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to complete the scheme by providing the additional buildings and plant required for the synthesis of ammonia and its oxidation to nitric acid and nitrates suitable for the manufacture of explosives and fertilizers. It is understood that the company has acquired a large amount of additional land and that it intends to develop the project on a very large scale. The factory has been re-designed on a peace as distinct from its former war basis, and in many particulars the new plant will represent a substantial advance, both in the ammonia and nitric acid sections, on anything previously used in Germany.
SPANISH EDITION OF THE JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
AT the meeting in New Orleans the board of trustee's presented the following report:
The first year of the Spanish edition of The Journal has been reasonably satisfactory. Its publication was undertaken with some hesitancy because it meant a venture in an entirely new field. Other periodicals had been published in this country in the Spanish language for circulation in South and Central America, but their publication was undertaken for commercial reasons. Our Spanish edition entered the field solely as a scientific periodical for educative and scientific purposes, and it has been received with approbation. The field was a difficult one to work in the first place because there was not available any physician's directory, or any even fairly reliable list of physicians of standing. However, a list of such physicians has been gradually assembled so that now there is a fairly reliable one at the association headquarters. Included in this list are the physicians of Central and South America and the Philippine Islands.
Another difficulty has been the mailing facilities; these have been anything but satisfactory. Under normal conditions it takes a long time for a communication to reach the South American countries, with the exception of those bordering on the Gulf of Mexico.
At the end of the year the subscription list comprised 2,908 names. To those who appreciate the difficulties and know the conditions that prevailed at the beginning, this must be regarded as quite satisfactory. Roughly, this circulation is as follows: The largest number of subscribers naturally are in Mexico-539; in Cuba next, 530; Argentina,
270; Brazil, 194 (in Brazil Portuguese is the language in general use, therefore it is rather remarkable that this number has been secured there); Chile, 179; Spain, 142; Peru, 101. The rest of the circulation is in Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Salvador, Santo Domingo, Uruguay, Venezuela, Panama and Porto Rico.
It is not to be expected that this journal could be published without a loss for the first few years. As will be remembered, the venture was undertaken at the request of the International Health Board of the Rockefeller Foundation, which agreed to pay half the loss. It should be explained in this connection that the number of copies of each issue printed was 4,500 to 5,500, and that the excess above those subscribed for was sent out as sample copies. Hereafter, of course, there will be fewer sample copies distributed; consequently a less expense with an increased income. During the months of January, February and March the circulation has been steadily increasing. The actual loss to the association to date has been less than $10,000, which amount promises to be returned with more than gratifying results within the first five-year period of its publication.
GRANTS FOR RESEARCH MADE BY THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE
THE Committee on Grants of the association held a meeting in April, and distributed grants amounting to forty-five hundred dollars as given below. The next meeting of the committee will be in connection with the annual meeting of the assocation in December, when grants for the year 1920 will be made. Applications or suggestions in regard to grants may be made to any member of the committee, and should be received before December 1. The present membership is: Henry Crew, chairman; W. B. Cannon, R. T. Chamberlin, G. N. Lewis, George T. Moore, G. H. Parker, Robert M. Yerkes, and Joel Stebbins, secretary.
Following are the grants for 1919:
One hundred dollars to Dr. Olive C. Hazlett, of Mount Holyoke College, in support of her work on the theory of hypercomplex numbers and invariants.
Two hundred dollars to Professor A. A. Knowlton, of Reed College, in aid of a determination of the relation between chemical composition and magnetic properties in Heusler alloys. The particular problem is to find the precise proportions in which the elements must be mixed in order to get the maximum value of magnetic intensity at saturation.
One hundred dollars to Professor John C. Shedd, of Occidental College, in aid of a further study of snow crystals, similar to that which he has already published.
Six hundred dollars to Professor Philip Fox, of Dearborn Observatory, Northwestern University, in support of his work on the photographic determination of stellar parallaxes. This is a renewal of the grant made for the same purpose in 1917, but the use of which was interrupted by the war.
One hundred dollars to Professor Anne S. Young, of Mount Holyoke College, for the determination of the positions and proper motions of stars from photographic plates already taken. The work is being done in cooperation with the Yerkes and McCormick Observatories.
Two hundred and fifty dollars to M. Ferdinand Canu, of Versailles, France, to carry forward toward completion the very significant studies upon the classification of bryozoa in which he is collaborating with Dr. R. S. Bassler at the U. S. National Museum.
Two hundred and fifty dollars to Mr. Frank B. Taylor, of Fort Wayne, Indiana, for a field study of the moraines of recession in the St. Lawrence Valley.
Two hundred and fifty dollars to Professor S. I. Kornhauser, of Denison University, for a continuation of his work on the sexual characteristics of the membracid insect Thelia bimaculata. The first part of this work was published in September, 1919, in the Journal of Morphology.
Two hundred dollars to Dr. P. W. Whiting, of St. Stephen's College, for breeding outfit and temperature apparatus to be used for genetic and cytological researches on Ephestia and Hadro
Five hundred dollars to the editorial board of Botanical Abstracts for editorial and office expenses in connection with the preparation of manuscripts. The general interests of botany, in both its national and international aspects, would seem to be best served at this time by aiding this abstract journal for another year.
Five hundred dollars to Dr. I. W. Bailey, of the Bussey Institution, Harvard University, for aid in investigations upon: (1) Myrmecophytism; particularly certain supposed symbiotic relations between ants and higher plants. (2) Relations between ants and fungi, particularly ants as disseminators of disease. (3) Cytology of the cambium. The entomological work involved will be done in collaboration with Professor W. M. Wheeler, and the headquarters for the summer will be at the British Guiana Tropical Research Station of the New York Zoological Society.
THE John Calvin McNair lectures at the University of North Carolina were delivered this year by Professor Edwin G. Conklin, of Princeton, who spoke on the subject of "Human Evolution in Retrospect and Prospect."
THE University of North Carolina chapter of Sigma Xi was installed May 26 by Professor C. E. McClung, of the University of Pennsylvania, president of Sigma Xi. The charter members of the North Carolina chapter are Drs. James M. Bell and Joseph Hyde Pratt, initiated at Cornell and Yale respectively, and Drs. F. P. Venable, H. V. Wilson, W. D. MacNider, A. S. Wheeler, W. C. Coker and William Cain, all members of the faculty.
THE meeting of the University of Pennsylvania Chapter of the Society of the Sigma Xi on May 26 was held at the Flower Observatory, Highland Park. Addresses were made by Professor Eric Doolittle on "Star Clusters and Star Nebula" and by Professor Horace C. Richards on the "Einstein Theory of Relativity." Preceding the addresses, supper was served on the lawn to one hundred and fifty members and guests. Officers elected for 1920-21, are M. J. Babb, president; O. L. Shinn, vice president; H. C. Barker, secretary; H. S. Colton, treasurer.
PROFESSOR GEORGE B. MANGOLD recently spoke before the Anthropological Society of St. Louis on "Ethnic Types in America." On May 5, Dr. W. W. Graves gave a lecture on the "Scaphoid Scapula."
THE Croonian lecture of the Royal Society will be delivered by Professor William Bateson on June 17 upon the subject of "Genetic Segregation."
SIR ARTHUR NEWSHOLME, who has returned to England, has in press a volume of American addresses on Public Health and Insurance, which will be published by the Johns Hopkins University Press.
ACCORDING to the English correspondent of the Journal of the American Medical Association, Sir William Osler left an estate of the gross value of $80,000 with a net per
sonality of $53,000. He left his medical and scientific library (as cataloged) to the McGill University, Montreal, and all other property to his wife. At her death or earlier, if she should wish it, his residence, 13 Norham Gardens, Oxford, is to be given to the dean, canons and governing body of Christ Church as the residence of the regius professor of medicine.
WE learn from Nature that a committee of fellows of the Royal Society and members of the University of Cambridge has been formed for the purpose of collecting funds for a memorial to be erected in Westminster Abbey to the late Lord Rayleigh in recognition of his eminent services to scence. Lord Rayleigh was both president of the Royal Society and Chancellor of the University, and an appeal has been issued by the society and the university. It is thought, however, that there may be some men of science unconnected with either of these bodies who may wish to show their appreciation of Lord Rayleigh's work. Donations may be sent to the hon. treasurers of the fund, Sir Richard Glazebrook and Sir Arthur Schuster, at 63 Grange Road, Cambridge.
MARVIN HENDRIX STACY, professor of civil engineering and dean at the University of North Carolina, has died at the age of thirtyseven years.
FREDERICK KOLPIN RAVN, professor of plant pathology in the Royal Agricultural College of Denmark, Copenhagen, died from blood poisoning on May 24, in East Orange, N. J., aged forty-seven years.
DR. ALEXANDER FERGUSON, professor of pathology in the School of Medicine, Cairo, has died at the age of forty-nine years.
CAPTAIN ETTRICK WILLIAM CREAK, F.R.S., known for his work on the compass and on magnetism, died on April 3, at the age of eight-five years.
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
MR. T. HARRISON HUGHES has given £50,000 and the Cunard Steamship Co., £10,000 to the
University of Liverpool as a contribution to the appeal for funds.
TEN members are reported by the Journal of the American Association to have resigned from the faculty of the Marquette University School of Medicine on account of a disagreement between them and the president over several ethical questions, one of which is that of sacrificing an unborn infant when necessary to save the life of the mother.
PROFESSOR J. H. CLO, of Tulane University, has accepted the position of professor and head of the department of physics at the University of Pittsburgh.
DR. HIRAM BYRD, now of the University of Mississippi, has accepted an invitation to become head of a new department of hygiene to be established at the University of Alabama.
LEO F. PIERCE, professor of chemistry at Washburn College, has resigned to work for a doctor's degree at Tulane University.
DR. CHARLES LOUIS MIX has accepted the position of head of the department of medicine of Loyola University School of Medicine.
DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE RENEWAL OF OUR RELATIONS WITH THE SCIENTIFIC MEN OF EUROPE
TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: A flood of publications is now coming in from all parts of Europe, especially from the long pent-up workers of France, of Austria, and of Germany, as well as in lesser degree from those of Great Britain and the Scandinavian countries. The German and French publications are as elegant in form and appearance as of old. The Austrian publications show very stringent conditions.
Arrangements are being made for coming scientific congresses and meetings. Certainly so far as science is related to human progress and welfare, it was never more widely needed all over Europe or all over the world than at the present moment. Certainly no one would shut off a British discovery, which would double the productive value of wheat, from the people of the ancient Central Empires.
Certainly also any discovery made by savants of the Central Empires, which would mitigate human suffering or extend our knowledge, should be immediately transmitted to the people of the former Allied Powers. I, for one, am in favor of renewing scientific relations with the people of all countries of the world irrespective of whether they have been fighting with or against me in the great war for civilization. On this subject we have recently received very wise counsel from an entirely neutral party, Svante Arrhenius and his confrères. I may also quote from a letter of January 12, 1920, received from Arrhenius:
I was very glad to receive your kind letter of December 3. I am in the highest degree thankful to you for your decision to keep up the perfect internationality of the Eugenics Congress. Now France and England have peace with Germany, and in old times it was always written in the peace treaties that the contracting parties should live on the best footing for the time to come. . . . Before the war the situation in Europe was one cause of the expensive armaments such that every German believed a (short) war would be much cheaper than the steadily increasing military expenses.
In Austria the common expression was, "Lieber ein Ende mit Elend, als ein Elend ohne Ende." Now they have in reality the "Ende mit Elend." People are starving to death, many thousands every day. The children are infected with tuberculosis. The professors have their salaries of 12,000 kronen, which is now about 100 dollars, a year. The institutions are not heated. Series of experiments, which have taken many years, must be given up. The better classes are giving their clothes and their family relics for getting some foodstuffs from the peasants, who do not take the valueless paper money. The coal mines, which be longed to the companies in Vienna, have been given to the peasants of the state of Bohemia, which is according to letters from a Bohemian patriot under a bolshevist government, enriching itself and its friends through bribery. No coals are sent to Vienna, which is beset by starvation and cold. What have these old agreeable people in Vienna committed that they should be extirpated. . . .
From one of the most eminent men in Vienna, in fact, one of the most brilliant men in his subject in Europe, a colleague has received the following: