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Just as mining engineering is a specialty of civil engineering, so electrical engineering may be considered as a specialty of mechanical engineering; for "generation of steam" write "generation or collection of electricity," for "boiler" write dynamo, and the difference is reduced to a minimum. The main feature of difference, then, is not in the study of the art of applying the energy when generated, but in the theoretical and scientific study of the energy itself. However, there is another feature connected with electricity that is not in anyway connected with mechanical engineering unless the setting up of apparatus and construction of lines be also called such, and that is electric lighting.

During the ten or twenty years last past the development of the study of electricity and the application of it as an illuminating and motive agent has shared with the discoveries in organic chemistry the honor of public attention and applause. So responsive have our schools of higher education become to the growth of science, that already many courses of biology have been instituted and several courses in electrical engineering.

Sophomore year.

Junior year

In the Massachusetts Institute the course of electrical engineering is made up in its technical features from the subjects composing the physics or mechanical engineering departments. On pages 968, 969 is given in parallel columns the course of mechanical engineering at the Rose Polytechnic Institute and the following scheme is for the students of that school who elect electrical engineering instead of the usual course,

r year.


First term.


This course can be elected only by students in mechanical engineering.

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Second term.

Magnetism: elementary
laws of magnetism and
properties of magnetic

Electric currents; their
measurements, use of gal-

Text-books and laboratory.
(3 hours a week.)

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Third term.

Electric units: derivation and
definition of quantity, re-
sistance and potential; rela-
tions of.
Resistance measurements,
Wheatstone's bridge, Kir-
choff's laws, etc.
Text-book and laboratory.
(3 hours a week.)

Application of electro-mag-
netic induction in various
operations, and for purposes
of measurement, use of con-
denser in measurement, of
insulation and insulation
Text-book and laboratory.
(2 hours a week.)

Electric lighting and power transmission; study of dynamos and motors as to efficiency, characteristics, etc., using various dynamometers.

Design and construction of electrical apparatus and machinery.

(6 hours a week.)

Recent arrangements at Purdue University have put that institution among the first in the country as a school of electrical engineering. A laboratory has been erected that is in itself an institution. The work has been developed from the mechanical engineering course and is identical with it during the freshman and sophomore years. During the junior and senior years the course is as follows:


Technical instruction.

(a) Lectures and recitations, electricity and magnetism.-Thirty-eight weeks, twice a week. This work thoroughly covers the elementary theory of the subject, and forms the necessary groundwork for the more advanced and technical instruction of the succeeding year. The elements of electrical and magnetic potential receives particular attention. The instruction is by textbook, supplemented by notes.

(b) Laboratory work.-Thirty-eight weeks, 6 hours a week, consisting during the first term of instruction in the art of physical measurement, and during the remainder of the year in the elements of electrical testing.


(a) Dynamo-electric machinery.-Thirty-five weeks, twice a week. This course consists of the fundamental theory of such machines, of their various forms, and the applications of the same to electric lighting and power. The mathematical theory of electricity is drawn upon so far as found advantageous to the discussion of these machines. Systems of electrical distribution will be investigated, and tests on the continuous and alternating circuits of the department discussed. Each student is expected to produce from time to time a paper giving the results of reading or investigation of some electrical subject.

(b) Laboratory work.-Thirty-five weeks, 8 hours a week. During the first term the subjects considered will be advanced electrical testing and the standardization of testing apparatus, while the remainder of the year will be occupied with testing dynamos and motors, photometry and electric lighting, together with a practical study of the problems of electric fighting and power, and, finally, practice in electrical designing. Inspections of electric light factories and plants and reports on the same are considered part of this work.

(c) Thesis.-A thesis giving an original design of some electrical machinery, or an original investigation and discussion of some electrical installation, is required at the end of the course.

This electrical laboratory is a two-story structure of brick and stone, with a tower and ample rooms in the roof. The lower floor is given up almost entirely to electrical work. The second story contains the physical lecture room, offices, drafting rooms, and the like. The institution had a comparatively small electrical equipment at the start, but as soon as the new building was under way extensive importations were made, so that there are now available a rather full set of the best modern testing instruments, and a well appointed dynamo room with all the paraphernalia of commercial measurement.

The main part of the electrical building contains a general laboratory, lecture room, two laboratories for special work in electrical testing, a small laboratory for magnetic and other extremely delicate measurements, a battery room, and a director's office. The dynamo room is in an accessible and well-lighted extension, as far as possible from the laboratories where delicate instruments are in


This dynamo room is 27 by 42 feet, and is supplied with half a dozen typical modern dynamos of small size, conveniently arranged for experimentation. Power is furnished by a 22 high-pressure straight-line engine. This is placed at the extreme end of the dynamo room, farthest from the main building, and is coupled directly to a line shaft running nearly the length of the room, and is supported at short intervals by substantial piers. This shaft is very carefully lined up, and carries the driving pulleys for the various machines.

The equipment of dynamos consists of one of the original workshop type of gramme machines, brought to this country at the time of the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, a Thomson-Houston 3-light are machine, a Brush 4light are machine, an Edison 40-light incandescent machine, to which supplementary series coils for compounding have been added, and a Slattery alternator specially designed for experimental work and giving an output of about 10,000 watts. In addition, a compound wound incandescent machine is under construction from designs by the director of the laboratory. This last is a Manchester type machine, with field magnets seated on a gun-metai base. In connection with the alternating dynamo there are converters of Westinghouse, Slattery, Thomson-Houston, and national make. A bank of lamps and a Julien storage battery of 25 or 30 cells are also located in the dynamo room. A Sprague constant-potential motor and a Baxter constant-current motor serve as types of those classes of machines. The testing rooms are fitted with substantial masonry piers independent of the flooring or foundations of the building, and are

quite free from vibration. The set of testing apparatus was designed to give opportunities for the absolute measurement of resistances and of both alternating and direct currents at all potentials. To this end the equipment includes a well-selected series of standard resistances, two of Sir William Thomson's balance dynamometers and a Weber and a Siemens dynamometer, and two Thomson electrostatic voltmeters, aside from the ordinary apparatus of testing and commercial measurement. The physical lecture room is located over the dynamo room, so that any kind or quantity of current and direct mechanical power are both easily available.

The city of Lafayette, in which the institution is located, has an electrical railroad and two electric light stations, which through the courtesy of the managers are often available for additional instruction and illustration.



The readers of one of those romances of Violet le Duc which have an engineering "motif" will remember the answer given by the engineer to the architectural student who asked for the difference between an architect and an engineer. "You ask me a difficult question to answer," was the response; "art has been separated from science and calculation because it is thought that both can not be held in the same brain." However this may be, we have in America but few courses of architecture, those known to the Bureau being at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Lehigh and Cornell Universities, Columbia College, and the University of Illinois. The courses of the two universities last named are given, together with that of the technological university at Hanover.



Instrumental drawing and projection, six hours during winter term; building, surveying, and levelling, spring term; lectures and field work, two afternoons per week.


Building materials and construction, winter term; lectures three times a week; drawing, six hours a week. Spring term: Lectures and drawing, six hours a week, and each week four hours additional drawing; shades, shadows, and perspective. Spring term: Lectures; drawing, six hours a week.


History of architecture; lectures, fall and spring terms, three times a week; winter, daily. Drawing, six hours a week. Designing, nine hours a week. Additional drawing and library work in each term, ten hours. First half of spring term: Mechanics applied to architectural construction; lectures three times a week, with drawing as above. Ornament, spring term, twice a week.


History of architecture, lectures, fall term, three times a week; winter, twice. Designing, fall and winter terms; lectures, twice a week; lectures and drawing, seven and a half hours a week. Spring term, lectures, twice a week; drawing, four hours additional; drawing and library work, each term, twelve hours per week. Heating, etc., lectures, fall term, three times a week. Stereotomy, lectures, winter term, twice a week, and six hours a week drawing and modelling. Professional practice, spring term, lectures.

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