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The organization of these English technical and art schools presents the interesting peculiarity that I noted at Charleroi, to wit, the use of the same building by the day and evening schools, the teaching corps being common to both. This is very economical. The social results are immense. The evening schools that are attended exclusively by apprentices and journeymen come out in strong relief by their fusion with the day schools of high and low degree. The evening school is no more a philanthropic enterprise which brings the young and old together whose intellectual developement would otherwise cease, but it is an institution of a high order in which the student must pay for what he receives. The journeymen, the apprentices, the son of the owner and the children of the bourgeoisie are brought together in public and both are honored by having been students in the same institution, and the social harmony increases.


Above the schools for journeymen and apprentices, are the special-profession schools which have the object of educating foremen and other higher employés. They are true higher schools of industry. The great schools of this class that I have studied are:

In Germany: The weaving school of Crefeld (founded in 1855, thoroughly reorganized in 1881); the metal-working school at Iserlohn (1879); the mining school of Bochum (founded in 1844 and afterwards reorganized); the school of iron and steel industries at Reinsheid (1880), and the woolen-industry school at Aix la Chapelle.

In Switzerland: The weaving school at Zurich, and the school of embroidery and lace at St. Gallien.

In England: The Bradford technical college, the weaving and spinning school at Manchester, and the technical school of the City and Guilds of London Institute.

In this type of institutions general and artistic instruction holds a great place, which is not the case, as we have seen, in the industrial and technical night scho ls. Those who attend these schools are neither journeymen nor apprentices, but young people who desire to occupy a higher rank in the industrial hierarchy, as foremen or superintendents. They study what I will call the indus

trial humanities.

The most complete school and the best in its organization as to matters of instruction and equipment is the Crefeld Weaving School. The school, in the first place, is something more than its name indicates. Its real mission is to train, by a professional, theoretic, and practical instruction and by a solid artistic education, weavers, foremen, silk dealers, and industrial designers for the textile industry. The programme includes the study of drawing and painting; the examination and separation of all the tissues-silk, cotton, linen, etc.; the practice and analysis of all the manipulations and transformations that they undergo before and after weaving; the theoretical and practical study of all the systems of mechanical and other trades; all the modes of fabrication; all the motors employed in the weaving industry; the appearance and the color of goods; industrial bookkeeping and commercial geography. The course, which covers two years, is conducted by fourteen teachers. Practical work alternates with theoretical and artistic instruction. The school contains for these purposes weaving shops with eighty mechanical or hand looms (metiers) with all the accessories, laboratories of chemistry, of dyeing, and printing, and a complete museum of ancient and modern cloths. After spending two years in the school the studious and intelligent student has received a complete professional instruction in weaving, and is able to become an overseer in a slop, a designer, or a commercial agent of the first order. In addition an artistic education has given him the love of the beautiful, of the works of the masters, and a desire for new ideas (la curiosité d' dées nouvelles.

The schools of Iserlohn, Remscheid, and Aix la Chapelle, were founded on the same principles, and present an organization but slightly different. They are, as is the Crefeld school, true special schools for the officers of industry.

The Technical School of Bradford and the Weaving School of Manchester have not the same general character of technical and artistic instruction. Their course is less complete and less elevated. I think that I may justly denominate them as preparing the under officers of industry. In England the dogma in matters of technical instruction, "theory in the school, practice in the shop," is applied to directors as well as to the journeyman. I am not inclined to blame the English in this, though I admire so much and recommend the Crefeld school.



In the third class come the schools of drawing and art, schools of decorative art, or schools of industrial art. These constitute, so to speak, the higher instruction of art applied to industry. They may be placed in three divisions which have no definite line of demarcation.

England, Germany, Russia, Austria, Sweden, and Denmark unite in distinguishing between high art and industrial art, between academic art and factory art, but Belgium is more advanced, and the old academies of Anvers and of Brussels are radically transforming their instruction. During the first year of the course the students receive instruction in drawing and geometry, the course being preparatory. In the following year the students find themselves called upon to choose the profession of an artist, sculptor or architect. To aid them a synoptic table has been gotten up which indicates the industrial branches" which are derived from each of these general divisions." It was thought that a specialization should be made at the beginning of the second year as giving point to the study of art. Experience had shown that two-thirds of the students formerly abandoned the academies before accomplishing anything because they were impressed with the inutility of the long course in art for their profession. The old system of generalization of the studies had the defect of sending off the student in quest of pure art without application to industry, and thus made very bad painters, sculptors, and architects of them.

II. Organization and administration.


In Germany the interlocution of the state in the support of these schools is manifested in many ways. When it is a cofounder it furnishes collections, tools, and furniture. When it is simply a participant it gives a fixed sum for a determined period. Finally the schools whose foundation it has caused (provoqué), therefore called royal, are inscribed as beneficiaries on the state budget. The municipalities make an annual appropriation and sometimes provide the building. The workingmen's and the professional schools generally receive no support from the state and are generally supported by the communities in which they are located, with the aid of societies and individual benefactors.

In Belgium the municipality is at the head of the school movement. It either takes the initiative or adopts a school founded by private societies as soon as their public utility has been shown. The state appears in the affairs of the school only as it makes appropriations, which, however, are always liberally accorded. The schools preserve their own autonomy, the state is only concerned with results, and if they are satisfactory the appropriation is continued. The municipality in giving recognition to schools founded by societies leaves to the society the management of the school, the appointment of the professors, the budgets, and the course. The municipality only administers directly the communal schools, but even in them a great deal of independence is given to the directors.

In Holland, with four or five exceptions, every industrial, art, or professional school has been founded by societies which direct them in a perfectly independent manner. The state, province, or municipality grants them aid.

In Denmark, Sweden, and Norway the most active rôle is played by private enterprise in the creation of institutions for the development of technical and art instruction. The state and municipality grants aid, but does not absorb their individuality.

In Russia almost all the schools have been founded and are supported by societies. The activity of the state is almost nil.

In Austria-Hungary every school is under the minister of public instruction or of commerce, according as they are technical or art schools.

In Switzerland the schools are generally founded and administered by the municipality. The Federal Government grants aid, which varies according to the more or less national or local character of the institution.

The remaining part of M. Vachon's report is given in abstract.

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In Italy all the schools are the creations of societies of artists and of mechanics. So far from being supported, the schools have been opposed by the state and municipality. Now the state has laid its hand upon them all and leaves them but comparatively little independence. The municipalities make them liberal grants and intervene in their administration.

In England the state has up to the present left the matter entirely to the municipalities, societies, and individuals, the National Normal School of the South Kensington Museum being the only exception. For the most part the schools are the creations of societies who manage them and endeavor to make them self-supporting with the aid of contributions from private and public purses. Every municipal school should have a governing board at its head of five members chosen from the inhabitants of the town. The state never interferes in the administration of the municipal or private schools, except so far as to require from all schools that desire to share in the public appropriation, to recruit its teaching corps from among the professors holding the diploma of the South Kensington School. This public appropriation to the schools of science and art of the Kingdom by means of an annual competition is large but variable.


In England the system of gratuitous instruction is resolutely excluded as injurious. Scholarships are given after a very severe examination. In Germany it is the same, though scholarships are given to poor students. In Denmark, Sweden, and Norway even scholarships are not given. In Holland nearly every school is a pay school.

In Belgium there is a mixed system and there are as many gratuitous as pay schools. Some schools require some pupils to pay while other pupils are educated free. At Charleroi the tuition is repaid at the end of three or four years to students who have obtained a diploma.







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The features which distinguish the course in mining engineering from that of civil engineering become apparent on comparing the course of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology given below with the civil-engineering course given at page 952. Laboratory work is especially prominent. In brief, the mining engineer is a civil engineer who operates beneath the surface of the earth and a chemist whose specialty is metallurgy. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology has a special laboratory for the students of this course, called the Cummings Mining and Metallurgical Laboratories. The institute is careful to anticipate the common criticism that work in such a laboratory is no substitute for the experience gained in larger works; for the object of its laboratory is to prepare students for such experience, to instil the spirit of investigation, and to emphasize the process given in the text-book. The mining laboratory consists of three parts-milling, furnace, and assay rooms. To bring the student into still more intimate connection with their specialty, summer schools of mining and metallurgy are organized for the study of mines, mills, smelting works, and geological fields. In 1890 the school, consisting of twelve students, spent a month at work-mining, setting timbers, and surveying underground-in the iron mines at Ishpeming, Mich. Next year instead of a mining a metallurgical school will ̧ be organized.

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As at the Massachusetts Institute the civil-engineering course is the starting point for the other technological courses, and at the Rose Polytechnic the mechanical engineering course is the basis of the other courses; so has the school of mines of Columbia College been developed into a general school of technology. Owing to lack of information, however, it is necessary to pass by this very important school and to let the Michigan Mining School represent the class now under consideration. It is hardly necessary to remark that the school is situated in the northern or mineral-yielding portion of that State. The school has been in existence only a few years, having been established in 1886.

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One of the oldest and certainly one of the most renowned mining schools of Europe is the Bergakademie at Freiburg, in Saxony. In this institution there are four courses, to wit, for mining engineers, mining surveyors (markscheider), metallurgical engineers, iron-smelting engineers. To show how this specialization is made the curricula of the four courses are given side by side:

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