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ARCHITECTURAL COURSE AT THE TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF HANOVER.
COURSE IN ARCHITECTURE (LEADING TO THE DEGREE OF B. S.) AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS.
1. Advanced algebra, projection drawing, French or German, shop practice.
2. Trigonmetry, descriptive geometry and lettering. French or German, shop practice.
3. Analytical geometry, advanced descriptive geometry, French or German, shop practice.
1. Differential calculus, physics, French (optional), wood construction.
2. Advanced analytical geometry, physics, French or German (optional), stone, brick, or metal construction."
3. Integral calculus, physics, French or German (optional), sanitary construction.
1. Analytical mechanics, chemistry, architectural drawing.
2. Resistance of materials, chemistry, history of architecture, architectural drawing.
3. Graphic statics, history of architecture, astronomy or geology, or drawing or modeling.
1. Mental science, æsthetics of architecture, architectural perspective.
2. Constitutional history, designing, heating and ventilation.
3. Political economy, designing, estimates and specifications.
BUILDERS' COURSE (1 YEAR).
1. Wood construction, projection drawing, shop practice (carpentry and joinery).
2. Stone, brick, and metal construction, architectural drawing, shop practice (stair-building) 3. Graphical statics, architectural designing, shop practice (cabinet- making).
Until now the subject of engineering has occupied attention, but we have arrived at a subject which being neither engineering nor agriculture, but being common to both will serve as an excellent transition from the one to the other. Before illustrating what a course of professional chemistry is, let us make a distinction for the sake of convenience, though the distinction perhaps is obvious enough. The assayist is a chemist with a specialty, the dyer is also a chemist with a specialty; but their methods, places of activity, and materials are very different. But beyond these specialties there is the chemist whose sphere is general consultation and analysis, the professional chemist. The practical or rather laboratory character of the course in applied chemistry is well shown by the chart representing the programme of the course for "technical chemists" at the Hanover University, whose excellent catalogue we now draw from for the last time.
Returning to the consideration of American schools we find that the chemically technical part of the course of chemical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute is given during the third and fourth years. Here again laboratory work predominates.
do. Norton. Drown, Gill.
1. General chemistry (12 hours). Dr. Bornemann. Fundamental principles, the more important elements and their compounds. troduction to organic chemistry, especially the carbon compounds.
2. Physics (4 hours). Dr. Kollert. General properties of bodies; the different forms of Structure and the more important principles of equilibrium and the movement of solid, liquid, and gaseous bodies.
3. Arithmetic (6 hours). Dr. Wend. Fundamental principles, common and decimal fractions, proportion, powers and roots, and equations having one or more unknown quantities.
More specific in its indications, the course of applied chemistry of the School of Mines of Columbia College shows the same concentration of the technical work during the third and fourth years, and places the work under four heads, to wit, chemical manufactures, food and drink, clothing, and fertilizers The course is as follows:
In the second year.
(For all students.)
1. Air: nature, sources of contamination, sewer gas, plumbing, draining, disinfection, ventilation.
4 1 or 2
(1) Salts of mercury and silver.
(m)Oils, fats, soaps, glycerine.
1. Chemical manufactures: acids, alkalies, and salts.
(a) Sulphur, sulphurous acid, hyposulphites, sulphuric acid, bisulphide of carbon, etc.
(b) Common salt, soda ash, hydrochloric acid, chlorine, binoxide of manganese, bleaching powder, chlorates, chlorimetry, etc.
(c) Carbonate of potash, caustic potash. (d) Nitric acid and nitrates.
(e) Iodine, bromine, etc.
(f) Sodium, aluminum, magnesium.
(g) Phosphorus, matches, etc.
(h) Ammonia salts.
(j) Alum, copperas, blue vitrol, salts of
But specialized as these courses are they are of a less special nature than the course which follows:
2. Food and drink: milk, cereals, starch, bread, meat, tea, coffee, sugar, fermentation, wine, beer, spirits, vinegar, preservation of food, etc.
