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in attendance at the college, although a few such students had been in attendance at the scientific school. In 1877 Dr. McCosh made a report to the board of trustees on the course of study in Princeton College. In this report he says:
"In the last few years there have been a few graduates receiving instruction from individual professors. The board of trustees has now sanctioned postgraduate courses. They have been started this year experimentally, a id the trial has been successful beyond all'expectation.
"The aim of every college should be to secure a fair amount of scholarship from every student. No college can make all its students great scholars. But there is a certain proportion, say one in ten. or one in five, who as having the taste and the talent may be made so. This is to be done by postgraduate courses. We have at present no fewer than 42 graduates, mostly from the College of New Jersey, but a number from other universities in America and Great Britain, attending classes in our col ege, chiefly in philosophy and physics."
From that time the graduate courses of Princeton have been well attended. In 1590-91 graduate courses will be offered in the following subjects: Theoretical ethics, science and religion, Pluto and his philosophy, modern philosophy, history, Latin, pedagogics, Greek, architecture, archeology, English language, Sanskrit, Semitic languages, physics, higher mathematics, theoretical astronomy, biology.
Columbia College.-The graduate department of Columbia College was not organized until 1880, although graduate students were enrolled as early as 1874-75. Here, as at Princeton, the first graduate students enrolled were induced to pursue advanced studies through the instrumentality of fellowships. The holders of these fellowships were not importuned to pursue studies in the college itself, but were encouraged to resort to foreign universities, and the only conditions imposed upon them was to report the character of their work periodically to the president. But on the organization of the graduate department a new departure in this respect was made, which was the adoption of a plan for the appointment of fellows with tutorial duties. This scheme was first put into operation at the close of the school year 1883-84, and marks a considerable increase in the number of students in the graduate department.
Nonresident courses.-In addition to the institutions that provide courses of study for resident graduates, there are a number of institutions that provide similar courses for nonresidents. Such courses were established as early as 1874, and are, as a rule, taken by large numbers of students. In such ca es the students pursue their studies at home, and, after a satisfactory examination, the appropriate degree is conferred upon them. At least one institution, the Illinois Wesleyan University, also offers a nonresident course of study for undergraduates, which leads to the degree of Ph. B. These courses are intended for persons whose circumstances and occupations are such that they would be unable to obtain a higher education if residence at an institution were insisted upon. In some cases where a demand arose for an opportunity to do advanced work for which credit would be given, nonresident courses were established in preference to resident courses, because the time of the professors was so fully occupied with other duties that they could not give the time that would be demanded by resident graduates.
GROWTH OF GRADUATE WORK IN EIGHTEEN YEARS.
The growth of graduate work in American colleges and universities during the past twenty years has been remarkable, the number of students in graduate departmentsof such institutions having increased from 198 in 1871-72 to 1,998 in 1889-90. This increase has been due, probably, to the greatly increased facilities which have lately been provided for the prosecution of advanced study and research in older foundations and to the establishment of new institutions in which advanced work is the chief if not the only feature. Of the latter class the number is very small, Johns Hopkins University, at Baltimore, Md., opened for instruction in 1876, and Clark University, at Worcester, Mass., opened in 1889, being the only representatives. The larger part of the students of the former are registered in the graduate department; the latter admits such persons only as have already received their first degree or have otherwise prepared themselves to enter upon advanced study.
The number of students in the graduate departments of colleges and universities in the United States from 1871 to 1890 was as follows:
1876-77. 1877-78. 1878-79. 1879-80
a Includes 281 nonresident graduates.
As will be seen from the above, the increase in numbers has been fairly regular, especially during the last ten years.
Statistics of graduates in individual institutions.-In order to show the increase in individual institutions, and the fluctuations caused in some of them_by_the establishment of new institutions, the following table has been prepared. The statistics have, with few exceptions, been taken from the annual catalogu ́s of the institutions concerned. In a few cases where catalogues were not available the statistics were taken from the annual reports of the Bureau:
Number of students in graduate departments.
198 1877-78. 219 1878-79. 283 1879-80. 369 1880-81. 399 1882-83.
a Includes nonresident graduate students.
Effect of the opening of Johns Hopkins University on other institutions.-From the foregoing table it would be inferred that the opening of Johns Hopkins University caused a temporary diminution in the number of graduate students in nearly all of the institutions presented. This should not, however, cause surprise to any one who is acquainted with the favorable conditions the new institution afforded for advanced study. At the time of i's establishment few institutions in the United States could offer inducements in the form of fellowships. In this respect Johns Hopkins University had a decided advantage, as it possessed twenty fellowships available upon terms which naturally attracted the graduates of other institutions. The natural result in the course of time was that other universities secured funds for the same purpose.
The readiness with which the graduates from the graduate departments of the leading universities receive appointments to professorships in educational institutions has undoubtedly created a desire for advanc d study among the young men. This fact, together with the multiplication of fellowships, has been an important if not the chief cause of the increase of students in graduate departments. The number of fellowships has increased from 19 in 1872 to 172 in 1889-90.1
1 For value of fellowships, see Annual Report for 1888-89. DD. 649-654.
State residence of graduate students at three typical institutions.-In connection with this subject of graduate students it may be interesting to know the sections of the country from which the different institutions recruit these advanced departments; for, the standing of a school is shown not only by the number of students that flock to it, but also by its drawing power or the geographical extent of its influence.
In order to give a fair representation of the drawing powers of three typical institutions, the annual catalogues of Johns Hopkins University, Harvard University, and the University of Michigan for the four years 1886-87 to 1889-90, inclusive, have been carefully examined with the view of ascertaining the home residences of the students in the graduate departments. In an investigation of this kind a fairer representation can be made by taking the statistics of a series of years than by taking the statistics of but one year. The result of the examination indicated is as follows:
Residence of students in attendance upon graduate departments of Johns Hopkins University, Harvard University, and the University of Michigan during the years 1886-87, 1887-88, 1888-89, and 1889-90.
This tabulation indicates that Johns Hopkins has a stronger drawing power than either Harvard or the University of Michigan. It is also noticeable that notwithstanding the fact that the North Atlantic Division has more institutions offering the advantages of well-equipped graduate departments than any of the other divisions, Johns Hopkins draws more students from this than from any other division excepting the South Atlantic in which it is situated. It is a wellknown fact that institutions nearly always draw much the larger part of their students from the immediate locality in which they are situated.
Taking the figures as given above, we find that while Johns Hopkins draws 55 per cent of its students from sections other than the division in which it is located, Harvard draws but 25 per cent, and the University of Michigan but 20 per cent from such sections. It will be observed further that the number of foreign students in attendance at Johns Hopkins exceeds the number in attendance at the other two institutions.
Probable causes of the popularity of Johns Hopkins University.—The large number of students from the North Atlantic Division attending Johns Hopkins suggests that some department of this institution is superior to the corresponding departments of the institutions in that division. In order to arrive at some conclusion with respect to this matter the catalogues of Johns Hopkins have been examined with particular reference to the students from New York and Massachusetts, with the following result: The 57 students from New York were distributed among the studies as follows: Chemistry, 12; pathology, 7; history, 7; physics, 6; English, 5; biology, 4; astronomy, 4; mathematics, 3; Latin, 3; Romance languages, 3; geology, 1; histology, 1; and Semitic languages, 1. The thirty-nine from Massachusetts were divided as follows: History, 9; biology, 6; chemistry, 5; Greek, 5; geology, 4; Germanic languages, 3; mathematics, 2; philosophy, 2; Assyriology, 1; English, 1; and Sanskrit, 1. It will thus be seen that the two departments of history and chemistry include 33, or about one-third, of all the students from the two States specified, and may very properly be said to be the most popular departments of the institu tion. This statement is substantiated by the annual report of the president of Johns Hopkins, in which it is shown that more students are entered for those departments than for any other.
Probably, however, the true cause of the superior drawing power of this institution is to be found in the manner of making appointments to the fellowships. While a large number of the Harvard fellowships are open only to Harvard graduates, all of the Johns Hopkins fellowships are open to graduates of any institution. Thus, although the number of fellowships possessed by Harvard exceeds the number possessed by Johns Hopkins, the chances of obtaining a fellowship at Johns Hopkins by a graduate of another institution are larger than at Harvard.
It has been suggested that the place where a student received his first degree might have some influence in the selection of an institution for the prosecution of advanced study and research. In order to arrive at some conclusion with respect to this subject the catalogues for the past four years of the three institutions which have thus far been made the subjects of special study and investiga tion were again examined. Before giving the results of this investigation it may be well to state that of the 243 students registered in the graduate department of the University of Michigan during that time but 133 were resident students, the remainder pursuing advanced study at a distance. In this investigation the latter could not be included, as the catalogues do not give the desired information concerning these students. For the same reason 118 of the students at Johns Hopkins University who were attendants at single courses only could not be included.
While the investigation was being made it was found that the institutions represented were so numerous that it was deemed impracticable to give the names of the institutions. It was then decided to give merely the State residence of the students and the States in which they received their first degrees. So as to make the representation as simple and complete as possible the results have been incorporated in three separate tables, which are as follows: