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Reply from I. T. Talbot, M. D., dean of the Boston University School of Medicine.
The great difficulty is, and has been in the past, that the student entering upon the study of medicine is often entirely lacking in qualification. This oftentimes arises from the fact that many men as ignorant as themselves, often holding diplomas, acquire reputations and large incomes. To obviate this state of affairs this school requires the first of its four years to be devoted to the preparatory or foundation studies of a course of medical instructions. These include, in addition to a good English education, Latin, physics, biology, zoɔ̃logy, microscopy, chemistry, botany, human osteology, comparative anatomy, and animal dissections. Many of these can be studied in the last year of a college course in arts, while the remainder can be pursued under the direction of a medical instructor or in the first year of a medical school. Knowledge on these subjects must be tested by a thorough entrance examination to the second year of the medical course. Such students will be prepared for thorough subsequent work.
I. T. TALBOT,
1884 (in the theological department).. 1885
A comparison of the annual reports received from theological seminaries and departments during the ten years last past shows the necessity of having some standard by which may be determined the characteristics of a department or school of theology. There seems to be a distinction of some kind made by the management of higher institutions of learning in which theological instruction is given; for frequently the forms sent out by this Bureau are returned with the indorsement: Not a regularly organized school of theology," or the Bureau fails to obtain a response at all. Either of these circumstances vitiates the comparison of statistics of one period with those of another, for the school which appears in the report for 1881, but thereafter fails to report or reports that it is not a theological school for two successive years, will not appear in the report for 1883.
On the other hand there is still more embarrassment as to what constitutes a theological curriculum. Some colleges having a course in theology return the whole number of the students within their walls as members of the theological department. The effect of this may be illustrated by the reports of an institution during a series of years, as follows:
1886 (the whole college attendance). 1887
1888 (in the theological department) 1889 (the whole college attendance) 1890 (in the theological department)
When the catalogue is at hand these errors can be rectified, but as the false figures are usually prepared for the printer long before the catalogue containing the true ones is received they become a matter of record.
Still referring to the curriculum of a true theological school, the question may be asked: "Of how many branches is that curriculum composed?" In the case of medicine anatomy and physiology are undoubtedly the groundwork of the study, but pathology, therapeutics, theory, and practice, etc., are also indispensable to complete the training of a skillful and legitimately successful physician. And we see how unremittingly the profession of medicine is laboring to awaken the
1The following letter admirably illustrates the above remarks:
COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION:
DEAR SIR: Recently I received from your department a circular asking for information as to the theological department of McKendree College, Lebanon, Ill. In reply permit me to say that McKendree College has no theological department or school. There is a small theological class of ten to twelve students who pursue a limited irregular course of study in some branches of theology. This class can not be regarded as a department.
T. H. HERDMAN,
legislative conscience to the necessity of passing laws that will prevent the profession from being embarrassed by the practice of inadequately educated men.
It may indeed be said that the ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge have been in a certain sense theological seminaries, as the garb their students wear indicates, and that our own Harvard and Yale were theological seminaries to all intents and purposes in their early days. But if the interpretation of the term theological curriculum were to be based on such a plea, the difficulty of the statistician would not be solved. The question would no longer be what should be considered a curriculum of a theological school, but what difference if any is there between a school of theology and a college; foreven in the sense that a study of the Bible and of the history of the Christian religion is enough to constitute a foundation for a pastorate, every German college (gymnasium) might be called a theological school, for in it some time is spent every day upon the Bible and church history. Under certain conditions there is much to be said for a course of instruction in theology that is not too advanced or too long, but it is mere justice to the advanced schools of theology that they should be classed by themselves.
Without pursuing further the discussion of so delicate a topic, the Bureau illustrates the idea of a theology school as held by two European countries, placing them in juxtaposition with several American curricula, one of which is a type of the several seminaries of the highest class that exist in this country and may therefore be compared with the faculties of France, especially those maintained by the Catholic Church, for the French state faculties of theology are all protestant institutions.
Course of lectures in the theological faculty of the University of Berlin.
General discussion of the sphere of theology (encyclopedia) and introduction to theological study on Wednesday and Sunday, 1 hour.
Introduction to the Old Testament, 5 hours. History of the text of the Old Testament, Sunday. Interpretation of Genesis, 4 hours. Interpretation of the Psalms, 5 hours. Interpretation of Isaiah, 5 times. Hebrew grammar for beginners (with exercises) 4 times. Exercises of the Institutum Judaicum (Society for Jewish Missions), 1 hour. The people of the Old Testament, 1 hour.