CURRICULUM OF THE ROYAL (SAXON) PROFESSIONAL SCHOOL FOR SOAPMAKERS AT CHEMNITZ.
3. Clothing: textile fabrics, bleaching, dyeing, calico printing, paper, tanning, glue, india-rubber, gutta-percha, etc.
4. Fertilizers: guano, superphosphates, etc,
FIRST COURSE (WINTER HALF YEAR).
[NOTE. The instruction of this course is common to the students of the dyeing school and of the soap-makers school.]
4. Geometry (2 hours). Dr. Vetters. The essentials (Hauptsätze) of planimetry. Computation of areas and contents.
5. Free-hand drawing (4 hours). Mr. Schneider. Cultivation of the eye and hand to correctly represent simple forms and ornaments in clear outlines after copies or plaster paris models.
6. German (4 hours). Mr. Loereusen. Exercises in oral and written, expression of thought through composition and impromptu remarks. The more important points of grammar based on the reading book.
SECOND COURSE (SUMMER HALF YEAR).
11. Free-hand drawing (2 hours). Mr. Kühn. 12. German (4 hours). Mr. Walther. Exercises in style in relation to business composition and technological description, etc. Exercises in making impromptu remarks, the drawing up of minutes of a conversation, etc., and the more important period of German literary history.
7. Chemical technology (4 hours). Prof. Dr. von Cochenhausen. Water (rain, spring, river), hard and soft, cleansing for use in industry, etc. The important materials used by the soap-maker, common salt, soda, potash, and caustic alkalies, acids, etc. Heating materials, fire places.
8. Technical chemistry, 1 part (2 hours). Dr. Bornemann. The important organic elements and compounds for soap-making, especially the fats and their constituent parts. Coloring matter and perfumery used in soap-making.
9. Practical chemical work in the laboratory (16 hours). Prof. Dr. von Cochenhausen. ercises in qualitative analysis. Exhibit of preparations. Exercises in easy quantitative
13. Bookkeeping (2 hours). Mr. Meyersieck. Exercises in keeping the important account books. Peculiarities of business affairs under the influence of the laws governing trade, etc.
THIRD COURSE (WINTER
Two ideas, not mutually exclusive, though in a measure antagonistic, have dominated in the formation of the curricula of the colleges endowed with the national land grant of 1862-the education of the farmer's son; the education of the boy for a farmer. The intent of Congress is sufficiently clearly expressed to leave no doubt as to what was meant by the caption of the act when it recites that it is "for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts." But an act of Congress can not create a professional corps such as have the American classic colleges, or even some schools of engineering, and schools of analytical chemistry had at the date of 1862. Liebig's theories had not yielded to those of a new luminary in biological chemistry just then appearing in France. Biology as now understood was unborn, and the theoretical instruction of the German polytechnicum or the mathmatical instruction of the École Polytechnique of Paris were the models for American schools whose object was to teach industry. Besides this there was the heaviest handicap of all-the meager mental training in literary matters possessed by those who were to attend these schools. Under such circumstances the makers of their programmes were swayed to adopt methods and studies familiar to them, and in view of the limited education of those who applied for admission to adapt their programme to the purpose of educating the country boy, and also to educate him as much as possible for the farm. To the complaint that in doing this the school educated the boy away from the farm, Prof. Clute, president of the Michigan Agricultural College, answers that 36 per cent of the graduates are engaged in farming, to say nothing of the 11 per cent engaged in industrial pursuits or teaching in agricultural colleges, nor of the number who do not graduate.
The curriculum of the American agriculture school is therefore not a university course of study, but by the necessities of its situation has been compelled to take refuge in that scheme of instruction which, in its extremest classical form, was worked out by John Sturm, in Germany, in the sixteenth century; by the Jesuits, in France, during the seventeenth, and was modified by the ideas of Hecker, the founder of the German scientific school (Realschule), and the pedagogics of the French revolution in the eighteenth. It might be shown how this ideal of an education based on science found expression in the university of Thomas Jefferson as the education founded on the classics found an expression in the university of the Puritans and an education based on research found expression in that of Johns Hopkins.
The course of agriculture naturally follows the composite character of the sciIt is broken up into schools of chemistry, horticulture, entomology, forestry, veterinary science, etc. Agriculture proper is usually considered under
the heads of agricultural soils, vegetable life, and animal life. As the requirements for admission and the ideals of the school vary so much, the time devoted to the agricultural topics is not uniform. The course of two institutions challenge attention. Both schools have been founded by private endowment, are situated in New England, and are well calculated to illustrate agricultural instruction as it obtains in the United States, in its higher and in its secondary form.
It is impossible as yet to say what the endowment of the Bussey Institution of Harvard University will be, further than that it is very large. It is a school of agriculture and horticulture, giving systematic instruction in agriculture, useful and ornamental gardening and stock raising, and is especially adapted for the instruction of young men who have been brought up as practical farmers or gardeners, as well as for those who wish to qualify themselves to be farmers or superintendents of farms, country seats, or public institutions or wish to pursue some special branch of agriculture, horticulture, botany, or entomology. The literary courses of the university are open to the student; and surrounding the school, and belonging to it, are 200 acres of excellent land. The school is an agricultural school; its faculty consists of six professors and instructors called, respectively, professor of applied zoology, professor of agricultural chemistry, instructor in horticulture, instructor in botany, instructor in entomology, and the director of the Arnold Arboretum. Instruction is given by lectures and recitations and by practical exercises in the laboratories, greenhouses, and fields. The aim is to give the student a just idea of the principles upon which the arts of agriculture and horticulture depend, to teach him how to make intelligent use of the scientific literature which relates to those arts, and to enable him to put a proper estimate upon those kinds of evidence which are obtained by experiments and by the observation of natural objects. The course is of one year, its professional character is indicated by the titles of the teachers. The Storrs Agriculture School at Mansfield, Conn., derives its name from the donors of the original property, the brothers Augustus and Charles Storrs, of Brooklyn, N. Y. It has been established for the education of boys whose parents are citizens of Connecticut. in such branches of scientific knowledge as shall tend to increase their proficiency in the business of agriculture. Thus the object of the school is to teach practical and scientific agriculture and horticulture, yet as subservient and necessary to this purpose various other branches are taught, especial prominence being given to those most necessary for the successful prosecution of agriculture."
In the class room the students study those branches of natural science, and only those, which have a directly useful bearing upon New England farming; and the indoor work is made to harmonize with that upon the farm and garden. These branches are general and agricultural chemistry, natural philosophy, farm mechanics, elementary geometry, land surveying, botany, zoology (which includes especially domestic animals and insects injurious to the crops of the farm and garden), geology, human and animal physiology, agriculture, farm accounts, stock breeding, milk production, arithmetic and English, taking up the general principles of scientific subjects and afterwards their special application to practical agriculture.
During the fall and winter term, when the necessities of the farm (of 170 acres) demand it and the weather permits, the students are required to spend three hours daily upon the farm, and six or more upon study, laboratory work, and recitati ns, a part going upon the farm in the forenoon and the others in the afternoon; and during the spring term, five hours a day may be required upon the farm, when there is special need of that amount of work, and five or more in school work. Extra labor, as far as practicable, is furnished to all who desire it as an aid towards self-support, when it can be performed without interference with regular duties. The aid received from the State permits the school to reduce its tuition fee to a minimum.
In brief the general plan of the course is to begin with a brief history of agriculture, ancient and modern; secondly, to enter into a study of soils, manures, and fertilizers, and the relation of these to plant-life and plant growth; and, lastly, a study of the higher forms of life, as represented in our domestic animals. Stock breeding, breeds of live stock, and cattle feeding occupy a large part of the time of the senior year. The agricultural experiment station is operated in connection with the school.,
As an appendix to the remarks on the schools of agriculture in the United States, an account of the system of agricultural instruction in Prussia and in France has been translated and inserted after the curricula which follow.