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New Jersey, popularly known as Princeton College, are granted to the students. The college offers the following courses of study:
I. A classical and scientific course corresponding to that of Princeton College, including the lectures of the professors and examinations upon them.
II. Post-graduate courses under the direction of the professors of Princeton College.
III. A special or elective course with lectures and college advantages, in which French and German may be substituted for Latin and Greek, and other modifications made to meet the requirements of those who, for want of time or for other reasons, are prevented from taking the full college course.
IV. Preparatory classes, with reference to either collegiate or special work. V. Opportunities for the study of music, art, and modern languages, including constant conversation in French and German.
Evelyn College grants its own degrees, and in this respect it differs from Barnard College, whose students receive the Columbia degree. Another point of difference between these two institutions is that while Evelyn gives instruction in preparatory studies, Barnard receives only those as students who are already prepared to enter the freshman class. Thus of the forty-six students in attendance at Evelyn during the year 1889–90, only four are reported as in the regular undergraduate courses.
PREPARATORY DEPARTMENTS, ETC.
It can not but be deplored that so many of the higher institutions of learning in this country are compelled, either through the lack of good preparatory schools or on account of insufficient endowment funds, to maintain preparatory and other departments which are neither collegiate, professional, nor postgraduate. The maintenance of such departments calls for a part of the valuable time of a number of professors which otherwise could be devoted entirely to the collegiate classes or be spent in the necessary study and research so indispensable to the college professor of the present time. But the large number of institutions claiming to give higher instruction, especially those for women, renders it necessary for the larger part of them to maintain all grades of instruction, so that a large number of students may be enrolled, the tuition fees of whom are necessary to meet the expenses of the institutions. Some idea of the amount of labor that is imposed on some of the professors of colleges may be formed from the fact that in one of the colleges for women five professors give all the instruction to sixty students in the preparatory department, twenty students in the seminary or academic department, and fifty students in the collegiate department, to say nothing of the instruction in music and art, which of course is furnished by these professors.
A majority of the colleges for women are without endowment and are therefore compelled to rely in great part if not entirely upon the fees received from the students. This is especially the case with the large number of such institutions in the South, where more than 68 per cent of all the institutions for the higher education of women exclusively are situated.
The list of colleges for women contains a large number of institutions which should really be classed as secondary schools, but which, by virtue of the authority to confer degrees granted them by the several State legislatures, demand to be included in the table devoted to colleges for women. This fact necessitates the incorporation in this table of institutions not authorized to confer degrees, but which maintain courses of study that are by far superior to the courses for which regular collegiate degrees are conferred by a large number of the institutions. In order to show how easy it is to obtain a degree in one of these the following course of study for which the degree of A. B. is conferred is taken from its catalogue:
A comparison of this course with the admission requirements of institutions like Wellesley, Bryn Mawr, etc., shows that the above course for the first three years is little more than what is required for admission to the freshman classes of institutions like those above named. Again, it will be seen that Greek has no place whatsoever in the curriculum. The above course is a fair sample of the courses of study offered by a number of colleges for women and shows that there is room for considerable improvement in this class of institutions.
This state of affairs is due. without doubt, to the lack of endowment funds. In connection with this subject W. Le Conte Stevens says: "Experience has amply demonstrated that no institution of learning can preserve a high standard of scholarship and present an extensive course of studies for selection unless possessed of a permanent endowment, so as to be wholly or partly independent of the fluctuations of patronage. Without this it is like an engine without a flywheel." A glance at column 17 of the table of colleges for women will show that this important feature of institutions for higher education is rendered prominent by its infrequent appearance in the tabulation of the statistics. The table on the following page shows that the total amount of endowment funds reported by the 179 institutions is $2,609,661, of which amount $1,901,461, or 72.8 per cent, is reported by 12 institutions of the North Atlantic Division.
In a large number of cases the institutions are either owned by the president or leased to him by the owners, and he makes out of it whatever he can. In this respect these institutions differ very materially from the coeducational and male institutions, where the president is generally engaged by a board of trustees, by whom his work and actions are controlled and from whom he receives a stated salary.
SUMMARY OF STATISTICS.
The following table presents the summary, by States, of the statistics of colleges for women for the year 1889-90:
1 North American Review, vol. 136, p. 28.
The total number of colleges and seminaries for women reporting to the Bureau during 1889-90 was 179, which is 19 less than were included under the same category in 1888-89. A number of institutions hithertore ported as colleges or seminaries for women have been classed this year as secondary schools. This action was warranted either by some statement of the reporting officers or by the work of the institutions as shown by an examination of the catalogues. Owing to the widely diversified characteristics of these institutions it is a very difficult matter to devise some standard of classification which, if adopted, would give due credit to all the institutions for the work which is done by them. A few of the better class give instruction which will compare favorably with that afforded by some of the best male and coeducational institutions. But the large majority of the institutions do not come up to this standard. They begin by admitting pupils to the primary and preparatory departments, usually organized on the plan of a graded school, and conduct the pupils by successive stages, through the academic and collegiate departments. The course in the last-named department would not in a large number of cases take a student farther than the end of the sophomore year in a college for males.
An examination of a number of the catalogues also shows that with some exceptions Greek is entirely omitted from the curriculum. We also find that some institutions will give the degree of A. B. for a course which is considerably inferior to courses which in other institutions are not accorded a degree. It will therefore be seen that a classification based only on the authority to confer degrees would not be a just classification in this case. Until a suitable standard shall be decided upon, the classification adopted a few years ago will be continued.
A glance at Division A of the table' of colleges for women will show that the number of institutions in this division has been increased from 8 in 1888-89 to 14 in the current year. This increase resulted from the establishment of a few new institutions and the reorganization of several others, through which reorganization they were raised to the regular college grade. In a few cases the number of students in the collegiate departments is very small, but such is nearly always the case in newly established institutions or in newly organized departments of institutions.
Endowment.-The institutions in Division A are as a rule fairly well endowed, differing somewhat in this respect from the institutions included in Division B. The total amount of permanent productive funds reported by the institutions in both divisions of the table was $2,609,661, of which amount $1,970,461, or 75.5 per cent, was reported by 10 of the institutions in Division A, while the remainder was reported by 24 of the institutions in Division B, thus leaving 145 institutions not reporting any productive funds.
Scientific apparatus.-The total value of scientific apparatus reported was $418,900, of which $305,391, or 72.9 per cent, was reported by 12 of the institutions in Division A, while the remainder was reported in small amounts by 97 of the institutions in Division B. This latter fact would seem to show that very little attention is paid by the institutions in this division to the practical study of chemistry, physics, astronomy, etc., for the prosecution of which apparatus is absolutely necessary.
Benefactions.-One evidence of the greater popularity of the institutions in Division A is shown in the column of the table devoted to benefactions. The total amount of gifts and bequests to the 179 institutions during 1889-90 was $303,257, and of this amount $193,502, or 63.8 per cent, was reported by 9 of the 14 institutions in this division, while the remaining $109,775 was reported by 29 of the institutions in Division B. The latter amount was reported in sums varying from $15 to $20,000, while the former was comprised of sums ranging from $465, reported by Bryn Mawr College, to $61,000, reported by the Woman's College of Baltimore.
Income.-The attempt to tabulate and publish the income of these institutions has been abandoned for the present. It was found that the reports on this subject were so meagre that the totals would not be valuable for any purpose whatsoever. As said before, a large number of these institutions are owned or leased by the presidents, who manage and conduct them for the profits that can be made. In such cases the questions relating to finances of the institutions remained, as a rule, unanswered, and when they were answered, the replies to the inquiry asking for the amount received from tuition fees usually included the amount received for board, lodging, etc. As it was desired to learn the amount
1 See table of statistics of colleges for women.
expended purely for educational purposes, it is evident that such answers could not be used and were practically useless.
Degrees.-The following table presents the summary, by States, of the number of different degrees conferred by colleges for women in 1889-90:
TABLE 2.-Summary of degrees conferred by colleges for women in 1889–90.
Course of study.-In the report of the Bureau for 1888-89 appears a table giving the courses of study in one hundred colleges and universities, including a few of the colleges for women of Division A. A similar scheme, somewhat condensed, has been devised for the comparative representation of courses leading to the degree of A. B., as given in fifteen of the institutions included in Division B. All the studies have been grouped under five headings, viz, language, mathematics, natural science, history and geography, and philosophy and civil government. An examination of the table will show that while a few of the institutions have a fairly good course for the degree of A. B., in other cases the same degree is earned quite easily. The course, as set forth in the latest catalogues of the several institutions, is as follows: