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formation acquired outside of England is demonstrated by the creating of the office of a special secretary whose aim it was to maintain correspondence with the scientific men of other lands, to collect foreign publications, to translate them, etc.
In those days when bringing out a book was quite an enterprise the society often undertook the publication of the important works of its members and of other scientists. Indeed through the activity of the Royal Society the world became acquainted with the work of Newton. Writes Newton to Oldenburg, one of the secretaries of the society:
At reading your letter I was surprised to see so much care taken about securing an invention to me of which I have hitherto had so little value.
And therefore, since the Royal Society is pleased to think it worth patronizing, I must acknowledge it deserves much more of them for that than of me, who, had not the communication of it been desired, might have let it still remain in private as it hath already some years.
Indeed to such an extent was the society concerned with the interests of investigators that Secretary Oldenburg devised a way of securing rights of priority even in unfinished investigations.
The emphasis of the Royal Society on social and practical service is seen from the following lines taken from the writings of Sprot, one of the historians of the Royal Society.
They have propounded the composing of a catalogue of all trades, works and manufactures, taking notice of all physical receipts or secrets, instruments, tools and engines. . . . They have recommended advancing the manufacture of tapestry, silk making. . . . They have compared soils and clays for making better bricks and tiles. . . . They started the propagation of potatoes and experiments with tobacco oil.
Indeed one could continue for hours if he made it his task to enumerate all the important functions undertaken by the Royal Society of England. The history of the French Académie des Sciences" is only a repetition with variations of the histories of the two forerunners, and very much the same may be said of the early history of the Ger
man learned societies, though they came to life many decades later.
And now let us pass decades and centuries and let us make an attempt to write the current history of our own learned societies. What is their social function? What is their contribution to the end of facilitating the task of individual workers? What initiative do they take in introducing scientific methods in the practical activities of our social life?
I fail to find the data on which to write this current history. True, the high specialization of science of to-day makes modern presentations less comprehensive and less thrilling than in the times of Newton and of Leibnitz. True, all the activities of the old scientific societies have been appropriated by special institutions: the university, the technical institution, the research institution, the government bureaus, by the laboratories in the industries, and true it is that present societies can not resume the activities of the old academies. Should the societies of to-day then hibernate 362 or 363 days a year and awaken only for the remaining two or three days in order that the members may be bored by listening to communications which they comprehend not, nor are desirous to comprehend? No, hibernate they need not unless they choose to do so by preference.
The great emergency of the past war has demonstrated how capable of initiative, of achievement, of inventiveness the modern American scientist is, once his interest is aroused, when he is called to join hands with his fellow workers.
The old problems are gone, but new ones are coming up every day. Ours is a large country with great natural resources. It is customary to refer to them as endless. The word is a misnomer, an invention of those in whose interest it is to use the resources recklessly. Human energy is needed to exploit these resources; and human energy is not boundless. Who shall devise methods to preserve our natural resources from devastation? Why not a scientific body, and particularly one composed of biochemists? Nearly two years ago the American Chemical Society
initiated a campaign for the establishment of a research institute of chemotherapy. For the last year the propaganda has painlessly died. Why this lack of perseverance? I can see the need of another institute which would embrace the study of all the materials employed in the industries engaged in the manufacture of agricultural and natural products. True, the industries have undertaken a considerable share of this work, but industries work for the profit of to-day and not for the preservation of national wealth of the future.
Referring again to the biological chemist who interests us particularly, I see his need for better laboratories, of better methods, of better standards; I see the needs that have been pointed out by several members of this conference, and which are placed on the program for discussion, and of a great many more needs. Surely the biological chemist is not the most favored son of society, of the university, or of the medical school.
I am glad that Dr. Gies brought you all together and gave you the opportunity to inaugurate a new type of society, the aim of which is to enhance the social usefulness of the biological chemist, on the one hand, and, on the other, to improve his facilities for work, whether his work be teaching or investigating. Will this new society live to record important service, or will it vegetate a pale, colorless existence? This will depend on the spirit in which you join it. The prospect for service is before you. Once more I wish to compliment Dr. Gies on his vision.
P. A. LEVENE
THE ROCKEFELLER INSTITUTE FOR
A BUST OF THE LATE PROFESSOR E. D. COPE
A BUST in plaster of the late Edward Drinker Cope, who, at the time of his death in Philadelphia, on April 12, 1897, was professor of zoology and comparative anatomy in the University of Pennsylvania, has been purchased by
2 An allusion to the fact that the conference was organized at Dr. Gies's suggestion.
the subscriptions of some twenty-seven of his former colleagues, associates and students and presented to the zoological laboratory of the university.
This bust is the work of Mr. Eugene Castello, of Philadelphia, and is the one represented in half tone in the number of The American Naturalist for May, 1897. Mr. Castello writes:
I had been engaged on portrait busts, of Dr. Matthew Woods, president of the Browning Society, and of Dr. William Mountain, author of "Saint Cecilia." The study of individual character in these portraits, followed by the production of a number of heads of racial types: American Indians, Russian moujiks, Arabs and Frenchmen, directed my attention to the very unusual features of Professor Cope's head. That he was quite aware of the interesting subject he was for a sculptor was soon evident, for he humorously described himself as "gimber-jawed," that is, he meant that the lower jaw was slightly undershot, having much the form of a skate runner extending from ear to chin.
In reference to the circumstances connected with the modelling of the bust, now the property of the university, I consulted a diary that I kept at that time and find that he gave me six sittings for it, beginning October 22, 1896, and the last one on January 6, 1897. At the final sitting he expressed himself as satisfied that I had succeeded in obtaining a good likeness. After Professor Cope passed away, his friend, Dr. Persifor Frazer, saw the bust and invited me to place it in the hall of the American Philosophical Society, May 7, 1897, where it remained for some time. Later it was again exposed there on the occasion of the Cope Memorial meeting [November 12, 1897], where it received favorable criticism from Professor Osborn of the American Museum of Natural History, Dr. Minis Hays and others. . . . Dr. Nolan, of the Academy of Natural Sciences, of this city, also has taken occasion to express his appreciation.
The work of constructive modelling of the head was aided to a considerable extent by the sitter himself, who seemed to be familiar with the anatomical points that differentiated it from any others and which attracted my attention when I met him for the first time. Artists delight in individual character, such as was evident in his head, and upon my expression of interest Professor Cope consented to give me some sittings, although suffering at the time with an incurable
malady. He collapsed on one occasion during a sitting and I was obliged to administer stimulants to revive him. He was a very patient sitter, although I knew he was suffering from disease, and had never before given a sitting to a sculptor.
I think the university is to be congratulated on obtaining possession of the work and I can assure you and the other subscribers that nothing could be more pleasing to me. It is an exact duplicate of the head even in measurement, every feature being transferred and reproduced in the clay by means of calipers, such as are used by sculptors, so that the work has a sort of scientific value as a human document. I used calipers with points especially protected with little cork balls. This seemed to amuse Professor Cope and yet he showed considerable fear that I might do some damage to his features with the instrument. The plaster bust was made from the clay by myself in a matrix of plaster which was destroyed in the process known to sculptors as the "waste mould process.'
As far as known, this bust of Professor Cope is the only one in existence modelled from life, although a death-mask was taken and is preserved in the University Museum. Although he never saw the present zoological laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania, it seems fitting that this building, which houses his osteological collection and many of his books, should also be enriched by this bust.
PHILIP P. CALVERT THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
THE HENRY PHIPPS INSTITUTE
THE Henry Phipps Institute for the study and prevention of tuberculosis, a part of the University of Pennsylvania, is engaged in a campaign to raise $3,000,000 to enable it to continue its work. Dr. Charles J. Hatfield is executive director; Dr. H. R. M. Landis, director of the clinical and sociological departments, and Dr. Paul A. Lewis, director of the pathological department. The text of the institute's appeal is in part as follows:
WHEREAS, The support which has been so generously contributed during the past 16 years by Mr. Henry Phipps can no longer be extended;
WHEREAS, The board of trustees of the Univer
sity of Pennsylvania see no prospect of being able to support the work of the Henry Phipps Institute from the funds at present available;
WHEREAS, It is deemed important that the work of the Henry Phipps Institute be continued upon an even larger scale:
The directors of the departments of the Henry Phipps Institute announce a campaign to raise a Foundation Fund of $3,000,000.