Introduction to the New Testament, 6 hours. Introduction to the synoptical Evangels, 1 hour. Biblical theology of the New Testament. 4 hours. Interpretation of the synop tical Evangels, 4 hours; of the Evangels and the Epistle of John, 4 hours; of the Epistle to the Romans, 4 hours; of the Epistle to the Galatians, 1 hour. Early history of the church, 5 hours. History of the church during the middle ages, 4 hours; in modern times, 5 hours. History of dogma, 4 hours. General history of religion, 4 hours. The early Christian and old Jewish burial places, especially the catacombs at Rome, illustrated by the
monuments in the museums, 2 hours Sunday evenings. The edifices of the Evangelican faith, their construction and interior decoration, illustrated by the contents of museums! and by visits to the churches of Berlin. 1 hour. Explanation of selected old Jewish inscriptions found in Italy, 1 hour. Relation of Judaism to Chistianity, 1 hour. Exercises on the history of the church, 2 hours. St. Augustine's confessions, 1 hour.
Philosophy in its application to religion, the proof of a Divine Being, etc., are taught in the faculty of philosophy.
Symbolism, 4 hours. Christian dogma. (apologetic), 4 hours; (systematic). 5 hours. ethics, 5 hours. The recent opinions held as to Christ and the Christian dogma (Die neueren Ansichten von der Person Jesu und das christologische Dogma), 1 hour. Dogmatic society, 2 hours. Theological society, 2 hours.
System of practical theology, 4 hours. Homiletics and catechetic, 3 hours. Pedagogy and catechetic, 4 hours. The pedagogical system of the nineteenth century, 1 hour. Prac tical explanation of pastoral letters, 2 hours Sunday evenings. Introduction to practical sermon writing. Sermon writing, 2 hours.
Courses of instruction in the divinity school of a university of the United States.
As more courses are presented than are required for the degree of D. B., a certain amount of election will be allowed. Students must, in every case, submit to the faculty for its approval a list of the studies which they propose to take.
Lyon's Assyrian Manual. References to Delitzsch's Assyrische Grammatik. Delitzsch's Assyrische Lesestücke. 8. Assyrian (second course). Delitzsch's Assyrische Grammatik. The cuneiform inscriptions of western Asia (interpretation of selections). Prof. Lyon.
Other Semitic courses are given, namely, two in Arabic, each twice a week; one in Ethiopic, once a week, and one in Babylonian-Assyrian, once a week.
Old Testament.-1. Hebrew. Davidson's Grammar. Harper's Hebrew Method and Manual. Harper's Elements of Hebrew. Explanation of parts of the Pentateuch, Historical. Books, and Psalms. Three times a week. 2. Hebrew (second course). Interpretation of parts of the Prophets and Poetical Books. Twice a week. 3. Jewish-Aramaic. Kautzsch's Grammar, Brown's Aramaic Method. Interpretation of selections from Daniel, Ezra, and the Targums. Twice a week, during the second half year. 4. History of Israel, political and social. Twice a week. 5. Old Testament Introduction. Twice a week. 6. History of the religion of Israel, with comparison of other Semitic religions. Twice a week. 7. Assyrian.
The Semitic Seminary meets on the first and third Mondays of every month except June. At each meeting a short paper is read by a student or an instructor, and its subject-matter discussed; in this way the class work is brought into practical use, and various matters studied which do not come up in the class instruction.
New Testament.-1. New Testament times: the political, social, moral, and religious condition of the world when Christ appeared. Twice a week, during the first half year.
The Union Theological Seminary of New York City has a museum of this kind, as perhaps have other American seminaries.
Courses of instruction in the divinity school of a university, etc.—Continued.
2. Outline lectures on Theological Encyclopædia and literature; the characteristics of the New Testament Greek; the Septuagint; textual criticism; the life of Christ. Study of the Gospels. Essays and criticism. Twice a week. 3. New Testament introduction.-The origin, contents, and history of the New Testament writings, together with the formation of the canon. Twice a week during the second half year. 4. Outline lectures on the life of Paul; study of the epistles; essays and criticisms. Twice a week. 5. Lectures on our English Bible and its recent revision. Lectures on topics in biblical theology. Exposition of difficult texts. Essays and criticisms. Twice a week. 6. Biblical interpretation: Its history, its methods, its principles, and their application (to New Testament passages of historical, prophetical, ethical, and doctrinal import). Once a week. 7. Classical Aramaic (Syriac). Grammars of Nöldeke and Hutchinson-Uhleman. Roediger's Chrestomathia Syriaca. Reading of selections from the Peshitto Gospels, the Chronicles of Barhebräus and the Hymns of Efrem. Twice a week during first half-year.
The New Testament Seminary meets on the second and fourth Mondays of every month for the reading and criticising of essays by the students upon topics relating to the New Testament.
Church History.-1. The conflict of Christianity with Paganism. Origin and development of the Roman primacy to its alliance with the Holy Roman Empire. A. D. 800. Twice a week. Omitted in 1889-90.] [2. The Medieval Church, with especial reference to its effect upon public life and upon intellectual and social progress. Twice a week. Omitted in 1889-90]. [3. The era of the Reformation in Europe from the rise of Italian Humanism to the close of the Council of Trent 1850-1563. Twice a week). [History of Christian doctrines. Twice a week. Omitted in 1889-90]. [5. Advance study and research in Church history in connection with courses 1 and 2. Omitted in 1889-90].
Comparative religion.-Studies in the com
parative history of religions, particularly the Vedic religion, the Hindu philosophies, Buddhism, Mozdaism, and the Chinese religions. Twice a week.
Ethics.-Practical ethics of social reform; an examination of the problems of charity, temperance, labor, divorce, prisons, the Indian question, lectures, essays, and the study of institutions. Twice a week.
Theology.-1. The Philosophy of religion: an introduction to the study of theology. Once a week. 2. Systematic theology begun. The Psychological basis of religious faith. Once a week. 3. The same continued. The content of Christian faith. An elaborate essay on some theological subject is expected from each student taking this course. Three times a week.
The Theological Seminary meets on the first and third Wednesdays of every month.
Homiletics and pastoral care.-The structure and analysis of sermons. Once a week. 2. Each student writes six sermons during the year, three of which are preached before the two upper classes and criticised by students and instructor; the rest are criticised privately, both as to composition and delivery, in preparation for the public preaching named below. [3. Liturgies and the history of Christian worship; its prayers, its hymns, and its preaching. Once a week. Omitted in 1883-30.] 4. Pastoral care and the conduct of Christian worship. Lectures. Once a week during the second half year.
Elocution.-1. Class work twice a week, supplemented by private instruction. 2. Similar to the above.
French faculties of theology.
Scholastic philosophy (philosophy of
General exercises.-Preaching by students in the chapel of the school, open to the public. Once a week. Meetings for debate. Once in two weeks. Meetings for religious conference, conducted by students, alternating with the above. Once in two weeks. Morning prayers, conducted by professors and students.
Special lectures.-A special course of six lectures by officers of the University who are not teachers in the Divinity School will be given.
| Calvinistic dogma.
The Greek and Latin Fathers of the Church.
Sacred Philology (New Testament).
German Theological language and literature and ecclesiastical history.
Public ecclesiastical law.
a This is not a State school.
Course of study in a Northern theological seminary.
Old Testament Literature: General Introduction: Hebrew. Now Testament Literature: General Introduction; Special Introduction to the Gospels; Exegesis of selected Epistles of Paul. Sacred Geography and Antiquities. Old Testament History. Relations of Philosophy and Science to the Christian Religion; Theism; Theological Encyclopedia. Ecclesiastical Theology: Homiletics; Elocution.
The Junior Class has five weekly exercises in Hebrew; two in Introduction to the Old Testament and Archæology; one in Introduction to the New Testament; two in the Exegesis of Paul's Epistles; two in Old Testament History: two in Theism; one in Homiletics, and one in Elocution.
Old Testament: Hebrew: Special Introduction to the Poetical Books; Special Introduction to the Historical Books. New Testament. Life of Christ and Exegesis of the Gospels. Didactic Theology: Theology Proper, Anthropology begun. Church History. Government and Discipline of the Church: Homiletics; Criticisms of Sermons; Elocution.
Greek and advanced Latin (Haute latinité).
The Middle Class has three weekly exercises in Church History; three in Didactic Theology; five in Old Testament Literature and Exegesis; two in the Life of Christ and Exegesis of the Gospels; two in Homiletics and Church Government, and one in Elocution.
tion to the Prophets: Biblical Theology. New Testament: Acts of the Apostles; Special Introduction to the Epistles: Biblical Theology (Elective). Didactic Theology: Anthropol. ogy, Soteriology. Eschatology. Church History, Relations of Philosophy and Science to the Christian Religion: Christian Ethics and Christian Social Science. Pastorial Care: Ordinances of Worship. Homiletics: Analysis of texts; Homiletical Criticism; Elocution.
The Sentor Class has three weekly exercises in Didactic Theology; two in Old Testament Literature and Exegesis; one in Biblical Theology of the Old Testament; two in New Testament Literature and Exegesis: two in Church History; two in Homiletics and Pastoral Theology; two in Christian Ethics and Christian Social Science, and one in Elocution.
The regular course is completed in three years, but students may, with great advantage, continue to prosecute their studies in the seminary for a longer period. It is not thought best to prescribe a fixed course of study for graduates. Each is at liberty to devote himself to those branches of theological learning for which he has the greatest aptitude, or which he judges to be most necessary or profitable to himself. Accordingly graduate students may at their discretion attend the lectures and recitations of the regular classes for the review of their previous studies; or they may individually conduct original investigation under the direction and advice of the professors and with the aid of the library.
Old Testament: Hebrew; Special Introduc
SEVERAL TYPES OF CURRICULA OF THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED
Encyclopædia and Literature of Theology, 1 hour; Grammar of the Hebrew Language, in connection with the first 8 chapters of Genesis, 5 hours; Critical Study of the Greek Testament, consisting of two courses, (1) the Life and Teaching of Christ, as Presented in the Synoptic Gospels: (2) Studies in General and Special Introduction to the New Testament, and Methods and Principles of Textrial Criticism, 5 hours; The Philosophical Basis of Theism and the Self-Revelation of God, 2 hours.
Systematic Theology, 5 hours: Old Testament Bible Theology with special reference to the progressive stages of Divine Revelation to Israel, Biblical Aramaic (optional). The instructor in Hebrew will read with the class, (1) the more important prophecies of Isaiah in connection with a consideration of his entire work and the principles of Old Testament prophecy; (2) the earlier Psalms, with a General Study of the Hebrew Psalter, its origin, structure, and contents; General Church His
Course of instruction in the divinity school of a university.
tory, including its nature, divisions and sources, and the literature and the character of the societies among which Christianity spread, 3 hours; Lectures on the Epistles to the Romans and Corinthians, with special reference to the doctrinal and practical contents, 2 hours: Lectures and Criticised Exercises on the Principles of Ministerial Rhetoric.
Homiletics, 4 hours during first half of year; Class Exercise in the Criticism of Sermons and Plans of Sermons, 1 hour; Pastoral Theology, 3 hours during the last half of the year: Class Discussions of Questions of Practical Interest Relating to the Work of the Church, History of Christian Doctrine and Symbolical Theology, 3 hours; Biblical Theology of the New Testament, 2 hours. The Prophetical Books of the Old Testament and reading once a week (or oftener) with those who wish to study Syria, the Peshito version of the New Testament. The president of the university will lecture once or twice a week on one or more of the books of the New Testament.
Course of instruction in the divinity school of a university-Continued.
GRADUATE OR FOURTH-YEAR CLASS.
For the year 1899-90 the following subjects of special study were announced, not excluding others which might be desired by members of the class:
Instead of the Hebrew and Greek there will be special exegetical exercises in the English scriptures and in bibical history, sacred geography, and antiquities. Origin, history, and canon of the Bible. Interpretation of the scriptures. Natural theism. The authority and inspiration of the Bible. Analytic rhetoric, study of expression in English. Drill in breething, vocalization, a elocution. Exercises in composition and criticism. Extemporaneous debates. Instruction is also given during the year in mental and moral science and to religions other than Christian.
English course of a seminary of theology.
This department is designed primarily to prepare young men to preach the gospel. It is open, however, to all students who wish to qualify themselves for Christian life and work. Of this privilege a number have already availed themselves, and it is the wish of the college authorities that their action should become general. The following are prominent features of the work done in this department:
1. Direct contact of the student with the Bible itself is emphasized. 2. The historical portions of the Scriptures are studied early in the course. 3. Careful study of Hebrew and Greek is required of all who wish to complete the course. 4. Biblical antiquities and ancient history receive attention. 5. A knowledge of church history is given.
Students are graduated from this department on the following conditions: (1) There must be conclusive evidence of Christian character; (2) In addition to the studies of this department of theology the classical and scientific course must be completed. For either of these the student may substitute an equivalent course if he has taken it in another institution.
Acts of Apostles.
1. The Old Testament: First Division-Genesis to Ruth (three terms); Second DivisionSamuel and Later Historical Books (three terms).
2. The Gospels (three terms).
V. Schools of preaching and the history of preaching; with critical exercises and discussions.
VI. Weiss's Introduction to the New Testament. In addition to the discussion of the opinions of the author, the students will be directed in making investigations for themselves in other writings upon the same subjects and in the original sources.
VII. Schürer's History of the Jewish People in the Time of Christ; with special ref erence to the literature and thought of Judaism at this period as bearing upon New Testament interpretation.
Theological department in a college.
Two exercises each week in the study of Old Testament criticism and exegesis. Two exercises each week in the study of New Testa ment criticism and exegesis. Old Testament theology. Systematic theology. History of the Church. Homiletics.
Two exercises each week in the New Version of the Old Testament and two in that of the New Testament. Old Testament theology, History of the Church. Homiletics. Sacred rhetoric. Pastoral theology. Bibical homileties, consisting of a homiletical study of the discourses of our Lord, of those of Paul and Peter and other bibical preachers, and homiletic study of epistles, psalms, and prophecies.