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to practise it, the student is best taught to solve industrial problems by having him attempt the solution of such problems under able and experienced guidance. These problems, however, have their origin in, and owe their existence to, the industries themselves. The first point of cooperative contact, therefore, in this arrangement between industry and the Institute of Technology is that the institute agrees to use, so far as it can, such problems as the industry will submit to it as basic material for its research work for those graduate students interested in industrial development; to give men already well grounded in science the benefit of the opportunity of working under experienced instructors upon the type of work for which they are urgently required. It is true also that much investigation in "pure science" can be conducted as profitably in fields of research which are closely akin to industry as in those realms of science far remote from general interest. This does not mean that the search for knowledge for its own sake will not continue to subtend a large arc of the activities of the Institute of Technology; but rather that such search will be activated and inspired by the realization that the hard work involved and the results obtained are recognized as an essential part of a comprehensive whole. Hence, the institute agrees in its contract to maintain a steady stream of trained men constantly flowing into industry with the best preparation for scientific work which it is possible for it to give. At the same time, the results of the research work thus obtained will swell the store of knowledge on which the scientific progress of the community, as a whole, depends.
But a corollary of this duty of preparing educated men is the duty to see that, as far as possible, these men take positions for which their natural ability and aptitude most nearly fit them. Further, it is desirable that, as these men develop into specialists in any particular field, their sphere of usefulness be made wide as is practicable. Hence the institute undertakes to maintain a record of the qualifications, experience and special knowledge of its alumni; to advise the contractor where such
knowledge and experience as it seeks is available; to assist the contractor to obtain the technical help he requires, whether from its own alumni, or from available engineers elsewhere. While this service has been rendered to some degree in the past, it has been a minor part of, and incidental to, other activities. It will now become a contractual obligation.
Coincident with the education of scientific men, there exists the necessity of educating the executives of the industries in the great economic value of science when applied to the business of their organizations. The sporadic "Yankee genius" of the past, productive though it was, must be replaced by the methods of scientific research. Genius must be provided with that most efficient tool yet produced -scientific method. While it is true that the world will ever need more knowledge, the pressing duty of industry for the present is to apply the knowledge now available. To meet this situation, the institute provides for conferences with members of its staff, not only in its own building but also at the factories of the contractor. It is hoped that the contractor will be so imbued with the possible benefits to be derived by the application of science that he will avail himself of one of the sources of technical aid readily accessible, not only at the institute, but among consulting engineers and industrial scientists throughout the country. A realization of that close cooperation between the industrial interests and the educational institutions of the country, which in Germany was made so effective by the domination of both by the state, can, in America, be brought about only by a voluntary personal relationship between the executives of the companies and the instructing staffs of the institutions. The Technology Plan aims to make this relationship more easily possible; to provide a point of contact between the two interests; to open a channel of communication through which the manufacturer and the technical consultant can more easily meet. The contractor can obtain the value of his retainer only by utilizing the facilities thus made available. There will, therefore, be present in the Technology Plan this incentive, to at least try.
The instructing staff of an educational institution is made up, at least theoretically, of men peculiarly adapted to render great public service by conducting research of a fundamental character, i. e., they are seekers after new knowledge, and yet, at the same time, are teachers and trainers of young men. It is important that these men be not withdrawn into purely industrial work by reason of the greater financial return offered by great corporations, or the acute pleasure which many red-blooded men feel in being professionally connected with great technical developments. Hence, the Technology Plan provides a method by which the staff is enabled to profit by contact with men of affairs and receive the inspiration which comes from the capitalization of effort, and, at the same time, fertilize and capitalize the instructional work of the teaching staff.
The institute, therefore, agrees that if the contractor has special technical problems requiring extended consultations, investigations, test, or research work, it will advise the contractor where and by whom such service can best be rendered. When one considers the splendid laboratories with which the Institute of Technology is equipped, covering as they do, almost every department of applied science, and its staff, trained in the use of such laboratories, it is obvious that much of the work will be done within its own organization. But it is neither the desire nor the intention of the Technology Plan to limit the contractor to the facilities of the institute. It is the hope of the Division of Industrial Cooperation and Research, the organization set up to handle the one hundred and ninety contracts already made, that it can enlist the interest of the great body of able consulting engineers throughout the country. When, therefore, consultations, tests, investigations, or research work are of such a nature as can be best furnished by established commercial organizations, the institute will advise the contractor where, in its judgment, the work can best be cared for.
The Technology Plan is, therefore, a more effective means of introducing technical research to the manufacturer; of making the ap
WE have again to thank Professor Alfred Lacroix, of the Académie des Sciences, for the publication of a manuscript account by the French mineralogist Déodat Dolomieu of his travels in Sicily in the year 1781.1
Dolomieu, who was a Knight of Malta, had in 1771 incurred the displeasure of the Grand Master of the Order on account of his participation in a duel, and was obliged to absent himself from the island for several years. During this time he came to Paris, where he became acquainted with many of the leading scientists of the period, and frequented much the Jardin du Roi, the forerunner of the present Jardin des Plantes. The mineralogist Daubenton urged him to undertake a geological trip to the island of Sicily and gave him much valuable advice as to the observations he could make there. In a letter written June 9, 1776, to his patron, Duke Alexandre de La Rochefoucauld, Dolomieu says that by pursuing his investigations under the guidance of Daubenton's notes, he believes that he would be able to make a collection of characteristic marbles, ich he would gladly share with the duke (p. 7).
By 1779, Dolomieu had made his peace with the Order of Malta, and had returned to the island, whence he started in 1781 for his trip to Sicily (p. 8). In a letter of August 6 to his friend Chevalier Gioeni, a distinguished nat
1"Un voyage géologique en Sicile en 1781, notes inédites de Dolomieu," by Alfred Lacroix, Secrétaire Perpétuel de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 1919, 190 pp. 8vo.
uralist of Catania, Sicily, Dolomieu gave in the following brief paragraphs the main results of his explorations (pp. 10, 11):
1. I found no trace of volcanoes anywhere in the Val Demona. The neighborhood of Ali does not offer any volcanic material; the waters which supply the hot baths established on the coast are the only indications I have found of subterranean fires.
2. The Liparian Islands are exceedingly curious, and they well merit the attention of naturalists. An interesting collection could be made here of lavas and other volcanic products, but I did not have time to accomplish this.
3. The mines of Val Demona are grouped in a triangle of mountains which occupy the promontory of Sicily; all the veins traverse schist. They contain silver, copper, lead, antimony, zinc and mercury. But none of these mines have been exploited and it is almost impossible to get specimens. In my whole journey through these mountains I was only able to pick up a few pieces which I took from the outcrops of the veins.
4. The granites are present in great quantity in the mountains of Messina, and I believe that a part of the columns made of this rock which one sees in Sicily were quarried in these mountains.
5. I do not know whether there are real coal mines at Messina. I have only found a bituminous earth very common throughout Sicily.
We may note that Dolomieu was enough interested in the report that there was a deposit of beryls near the village of Gratteri, to visit the place. The locality was in a ravine which traversed a hill. Here a number of geodes had been found, resembling those of Grenoble in France. They had a triple envelop of black iron-ore, brown iron-ore and gray clay, and some of them displayed within polyhedral, transparent crystals. Dolomieu could only find a few unsatisfactory specimens, and was forced to buy some at Gratteri, where he had to pay as much for them as for genuine beryls. In reality they were either hyalin. quartz, or the light-blue strontium sulp called celestine (pp. 90, 91).
Déodat Dolomieu was born at Dolomieu, near Tour-du-Pin, in Dauphiné, France, on June 23, 1750. He died at Châteauneuf, near La Clayette, department Saône-et-Loire, November 16, 1801. Regarding the disposition of his remains, the following information is given by Professor Alfred Lacroix in his biographical sketch of Dolomieu.2
Dolomieu was interred at Châteauneuf, near La Clayette (Saône-et-Loire). His body probably rests in the vault of the Drée family, but his heart was placed in an urn (39.2 cm. × 23.6 cm.) of black porphyrite with large crystals of white feldspar, which surmounts a fine prism (1 m. 29.8 × 21.6 cm.) of basalt from Auvergne, itself supported by a pedestal of Albanese peperino and marble (violet breccia). This little monument, which formed part of the collection of his brother-in-law (Catalogue of the eight collections composing the Mineralogical Museum of the Marquis Etienne de Drée, Paris, 1811, p. 249), finds itself to-day placed at the entrance of the mineralogical gallery of the Muséum d'Histoire Naturel in Paris.
At the request of the Marquise de Drée, her brother's heart was, at the time of her demise, transported to her own tomb at Dolomieu. In the park of the chateau of Châteauneuf, she had caused to be erected a small monument formed by a block of the red granite of the country. GEORGE F. KUNZ
THE MACKENZIE DAVIDSON MEMORIAL
AN influential English committee has issued an appeal which in part says:
The death of Sir James Mackenzie Davidson in the prime of life has deprived radiology of one of its most distinguished exponents, whose name is specially associated with the development of radiographic technique, and particularly that of stereoscopic radiography, and with the introduction in this country of the method of the localization of foreign bodies to which so many thousands of wounded men owe a deep debt of gratitude.
Mackenzie Davidson's reputation was international. In this country he was rightly regarded as the head of his profession, and throughout his career he was unsparing in his efforts to raise the
2"Notire historique sur Déodat Dolomieu," Paris, 1918, p. 83, note 85; Institut de France, Académie des Sciences.
status of radiology among the sciences. He was especially insistent on the fundamental value of physics to radiology, particularly in regard to methods of measurement and the designing of equipment, subjects in which he was deeply interested up to the time of his death.
Many in his own branch of the profession and a number of his friends and former patients, wishing to keep his memory green, have suggested that an appeal for funds should be made to found a Mackenzie Davidson Chair of Radiology at some university.
Had Mackenzie Davidson lived he would have been among the first actively and generously to support the foundation of an institute for teaching and research in radiology, of which he was one of the earliest pioneers. If funds permit, it is hoped to found such an institute, to which possibly the chair could be attached, and of which the personnel and equipment would be beyond reproach. The benefit accruing to the British School of Radiology would be incalculable.
Till quite recently radiology has been regarded as a purely medical subject, but experimental research has shown that X-rays may be profitably employed commercially in a number of industries. A new subject, radiometallography, has, for example, come into being, which offers great possibilities for examining the internal structure of metals and other materials. In this connection radiology has already been turned to account by the steel manufacturer, the metallurgist, the engineer, the manufacturer of explosives, the aircraft constructor, the glass manufacturer, etc.
The future of radiology will therefore lie, not only in the fight against disease and suffering, but also in the increase of commercial and industrial efficiency. But these new branches of radiology need much investigatory work before they can come fully into their own, and a chair of radiology associated with an X-ray institute should play a worthy part in such development.
THE ENGLISH UNION OF SCIENTIFIC WORKERS
Nature reports that the half-yearly council meeting of the National Union of Scientific Workers, presided over by Mr. G. S. Baker, of the National Physical Laboratory, was held at University College on March 6. The rapid growth of the union has necessitated the appointment a full-time secretary, and Major A. G. Church has been appointed to fill that
office. The research committee in its report outlined the function of this body and that of the research council, which it is hoped will shortly be constituted. It will consider how best industry and public administration should be kept in close touch with the development of scientific knowledge, and ensure that the views and conditions of employment of scientific workers shall receive consideration from all bodies bringing forward schemes for research in science or for the administration of research. It was felt that the state should not subsidize industrial research associations unless such bodies display an anxiety to ensure that the direction of research shall be in the hands of those who have shown capacity for leadership in scientific work. A report on patent rights presented by Mr. A. A. Griffith emphasized the opinion "that the only satisfactory way of remunerating salaried inventors is to pay them adequate salaries; a salaried inventor receiving an adequate salary should have no claim whatever to any extra payment because his work proves unexpectedly remunerative." On the motion of Miss A. B. Dale, the council unanimously agreed to "protest against the differential treatment of men and women as regards the method of recruitment to the Civil Service and the salary scales offered therein as recommended by the Reorganization Sub-committee of the Civil Service National Whitley Council."
THE HARVARD ENGINEERING SCHOOL AND IN
THE Harvard Engineering School has adopted a new plan of instruction for the junior year of the engineering course, whereby students will hereafter be given an opportunity to combine classroom work with six months of active engineering practise and industrial training. According to the new plan, which will be inaugurated in June and will apply to the instruction in mechanical, electrical, civil, sanitary and municipal engineering, every student who wishes to take the industrial training work will spend half his time during his junior year working in industrial or engineering plants within easy reach of Cambridge.
Professor Hector J. Hughes, chairman of the administrative board of the engineering school, has made the following statement:
One of the first problems which the staff of the new engineering school set itself to solve was to find an effective way of getting the new school and its students into closer relations with industrial and engineering work before they graduate. The need for such relations has been increasingly evident in the past few years. The object of such coordination is manifold: to stimulate interest in the classroom work; to keep the teaching staff well-informed of the needs of industry and how to train engineers to meet them; to give the students some intimate knowledge of the great problems of labor and industry which they have to meet after they graduate, and thus to anticipate to some extent the period of initiation which all students must go through and better to fit them to begin their careers; to give them an opportunity to discover how intricate and interesting the basic industries are and to what extent scientific knowledge may be used in work which is too frequently looked upon as nontechnical; in other words, to find out how many kinds of careers are open to technically trained men and how wide is the opportunity for such men. Another object of the new plan is to stimulate the interest of the industries themselves in the adaptation to their special needs of education in engineering.
The most promising solution of this problem seemed to the staff to lie along the lines of the highly developed and successful plan of industrial cooperation which was initiated by Dean Schneider at the University of Cincinnati and has been carried on there so successfully for many years, and has been applied in a modified form at the University of Pittsburgh also. This plan has been modified still further to meet the different conditions and needs at Harvard. It is significant that other universities are now moving in the same direction, and within only a few days a large movement has been inaugurated to put such a plan ultimately into effect in most of the large technical schools.
than science, and among students of widely dif fering interests. In other words, we feel that our students should have as many as possible of the benefits which we know will come from connection with the college, while they are at the same time carrying on their engineering studies. For this reason, and because it does not seem desirable to lengthen the period required for a first degree beyond four years, we shall be limited at the outset to less industrial experience than perhaps would be desirable. The amount offered, however, should be looked upon as a minimum and we have no doubt that many of our students will be glad to avail themselves of the opportunity to take more of this work after the plan is in operation.
Mr. H. V. Drufner, of the University of Cincinnati, has been secured to take active charge of the technical work of putting the new plan into operation.