It is confidently expected that America will rally to the support of this enterprise which has already accomplished so much for the betterment of humanity in so difficult a field of endeavor.
The Henry Phipps Institute was the first organization brought into existence for the express purpose of eradicating tuberculosis through intensive and scientific research.
The institute was conceived when Dr. Lawrence F. Flick, about to start a tuberculosis clinic with a total backing of $1,000, met Mr. Henry Phipps by appointment and discussed the venture with him. Mr. Phipps at once offered to underwrite a much more extensive enterprise aimed at the extermination of tuberculosis.
On February 1, 1903, the institute began work in an old remodeled building equipped with 52 beds, a small laboratory and facilities for operating a large dispensary.
During the ten years that followed, its work was so successful that Mr. Phipps not only agreed to continue his support over another stipulated period of time, but also supplied funds for the purchase of land and the erection of the splendid property in which the institute is now housed.
In order that the standing of the institute might be assured and the integrity of the enterprise guaranteed, it was on July 1, 1910, placed in charge of the trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, with the contractual understanding that Mr. Phipps would be responsible for its support over a stipulated period of time.
The new building erected at Mr. Phipps' expense provided adequate facilities for every branch of medical and sociological research bearing upon the problem of tuberculosis.
The period for which Mr. Henry Phipps had agreed by contract to support the work of the institute came to an end in May, 1919. Because of ill health Mr. Phipps is not able to continue his interest and support. Other means of maintenance must be found or the institute must close. In this event one of man's strongest defenses in the battle against tuberculosis will be abandoned.
THE AWARD OF THE BOYLE MEDAL THE presentation of the Boyle Medal to H. H. Dixon on January 23, 1917, by Lord Rathdonnell is now a matter of somewhat ancient history to his colleagues of the Royal Dublin Society. Due to delay in transmission of periodicals, however, the account of the presentation and the bibliography of Dr. Dixon's more than three score contributions to science have only just reached America in printed form.1 Because of the widespread interest in Dixon's work on the rise of water in trees, the writer is hastening at this late hour to do honor to a brilliant career and a gentleman of scientific vision.
The tension theory of the ascent of sap in trees was published in 1894 in collaboration with Dr. John Joly. The latter, also, is favorably known in America as a physical geologist and mineralogist and a graceful writer of essays on scientific topics, ranging all the way from the "Birth-Time of the World" to "Skating" and "Pleochroic Halos." He also visited the United States as a member of the British Education Commission two years ago. Many of Dr. Dixon's earlier researches were undertaken with Dr. Joly. Dr. Dixon's principal scientific labors may be classed under three main heads: Cytology and genetics, the path of the transpiration current, and cryoscopy and thermo-electric methods.
Contributions to cytology include fertilization of Pinus sylvestris and some significant work on reduction division and mitosis which aided about a decade later in the rediscovery of Mendel's law. However, transpiration soon began to be Dixon's chief topic of experiment and research and his results will doubtless remain one of the great contributions to botanical science. During the interval between 1894 and 1914 investigations concerning the resistance experienced by the transpiration stream and theories to account rationally for the upward movement of water were developed. Most of the methods employed in these researches were devised by Dr. Dixon and only a few were
1 Award of the Boyle Medal to Professor Henry Horatio Dixon, Sc.D., F.R.S., Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc., 15: 179–184. Anon.
in collaboration with students. It is, then almost entirely due to his genius and patient effort that the epochal discoveries come into being. His records of this work are contained in the monograph "Transpiration and the Ascent of Sap," published about 1914. Previously he had been invited to contribute to Progressus Rei Botanica on the same subject. The third line of investigation has been largely in collaboration with Dr. W. R. G. Atkins. Osmotic pressure changes and cryoscopic and conductivity measurements on saps have been particularly dealt with. These researches are still continuing and have been amplified recently by new attacks on the many problems of photosynthesis, especially the increase of sucrose rather than the hexoses following insolation. There is no doubt but that much valuable information will result from this field of investigation.
The closing sentences of the biographical note (loc. cit.) seem to indicate that Professor Dixon has been accomplishing this magnificent amount of experimental work at the same time that he was teaching "large classes" of medical students. The more honor to him. One can not help feeling, however, the stupidity of university organization which permitted his time to be occupied during the best years of his life in work which was relatively unproductive for the science of botany. If such an inspired worker can not impress the governing board of the school with the importance of fundamental research, the outlook for most of us is indeed dark.
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
A. E. WALLER
IN HONOR OF WILLIAM H. WELCH ON APRIL 8 Dr. Welch reaches his seventieth birthday. Such an occasion ought not to pass without some new expression of affection and admiration on the part of the medical profession of America to one who has long stood as its leader. To many of his friends it has seemed that an expression worthy the master would be the preservation in suitable form of the chief contributions from his pen.
Dr. Welch's writings are scattered through a great variety of publications and are more or less inaccessible. It has accordingly been decided to bring together and to publish in three volumes his papers and addresses which strikingly reveal the great part he has played in the development of medical science and medical education.
In order that the project may be assured it has been decided to invite his friends and former pupils to unite in making possible the publication of his work.
The volumes will be issued by the Johns Hopkins Press under the editorial supervision of the undersigned committee. The set of three volumes, bound in linen, is offered to the subscribers at $16.50, which is less than the estimated cost. Each copy will be numbered, and assigned in the order of subscription. The edition will be restricted to the number subscribed.
Committee: John J. Abel, Lewellys F. Barker, Frank Billings, Walter C. Burket, William T. Councilman, Harvey Cushing, John M. T. Finney, Simon Flexner, William S. Halsted, William H. Howell, John Howland, Henry M. Hurd, Henry Barton Jacobs, William W. Keen, Howard A. Kelly, William G. MacCallum, William J. Mayo, Ralph B. Seem, Winford H. Smith, William S. Thayer, J. Whitridge Williams, Hugh H. Young.
SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS SIR AUCKLAND GEDDES, who was formerly professor of anatomy in McGill University, and is now a member of the British cabinet as president of the board of trade, has been named as British ambassador to the United States.
DR. W. S. HALSTED, of the Johns Hopkins University, has been elected to honorary foreign membership in the Royal Academy of Medicine of Belgium.
THE following are the officers of the Association of American Geographers for the year 1920: President, Herbert E. Gregory; Vicepresidents, Harlan H. Barrows and Charles F. Brooks; Treasurer, George B. Roorback; Coun
cilors, Walter S. Tower, Eliot Blackwelder and Ray H. Whitbeck; Secretary and Editor, Richard E. Dodge.
MAJOR H. E. WIMPERIS has been transferred from the office of the British Crown Agents for the Colonies to the Air Ministry, to take up the position of head of the air navigation research section.
MR. ALFRED SMETHAM, chemist to the Royal Lancashire Agricultural Society, has been elected president of the British Society of Public Analysts in succession to Dr. Samuel Rideal.
DR. LÉON BERNARD, professor of hygiene in the faculty of medicine, Paris, a well-known writer on tuberculosis, has been elected a member of the Academy of Medicine. Dr. Lesbre, of Lyons, and Dr. Lignières, of Buenos Aires, have been elected correspondents.
THE Christian Fenger fellowship for 1920 has been awarded to Dr. Harry Culver, of the University of Illinois Medical School, Chicago. He will continue his studies on Infections of the Kidney.
DR. ALBERT ERNEST JENKS, professor of anthropology and director of the four-year Americanization training course at the University of Minnesota, has been made president of the newly organized National Council of Americanization Workers.
JOHN WAGNER, JR., civil engineer, eldest son of Samuel Tobias Wagner, chief engineer of the Philadelphia and Reading Railway Co., has been elected a member of the board of trustees of the Wagner Free Institute of Science, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Joseph Willcox.
DR. NATHANIEL L. BRITTON, director of the New York Botanical Garden, is engaged in botanical work in Trinidad.
DR. J. PERCY MOORE, professor of zoology in the University of Pennsylvania, has been given leave of absence for one year to study abroad.
PROFESSOR EMILIO ODDONE, an Italian seismologist, arrived recently in New York from