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DIAGRAM 25.-Showing number of "normal" students in teachers' training schools in the United States for the period 1880-87, and the number of “professional" students in the same class of schools during the period 1887-90, also the number of graduates (normal or professional).
CURRICULA OF PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS.
If a certain number of individuals have a common quality that may be represented in numbers a statistical table may be formed. But if this common quality is expressed in a very general way, such as by the term "medical students in 1889-90," it will happen that students who are pursuing a three-years course of medicine count for as much as those who are pursuing a four-years course. It is therefore quite as important to know what and how the students in medicine for 1889-90 were taught as to know how many of them were taught in medical schools during that period.
In taking up in order the several classes of professional schools, the requisites for admission to them will be considered first, then their curricula. Statistics for the last ten years have been given in the preceding chapter, and those for the year 1889-90 will appear in full detail in the chapter which follows.
REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION.
If we begin by inquiring what was required of the applicant for matriculation in 1880--81, it is shown by an inspection of the announcements and catalogues of about 80 medical schools that the situation was, in general terms, as follows:
Ten had examinations for admission covering several subjects and 14 employed some slight tests of an applicant's fitness to study medicine. The subjects of examination were elementary physics in 8 schools, arithmetic in 7, elementary Latin in 5, grammar in 4, geography in 4, algebra in 4, geometry in 3, and history in 2. Grammar and composition were determined usually from the papers submitted. The amount of physics required was generally a knowledge of Balfour Stewart's Primer of Physics or its equivalent. The Latin requirements were varied, and were intended to show the familiarity of the applicant with declensions, conjugations, common words, and simple constructions. Algebra to quadratic equations and two books of geometry were usual requirements in these branches. The Michigan College of Medicine allowed a substitution of either Greek, French, German, botany, or zoology in place of other studies mentioned above (except Latin). French, German, algebra, geometry, and botany were alternative subjects at Harvard Medical School, on one of which the candidate must be examined. Botany and chemistry, as found in the Science Primers, were required by the Woman's Medical College of the New York Infirmary. College diplomas, degrees from scientific schools, graduation from acceptable high schools and academies, and licenses to teach public schools were among the proofs of a candidate's fitness which were accepted in lieu of examination. In the Medical School of Missouri University all students before entering the senior class were required to pass a satisfactory examination on English grammar, rhetoric, history of the United States, and arithmetic through common fractions.
In examining the announcements of the requirements demanded of matriculates, in 1890 the reader is struck with the very frequent use of the expression "all the branches of a good English education," to which is added in the majority of cases including mathematics, English composition, and elementary physics or natural philosophy." The phraseology varies, however; sometimes it is a "fair English education;" in other connections it is the common-school
1 Prepared by Mr. Wellford Addis. specialist in professional education.
branches." In many other cases the requirements are proficiency in grammar, arithmetic, geography, history," and even reading, writing, and spelling, and proficiency in all these subjects may be taken as a definition of a good (or fair) English education." Such an education ought to be given in the public schools, and thus it follows that the requirement of the great majority of the medical schools of the country is a thorough common-school education. The entrance requirements of the medical schools of France are considerably higher, for in that country the matriculate must have obtained the degree of bachelor of letters and another degree, which is called bachelier ès sciences restraint pour mathématiques, and the curriculum of the German gymnasium, which is preparatory to a course of medical instruction, is quite as high and as thorough as that of the French Lycée. What the requirements in Great Britain are may be inferred from the special matriculation examination of the Bellevue Hospital School for those students who expect to present their diplomas for recognition in Great Britain. This examination embraces the following subjects: English language, including grammar and composition; arithmetic, including vulgar and decimal fractions; algebra, including simple equations; first two books of Euclid; Latin, translation and grammar, and one of the following subjects: Latin (first two books of Cæsar), Greek (St. John's Gospel), French (the first chapter of Télémaque or Charles XII), German (first part of Adler's Reader), natural philosophy, including mechanics, hydrostatics, and pneumatics (Peck's Ganot's, or Parker's Philosophy).
There are some exceptions to the average requirements in the United States which call for attention. In several instances a familiarity with Latin grammar is demanded, though in four instances this familiarity may be obtained during the course of medical instruction. For admission to the department of medicine of Harvard University the requirements are that the applicant shall write an English composition of two hundred words and write English prose from dictation, translate easy Latin prose, possess such a knowledge of physics as may be obtained from Balfour Stewart's Elements, and elect one of the following subjects: French, German, elements of algebra or of plane geometry, or botany. At the Yale Medical School the requirements, with the exception of the languages, are about the same. In the case of the department of medicine of Michigan University stress is put upon a competent knowledge of zoology, and languages are not required, while in the case of the medical department of the University of Minnesota the examination embraces an English composition of two hundred words, Latin, French, German, or a Scandinavian language, an examination in algebra, plane geometry, or botany, and in physics. The College of Physicians and Surgeons in the City of New York (Columbia College) has an entrance examination in which the Latin (Cæsar or Sallust), algebra, and geometry are fully equal to the requirements in those branches demanded by the abovenamed institutions. These schools are connected with our highest and wealthiest institutions of learning, and if they are unable to ask as much as the departments of arts, with which they are affiliated, how is it to be expected that nonuniversity schools, wholly dependent upon themselves for support, both moral and pecuniary, can ask as much?
In addition to the examination as to intellectual attainments a certificate as to moral character is required.
It is not to be supposed, however, that the attendance at these schools is made up for the most part of those who pass an examination which is satisfactory to the faculty" of the school; for that examination is only required when the candidate can not present a diploma from a college, high school, or academy, normal school, or, in some cases, a teacher's certificate entitling him to teach in a public school of his State.
The number of the matriculates who have obtained a degree in letters or science has been collected by this Bureau for a number of years. Consulting this record, which is by no means as perfect as it should be, the following facts are developed:
Of the 96 institutions reporting to the Bureau in 1881, 42 returned 1,111 students having a degree in letters or science, and 3 report definitely that they had no scholar with a degree. In these 45 institutions there were 6,625 students. Thus in every hundred students there were 17 who, it may be said, had been liberally educated. If the other institutions (51) had reported specifically that they had no student who had received a degree in letters or science, the whole attendance as far as reported to this Bureau (11,399) could be compared with the number of students who were reported as having obtained a degree by the schools which answer the question definitely in the affirmative or negative and no error occur.
If we assume, however, that these 51 institutions had no matriculate in attendance having a degree in letters of science, then, to do jus ice to the different parts of the country, comparison may take the following form:
Ratio of matriculates having degree in letters or science to students in all medical schools of each section of the country
Ratio of matriculates having degree in letters or science to students in medical schools that report students with such degrees in each section of the country
England South South North
Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
Harvard Medical School
Yale Medical School
College of Physicians and Surgeons (Columbia College)
Medical department, University of Pennsylvania..
Medical department of the University of the City of New York
Harvard Medical School
Yale Medical School.
College of Physicians and Surgeons (Columbia College) a.
Medical department of the University of the City of New York
New Hampshire Medical Institution (Dartmouth College)
Continuing this sifting process by considering eleven schools of medicine which are departments of a university, it appears that at
a Average per cent.
In 1886-87, 60 schools reported the number of their matriculates that had received a degree in letters or science and 5 schools definitely reported that they had no person thus distinguished among their students. In these 65 schools there were 6.690 students, of whom 15 in every 100 had received a degree in letters and science. Taking the same individual schools as before, the showing is as follows:
Had a degree
in letters or science.
gree in science and arts.
a The total number of students (188) possessing a degree at time of matriculation is taken from president's report, 1890.
c Average per cent.
These figures show a slight increase during the six years; but, if the institutions making no answer could have been included, a decrease might have resulted, which would have tended to confirm the average for the 65 schools which furnished definite reports for 1886-87.