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they did not definitely declare for the reduction of the course of study, they were emphatic in the expression of the opinion that something ought to be done to make our system more elastic, "so that those who feel the need of starting in their life work as soon as possible, and are ready to put forth extra effort, would be encouraged to finish their course in three years rather than four."
During the discussion Mr. George L. Fox, rector of the Hopkins Grammar School, New Haven, Conn., said: "I am aware that this [completion of the course in three years] is often done at Harvard, but so far as I know, at other colleges, while in rare instances it may be done, there is not the disposition to encourage any such efforts. If such a possibility could be distinctly held out to men having a college course under consideration, some worthy men would be deterred from the unwise step of entering the professional school without college training, as they do now."
Another objection to the proposed change was advanced by Prof. Tracy Peck, of Yale. In the course of his remarks, on the negative side of the question, he said: "If there is a widespread call in the thoughtful part of the community for reducing the college course of liberal study to three years, I have not been able to discover it. There certainly are many earnest young persons whom poverty or other circumstances prevents from pursuing a full or even any course of liberal study. Such cases appeal strongly to our sympathies, and most colleges provide for the support of the meritorious; but no reduction in the conditions of time or other requirements can reach them all, and it would be unjust to the majority of students if their privileges were to be diminished because of the unfortunate few."
Exception may well be taken to that part of Prof. Peck's remarks which relate to the curtailment of the privileges of the majority of the students. Let us consider whether in fact these privileges would be diminished by the shortening of the present college curriculum. It appears not, for the reason that the graduate department would still be at the command of such students as might wish to pursue still further those studies which comprise what is known as a liberal education, and their privileges would be at least as great as they are at the present time. The shortening of the undergraduate course would not by any means carry with it the abridgment of any of the opportunities or facilities for advanced study now offered by our institutions of learning, but would very probably be the means of inducing a larger number of young men to pursue such studies, since they would be enabled to enter there on one year earlier than at the present time.
Another objection to the proposed reduction is that it would mean the degra dation of the A. B. degree. If this degree had a fixed meaning, or meant in one part of this country the same that it means in another part, this might perhaps stand as an objection; but we are sorry to say that such is not the case, and will not be so long as State legislatures continue to grant to institutions the power of conferring degrees without defining the requirements to be demanded therefor. Should this reduction be made by Harvard and other leading institutions, it is certain that even then the A. B. degree conferred by these institutions would still mean at least as much, if not more, than the A. B. given by a large number of institutions in the United States.
The full discussion which the subject has excited has the great advantage that those upon whom the final adjustment of the matter will devolve will act in full view of all the difficulties to be met and of all possible means which experience suggests for the solution of the problem.
GRADUATE DEPARTMENTS OF UNIVERSITIES.
Organization--Development of graduate departments in four institutions: Yale; Harvard; Princeton; Columbia-Nonresident courses-Growth of graduate work in eighteen years-Number of students in graduate departments from 1871-72 to 18×9–90, inclusive - Statistics of graduates in individual institutions Effect of the opening of Johns Hopkins University on other institutions— Drawing power of three typical institutions, Harvard, Johns Hopkins, and the University of Michi gan, as shown by the State residence of the graduale students-Probable causes of the popularity of Johns Hopkins University-States in which graduate students of Harvard, Johns Hopkins, and the University of Michigan received their first degrees.
The organization and maintenance of departments for the prosecution_of graduate or advanced study and research is of comparatively recent date. By this we do not mean that before the establishment of such departments graduate students did not remain in residence at the universities, for we find that in some cases such students remained in residence before special provision had been made for their instruction. An attempt is here made to trace the progress made by a few institutions in this direction.
Yale College. The catalogues of Yale College show that although graduate students were in residence as early as the year 1836-37, no mention was made of any provision for their instruction until the year 1844-45, when the catalogue for that year contained the following: "Instruction is also given by the professors to resident graduates, provided a sufficient number present themselves to form a class." A few years later the catalogue for 1847-48 announced the establishment of a new department, in the following terms:
"It has long been felt at Yale College to be important to furnish resident graduates and others with the opportunity of devoting themselves to special branches of study, either not provided for at present or not pursued as far as individual students may desire. With the hope of accomplishing this object more fully and systematically, the corporation at their meeting in August, 1846, appointed a committee to take this subject into consideration, and in accordance with the report of the committee, at their next meeting in August, 1847, estab-lished a new department called the department of philosophy and the arts. The branches intended to be embraced in this department are such in general as are not included under theology, law, and medicine; or more particularly mathematical science, physical science, and its application to the arts, metaphysics, philology, literature, and history. Instruc ion in this department may be given by professors not belonging to the other departments, by the academical professors, and by such others as the president and fellows may approve. The instructors for the year, with the president, compose the faculty of the department. The instructions in the department are intended for graduates of this and other colleges, and for such other young men as are desirous of pursuing special branches of study; but it is necessary for all students in philology and mathematical science that they be thoroughly grounded in those studies."
The greater portion of the students enrolled in this department were not graduates, but may perhaps properly be called special students, who wished to pursue studies not given in the regular academical department. A school of applied chemistry was made a part of the department from its organization. The catalogue for 1852-53 shows that a school of engineering had also been established, and that of the 55 students enrolled in the department during that year, 51 were connected either with the school of applied chemistry or the school of engineering. The same catalogue also contained the following respecting degrees: "The degree of bachelor of philosophy will be conferred by the president and fellows upon students in the department of philosophy and the arts, after being connected with the department for two years and passing a satisfactory examination in three branches of study."
The catalogue of 1854-55 shows that the chairs of chemistry and engineering received the name of Yale Scientific School some time during the year 1854, and that several new professors became connected with it. The following extract from The History of Yale College shows the development of the department from this time:
"The 'scientific school' now entered upon a rapid career of extension. Mr. Joseph E. Sheffield began his remarkable series of gifts. The school,' in honor of its distinguished benefactor, was called in 1861 the 'Sheffield Scientific School,' and a large number of new professors were appointed. Thus the 'scientific school'—a section of the department of philosophy and the arts—had now become one of the most flourishing and valuable branches of the college. Its origin was due to the effort which had been made, in 1846, to establish what was then called a 'fourth department,' the primary object of which was to provide instruction for graduate students in all branches of knowledge. But till this time everything had been in a formative state. There had been all along a small body of graduates who went on with their studies in history, philology, and literature; there had been also graduates among the students in the scientific section of the 'department,' who pursued advanced studies under the instruction of the scientific professors; but it was found by experience that the larger proportion of those who applied for admission to the Sheffield school had not received the proper preliminary education which would enable them to pursue the study of any of the higher branches of science to advantage. Accordingly, in 1860, substantially what is the present organization of the school was decided upon; the courses of instruction being adapted to the educational wants of those persons who resorted to it, and to the somewhat general public demand for what was beginning to be known as the 'new education.' A scheme requiring three years of study was planned after the methods followed in the academical department, characterized mainly by the omission of classical studies and the prominence given to scientific studies."
This new arrangement of the scientific section was undoubtedly the cause of the readjustment of the whole department, which occurred in 1872. According to this reorganization the department of philosophy and the arts was made to include the undergraduate academical department, the Sheffield scientific school, the school of fine arts, and the school for graduate instruction. This organization is still in force. It will thus be seen that a distinct school for graduate instruction was not organized until 1872.
No degree for advanced work seems to have been given by Yale prior to 1860-61. In that year the catalogue contained the following:
"It is required of candidates for the degree of doctor of philosophy that they shall faithfully devote at least two years to a course of study selected from branches pursued in the department of philosophy and the arts. The selection may be made from the studies of either or both sections, but must belong to at least two distinct departments of learning.
"All persons who have not previously received a degree furnishing evidence of acquaintance with the Latin and Greek languages will be required, before presenting themselves for the final examination for the doctor's degree, to pass a satisfactory examination in these languages, or in other studies (not included in their advanced course) which shall be accepted as an equivalent by the faculty.
The degree of doctor of philosophy will be conferred on all members of the department who, having complied with the conditions above stated, shall pass a satisfactory final examination, and present a thesis giving evidence of high attainment in the branches they have pursued."
The requirements in vogue at the present time require the student to have taken a bachelor's degree, to have a good knowledge of Latin, German, and French, and to have pursued for two years studies in the graduate department.
Harvard University. The history of graduate instruction in Harvard is ably set forth by James Mills Peirce, secretary of the academic council, in his report to President Eliot for the year 1879-80. In this report he says:
"As no report has heretofore proceeded from this (the graduate) department, it seems to be desirable that I should take the occasion to present a brief sketch of its history. The residence of graduates at the university for the purpose of pursuing advanced studies is a practice probably as old as the college itself. Traces of it are to be found in the ancient records of the faculty, and it has always been felt that the presence of such persons, even when their connection with the university has been of the slightest kind, has had a tendency to heighten the serious scholarly feeling of the place. At the time of the foundation of the scientific school, under the administration of President Everett (1846-1849), one
of the main objects had in view was the provision of instruction suited to the wants of the most advanced students, and it will be remembered that, in the first organization of that school philological studies were represented in the faculty as well as the natural and practical sciences. In point of fact, the scientific school did, within the boundaries to which it was soon restricted, fulfill an important function in regard to higher work, and had a considerable influence in preparing the way for what is now the graduate department. Until the great extension of the elective system of the college ten years ago (1870), and the establishment of the degrees of Ph. D. and S. D. somewhat later (1872), it was the only department of the university that offered the opportunity of obtaining a degree by the performance of special work of a high character in pure science. It was resorted to by college graduates and other advanced students who desired to make a real beginning of a scientific career. Its opportunities of study, under professors of rare eminence, not overburdened with undergraduate work, and eager to promote genuine scientific achievement, were exceptionally fine, though inadequately represented in any printed record, and the degree of the school soon attained a very high estimation.
"The next step that was taken towards the provision of instruction for graduates was the institution of the system of university lectures' during the administration of President Felton [1860-1862]. Early in 186 under the presidency of Dr. Hill, these courses of lectures, having been practically discontinued, were resumed on a plan of increased extent and efficiency; and at the same time it was ordered by the corporation that 'the president, with the professors in all departments of the university, be authorized to meet and associate themselves in one body for the consideration of its educational interests, and for the arrangement of such courses of lectures as may be thought expedient for the benefit of the members of the professional schools, graduates of this or other colleges, teachers of the public schools of the Commonwealth, and other persons.""
The university lectures do not seem to have been very popular. In the seven years from their establishment in 1863, seventy-four courses of lectures were delivered, of which number sixty-seven were upon scientific subjects. The seven exceptional courses were delivered before 1866.
At the beginning of Dr. Eliot's administration graduate instruction was placed upon a permanent and more efficient footing. In 1869 two courses of instruction, one in philosophy and the other in modern literature, were opened to‘graduates, teachers, and other competent persons (men and women)." Thirteen teachers took part in the two courses, 7 in the first, and 6 in the second. Twelve students were in attendance upon the courses, 4 of whom presented themselves for examination on the course in philosophy. In his report for 1871-72 President Eliot says: "The university lectures have now been tried for nine years. Although some temporary advantages and certain improvements have resulted from them, it must be confessed that they have distinctly failed as a scheme for giving advanced instruction in philosophy, history, and the humanities, and that they have failed hopelessly and in an unexpectedly short time. They have not induced bachelors of arts of this university to remain in Cambridge for purposes of systematic study, and they have not attracted to the university advanced students from other places. Advanced students want profound, continuous, and systematic teaching. The university lectures, taken together as a body of teaching, have been discursive, heterogeneous, and disconnected." The best results were obtained in 1869-70, when the courses in philosophy and modern languages were given. Nevertheless, even these two long courses, given by a succession of five or six different teachers, lacked consecutiveness and unity of plan and method.
In 1872 the corporation and board of overseers adopted a statute of which only a summarized statement can be given. "The scheme contemplates residence of one year for the masters' [A. M.] degree, of two years for the degree of doctor of philosophy, and of three years for the degree of doctor of science, examinations for all degrees, and the presentation of these by candidates for either doctorate." This action of the university immediately attracted an increased number of students, as will be seen by a glance at the table on page 819.
Princeton.-The catalogues of Princeton do not show the presence of graduate students at the institution prior to 1870-71, in which year there were 3 in attendance. In 1870 three fellowships were created, and the students referred to were the holders of them. The conditions on which the fellowships were bestowed were such as to require the holders thereof to pursue advanced studies for at least one year. The number of fellowships was gradually increased, thus increasing the number of graduate students; but it may be well to remark that until the year 1877-78 no graduate students, excepting fellows, were