. During the recent pandemic the causal relationship of B. influenzæ to the primary influenza has been seriously questioned and in general the organism has been relegated to the position of a secondary invader responsible for a variable proportion of bronchopneumonias complicating influenza. Because B. influenza is constantly present in the respiratory tract in uncomplicated influenza and in a characteristic type of bronchopneumonia following influenza, it seemed desirable to determine by animal experiments whether influenza and this type of bronchopneumonia could be produced by inoculation with pure cultures of Bacillus influenzæ. Twelve monkeys were inoculated on the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth with the successful production of an acute self limited respiratory disease closely resembling influenza. This disease was complicated in five cases by sinusitis, in three by bronchopneumonia. The pathology of the pneumonia was identical with the pathology of the pneumonia ascribed to pure infection of the lungs with B. influenzæ in man. Ten monkeys were inoculated in the trachea with pure cultures of B. influenza in man. Ten monkeys were inoculated in the trachea with pure cultures of B. influenza with the production of the same type of bronchopneumonia in seven cases. These experiments establish the etiological relationship of Bacillus influenza to the type of bronchopneumonia with which the organism has been found constantly associated in man. They also prove that Bacillus influenza can initiate an infection of the upper respiratory tract and produce a disease that closely resembles influenza, and that is complicated by the same complications as influenza. They do not prove that Bacillus influenza is the primary cause, however, since it is impossible to determine whether the disease produced in monkeys with B. influenza was actually identical with pandemic influenza.

X-rays of the brain after injection of air into the ventricles of the brain and into the spinal canal: W. E. DANDY, M.D., associate in surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital. (Introduced by Dr. Keen.)


Celt and Slav: J. DYNELEY PRINCE, Ph.D., professor of Slavonic languages, Columbia University. Slavs and Celts are strikingly similar to each other in habits of mind and expression although far removed geographically. The Russians, Poles, CzechoSlovaks, Serbo-Croatians and Bulgarians all speaking Slavonic idioms, although racially very various have certain marked traits in common which they all share with the Celts; viz., the Irish, Scottish and Manks Gaels and the Armorican Bretons of France, and the Welsh still Celtic speaking, and the Cornish, whose Celtic language is now extinct. The similarity between Slavs and Celts is twofold, viz., temperamental discontent and morbid joy in As a concomitant of this discontent goes the spirit of quest after the unattainable, which is manifest in both Slavonic and Celtic trends of thought. Success plays almost no part as an element of heroism in Slavonic literature and comparatively a small rôle in Celtic. Both Celt and Slav are not satisfied with the present world, and care more for sympathy than for accomplishment. In Russia, especially, the public sympathy has been with the unsuccessful rather than with the successful hero. Morbid pleasure in failure, delight in a "lost cause, "love of the appurtenances of death are all common and underlying Slavonic and Celtic traits. These characteristics are instructive as accounting for the "political impossibility" of the easternmost and westernmost branches of Indo

European language-influence. The sun of common sense has never risen on either the Slav or the Celt and it is doubtful whether the Slavs can exist very long without the guiding hand of strangers. The charm of the Celt and Slav is great and durable, but it is charm and not character, feeling and sentiment rather than thought and reasoning, which dominate the east and west of Europe alike.

A new theory of Polynesian origins: ROLAND B. DIXON, Ph.D., professor of anthropology, Harvard University. (Introduced by Dr. W. C. Farabee.) The question of the racial origins of the Polynesian peoples has long attracted the attention of anthropologists. Previous studies have dealt mainly with small portions of the area, and have not satisfactorily correlated the various factors characterizing physical types, nor the Polynesian types with those of the rest of Oceanica. The present study seeks to secure more satisfactory results by including the whole of Oceanica and eastern Asia in its scope. Following a method differing from those previously employed, a number of fundamental physical types are defined, and their distribution and that of their derivatives traced.

One of these fundamental types unexpectedly proves to be Negrito; the other two most important ones being Negroid and Malayoid. The Negrito and Negroid types being marginal in their distribution, are probably the older.

The Zoroastrian doctrine of the freedom of the will: A. V. WILLIAMS JACKSON, professor of IndoIranian languages, Columbia University. The purpose of this paper was to show the signficance of the doctrine of the freedom of the will in the dualistic creed of Zoroaster more than two thousand five hundred years ago. The warring kingdoms of good and evil, light and darkness, personified as Ormazd and Ahriman, the ancient Persian god and devil, are in perpetual conflict, according to Zoroaster's philosophic teachings. While these two antagonistic principles, which struggle for the soul of man, are primeval and coeval, they are not coeternal, because Ormazd will triumph in the end and Ahriman will be annihilated. Man will help in bringing about the victory. Man is Ormazd's creature and belongs by birthright to the kingdom of good. He is created, however, a free agent, with the power of will to choose right or wrong. By the universal choice of right he will contribute his share towards the ultimate triumph of the hosts of heaven over the legions of hell at the final judgment day, and will win salvation for his soul. It was Zoroaster's mission in the world to guide man to make the right choice. Passages from the ancient Avestan and Pahlavi texts relating to the subject were translated, and emphasis was laid upon the interest which this old Zoroastrian doctrine in regard to the freedom of the will has for students of philosophy and religion.

The Hittite civilization: MORRIS JASTROW, Jr., Ph.D., LL.D., professor of Semitic languages, University of Pennsylvania. During the last four decades the discoveries and excavations in northern Asia Minor have brought the Hittite problem into the foreground of Oriental archeology. The notices about the Hittite groups found in the Old Testament and in the inscriptions of Egypt and Assyria have been supplemented by an abundance of material now at the disposal of scholars, though this can not be fully utilized until the large quantity of inscriptions in the Hittite characters have been satisfactorily deciphered. Even without this decipherment the monuments themselves tell us much of the important part played by the Hittites during the second millenium before this era in the ancient East. They seem to have been composed of


a conglomeration of various ethnic elements and about 1500 B.C. a strong Hittite empire was located in northern Asia Minor which was powerful enough to threaten both Egypt, on the one side, and Babylonia and Assyria, on the other. These Hittites moving along the historical highway across Asia Minor left their rock monuments and their fortresses as traces of the power and civilization which they developed. Their contact with Assyria appears to have been particularly close and it is not impossible that the earliest rulers were actually Hittites. We find that at one time they extended far into Palestine. The sons of Heth" associ ated in tradition with Abraham are Hittites and there were Hittite generals in the army of the Jewish kings. The introduction of cuneiform writing among the Hittites to replace their more cumbersome script is in itself an important indication of the close contact with Babylonian-Assyrian civilization as it also furnishes a definite basis upon which the decipherment of the Hittite language becomes a definite possibility.

The decipherment of Hittite languages: MAURICE BLOOMFIELD, L.H.D., LL.D., professor of Sanskrit and comparative philology, Johns Hopkins University.



The beginning of the fourth gospel: PAUL HAUPT, Ph.D., LL.D., professor of Semitic languages, Johns Hopkins University. John i. 1, should be translated: In the beginning was Reason. Greek logos" denotes both "word" and "rea son." Logic is the science of reasoning. According to the Stoics, Reason (Greek Logos) was the active principle in the formation of the universe. We find stoic phraseology not only in the New Testament, but also in the Old Testament. The most valuable lessons of Stoicism were preserved in Christianity. ARTHUR W. GOODSPEED (To be continued)


A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of Science, publishing the official notices and proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Published every Friday by



GARRISON, N. Y. NEW YORK, N. Y. Entered in the post-office at Lancaster, Pa., as second class matter


FRIDAY, JUNE 11, 1920

[blocks in formation]


IN SCIENCE of December 5, 1919, Mr. D. D. Whitney presents certain data and conclusions on State Academies of Science. Omitting mention of a number of large academies centering in cities his figures show that membership varies from 25 to 350; that annual dues run from 50 cents to $10; that annual receipts from state or private sources vary from none to $1,500, 9 out of the 18 enjoying such receipts; that 4 out of 18 pay their officers salaries, from $75 to $1,000; and that the annual publications by 12 out of the 18 academies contain 50 to 600 pages.

In these academies Mr. Whitney finds great variation as to interest and vitality, comments from the officers being "dead" in three cases, "apathetic" in others, and "very lively" in a few. Assigning grades to indicate the various degrees of health and vitality, we may say that of the eighteen academies considered, two would be graded A or "superior"; one B, or "good"; eight C, "passing"; four D, "poor but passing"; and three E, 66 failure." This result seems to follow the probability curve fairly well, and should perhaps cause us to look upon the situation with some complaisance. It might be unreasonable to expect all of the group to come up to the highest standard of excellence.

Our own academy is reported as having 96 members, no annual state appropriation, no salaries for officers, no annual publication, and as manifesting an interest " fairly lively." This ranks us as of about C grade, passing but without distinction. Our growth, however from 46 charter members in 1914 to 110 members in 1920, indicates a persistent vitality, and the classification of our membership, 25 per cent. of our resident members being un

1 President's address before the Kentucky Academy of Science, Lexington, May 8, 1920.

connected with educational institutions, shows that we are to a small extent at least "unifying the scientific interests of the State." Mr. Whitney takes a somewhat somber view of the future of the state academies. He points out the fact that only a small percentage of the scientific men and women of the states are affiliated with the academies, explaining the fact by the existence of larger societies for specialists which appeal more strongly than the local academies with this lack of differentiation. However, he mentions two advantages of the state academy; the opportunities for social intercourse and good fellowship which tend to encourage scientific effort in smaller colleges and normal schools; and the provisions for the publication of articles that would not be accepted by the larger and more important periodicals. To these we should add the practise of bringing to the annual meeting some outstanding scientist who otherwise might not come before our membership.

This article suggested to the writer that it might be well to ask the secretaries of these academies certain questions with a view to determining if possible a little more definitely whether there is a field and a future for the state academy, and in particular for the Kentucky Academy. Accordingly a series of questions was proposed, the first of which was whether, in view of the large number of national and regional scientific societies there is any need for a state academy. Mentioning the replies from state academies only the vote stood: Yes, 9; No, 2. These two negative votes were, curiously, one from a very active academy centering in a large city, and one from a state academy reported by Mr. Whitney as showing lively interest at the annual meeting but apathetic the remainder of the year. We may say however that most of those reporting, whether lively or moribund, wish still to live and claim for themselves a raison d'etre.

The second question asked was "What are your reasons?" First let us notice the reasons of those who vote against the state academy. We are told that the academies are

not needed because a state does not seem to be a convenient unit for scientific organization; because the interest in the academies is very small; because the publications are mediocre, no one being willing to publish their good articles in the Proceedings for fear that they will never be seen; because the social value is the only real value and that is not sufficient justification for the work entailed; and because the professional men and every one else have their own societies in which they are much more interested.

But the affirmative argues that the academies have a field and are needed, because their meetings are so near home that scientists of the state can get together; because a large number of the members are young people who are not yet, and in many cases never will be, ripe for membership in the national societies, but who can be greatly stimulated by the academy activities; because the society brings together scientists of varied interests, there being too much subdivision and segregation in the scientific field at present; because they bring men not connected with educational institutions in touch with scientific matters; because they give opportunity for papers of local interest which would not find place on the programs of national societies; because they foster state pride and interest in state welfare; because they bring to bear a certain amount of influence for the betterment of the state; be cause, except in the field of chemistry, they are about the only local scientific societies that emphasize research rather than education; because they exercise a tonic effect in the life of the state and foster a proper appreciation of the value of science; and because they supply a needed element of organization in the scientific field which the national societies do not afford.

With the feeling that, valuable as is the annual meeting of the academy, there should be some larger service possible in the interests of science and the state, a third question was asked for information regarding other activities. Of the eleven academies being quoted, four did nothing beyond the annual meeting, ex

cepting in some instances, the publication of the annual proceedings. Other answers were that the secretary sends out letters to find out what is going on in the way of science advancement; that an annual expenditure of $250 is made in grants for the encouragement of research on the part of members; that a library and exchanges are kept up; that various sections hold meetings throughout the year; that a second meeting of the academy is held; that an out-door "excursion meeting" is held, usually for two days, when members ride, tramp, camp, do field-work and get better acquainted; and that a number of committees are working on various problems of value to the state. This last comes from Illinois, where the academy has a committee on the Ecological Survey of the State, organized now for ten years; a Committee on Science Education; a Committee on Legislation as affecting Scientific Interests; and a Committee on Conservation of Wild Life in the State.

Omitting other questions asked of the academies the last should be mentioned, namely, "What new forms of scientific service might the Academy undertake?" Here we run against the very general handicap of lack of funds. Many things might be done if only the necessary money were available. The need is felt of more money for publication, more money for research funds, more money for surveys. But a number of other suggestions are made. The academy might become more influential as an adviser in connection with legislation affecting the natural resources of the state. The work of science should be more closely correlated with the industries of the state. More effort should be spent on the problems of development of the natural resources of the state on a firm scientific basis. The members should be stimulated to study and report on many subjects of state or local interest. Local chapters should be formed. State surveys in botany and zoology and geology should be organized and allotted to various members. High-school teachers should be brought in to the academy for the sake of better science in the high

schools. Science clubs should be organized in the high schools, these clubs to be affiliated with the State Academy.

These ideas should prove exceedingly suggestive to us in Kentucky. No state in the union offers a richer opportunity for the efforts of an energetic and progressive Academy of Science. It would be a reflection upon your intelligence to argue the point that the war just closed has proved the value and the need of science. Scientific achieve ments threatened civilization with destruction, and science was an essential in the salvation of the world from barbarism. No civilized nation will henceforth be so criminal as to neglect the deliberate, systematic, organized effort to develop science in the interests of national defense and domestic welfare. This essential importance of science was recognized by scientists long before the war, if it was not by the general public. But scientists themselves apparently had not realized the necessity for organization and cooperation in scientific effort as well as in government and in industry. This perhaps is the outstanding fact before our minds to-day. We saw the forces of science hurriedly and effectively classified and grouped and directed under the leadership of the National Research Council during the war. In peace we are now seeing the same idea carried out in the organization of International Associations, in the present-day program of the National Research Council, which contemplates the permanent coordination of the scientific work of the nation, and in the enlarged program of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Both the Council and the Association propose to reach down and touch local scientific interests through the state academies. In this fact we find an immediate and conclusive reason for the continuance of our State Academy. No organization can be complete without its subordinate units, nor can the scientific interests of the nation be completely fostered and directed without state and local groups. In the army must be brigades and regiments and battalions and companies and squads. The state academy

« AnteriorContinuar »