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sons on the harm that comes from the use of tobacco and the common alcoholic drinks.
Second year pupils review these topics with additional matter and add lessons on care of the bones, the hygiene of eating and drinking, breathing, etc. The special points brought out in these lessons will be written out by the children at the close of the lesson, and from these written exercises selections may be made and sent on to the exhibit with photographs of class, etc., as above.
Third year pupils, reviewing the ground already covered, learn more on each topic, and add a few simple facts about muscles, nerves, the organs of digestion, circulation, respiration, etc.; the best of their written exercises may also be selected.
In response to request, the questions given below are suggested by the department of scientific temperance instruction.
QUESTIONS ON THE SENSES FOR FOURTH YEAR PUPILS.
[NOTE.-Other topics studied during the fourth year are, food, alcoholic drinks and other narcotics, digestion, circulation, respiration, the skin, bones, muscles, and nervous system, the hygiene of each being chiefly developed. As it is manifestly impossible in the time allowed for preparing papers for this exhibit to cover all the topics studied in any one grade, a selection has been made of one or more for each grade, with questions covering salient points.]
2. How may the eyes be injured? 3. What is a good thing to do when specks get in your eye? 4. What is the outside part of the ear for? 5. Where is the hearing part? 6. How does the brain know about sounds?
1. Why can you feel better with the ends of your fingers than with the back of your hand?
1. What tells your brain that sugar is sweet when it is dissolving in your mouth?
1. How does the brain find out about odors? 2. Upon what does the right action of all our senses depend?
1. What do alcohol and tobacco do to the senses, as of sight, taste, etc.? 2. How will our comfort and pleasure be affected if we blunt or injure our senses with alcoholic drinks or tobacco?
QUESTIONS ON THE ORIGIN AND NATURE OF ALCOHOLIC DRINKS, FOR FIFTH
[NOTE. According to the plan of grading this study, now in most successful operation, only a part of the topics included in the whole subject, as food, alcoholic drinks, digestion, circulation, and respiration, are taken up during the fifth year; the remainder, bones, muscles, skin, nervous system, and senses, being left for the sixth year. But the work, though more exhaustive than that in the fourth year, still leaves much that the pupil is not yet prepared to comprehend. The same plan is again pursued for the seventh and eighth years, the seventh year tak ing up the same topics as the fifth, i. e., food, alcoholic drinks, digestion, circulation, respiration, but with a more thorough and comprehensive treatment; the eighth taking the same topics as the sixth-year grades, i. e., bones, muscles, skin, nervous system, and senses, with more comprehensive treatment. The topics covered by the questions are selected in accordance with this plan.]
1. When the juice pressed from apples, grapes, or other fruits is left in a moderately warm air what change soon takes place in it? 2. What causes this change? 3. Where are the ferments before the apples are ground? 4. How do they get into the juice and what do they do there? 5. What is alcohol and how does it differ from water? 6. What is vinous fermentation? 7. What does fermentation always change? 8. How is this law illustrated when cider changes to vinegar? 9. Why are wine, cider, and beer dangerous drinks? 10. Show how the law of fermentation applies to beer-making. 11. How does beer-drinking give a false appearance of health? 12. How do the results of fermentation differ in bread-making from those in beer-making? 13. Why is there no alcohol in well-baked bread? 14. What is meant by distilled liquors? 15. Mention some of the more common distilled liquors and tell why they are destructive to health and character. 16. What is the alcoholic appetite and how does it differ from a natural appetite? 17. Why should not alcoholic liquors be used as a flavoring for food?
QUESTIONS ON DIGESTION AND MUSCLES FOR SIXTH-YEAR PUPILS. [The teacher may choose either subject to be written upon if both are considered too long.]
1. Explain how food is made ready to mix with the blood and what is meant by digestion. 2. Describe the organs of digestion and tell what they do. 3.
Tell what you can about the liver. 4. What can you tell of Alexis St. Martin? 5. Tell how the nutritious part of food is taken into the blood. 6. What general rules should guide us as to what we should eat? 7. Explain in a general way how we should eat, how much, and the importance of proper cooking. 8. What care should be taken of the teeth? 9. What is the effect of alcohol on digestion and how does it affect the liver? 10. What is the effect of tobacco on digestion ?
1. What are muscles, voluntary and involuntary, and what purpose do they serve? 2. What are tendons and their uses? 3. Why do we need exercise? 4. What are the advantages of walking as an exercise? Of light gymnastics? 5. What is the effect of alcoholic drinks on the muscles? 6. What is the effect of alcoholic drinks on the strength? 7. How do alcoholic drinks injure a workman's power of doing fine work? 8. What can you say of the effect of tobacco on the muscles?
QUESTIONS ON THE CIRCULATION AND RESPIRATION FOR PUPILS OF THE SEVENTH-YEAR GRADE.
[The teacher may choose between these subjects the one to be written upon if both are too long.]
I. 1. Describe the blood and its uses. 2. Describe the different kinds of blood vessels, their uses, and the pulse. 3. Describe the heart. 4. Starting in the aorta follow the blood in its course through the blood vessels until it has returned to the heart. 5. Follow the course of the blood through the heart and describe the action of each part. 6. How is the action of the heart regulated? 7. How does the heart gets its rest? 8. What are some of the avoidable causes of palpitation and other heart troubles? 9. What is a smoker's heart?
II. 1. How is the circulation regulated? 2. What effect has bodily inactivity on the circulation? 3. Why is outdoor exercise necessary to healthful circulation?
III. 1. What effect have alcoholic drinks on the blood? On the beating of the heart? 2. How does alcohol deprive the heart of a portion of its rest? 3. What effect may alcohol have on the structure of the heart? 4. Explain the cause of the flushed face that follows taking alcoholic liquors? 5. What other parts besides the face are also flushed? 6. How does alcohol affect the blood vessels? 7. How do alcoholic drinks interfere with the proper distribution of the blood?
I. 1. What bodily need is more pressing than the need of food and drink? 2. How does expired air compare with inspired air in its composition?
II. 1. Describe the organs of respiration and their use. 2. What reason for breathing through the nose rather than through the mouth? 3. Trace the blood-vessels from the heart to the lungs and back.
III. 1. What effect has purity of air on the blood? 2. What is the work of the corpuscles?
IV. 1. What makes air impure, and how does nature preserve the purity of the outdoor air? 2. Why is it so difficult to secure pure air for breathing indoors? 3. What is a good test of the character of the air of a room? 4. Tell what you know about ventilation and how it may be secured.
V. I. What effect have alcoholic liquors on the blood vessels of the lungs ? 2. How does alcohol affect the substance of the lungs? 3. What disease of the lungs is caused by alcohol? 4. What effect has tobacco on the throat and nose?
QUESTIONS ON THE NERVOUS SYSTEM FOR EIGHTH-YEAR PUPILS OR FIRST YEAR BELOW THE HIGH SCHOOL.
I. 1. Describe the nerves and the brain and tell what you can of their various uses. 2. Where is the spinal cord situated, what is its appearance, and over what movements does it preside? 3. Why are sensation and motion lost below an injury of the spinal cord? 4. What is the condition of a person whose nerves are incapable of action? 5. What are some of the avoidable causes of disease of the nervous system? 6. How much time should be spent in sleep? 7. Name two safeguards of the nervous system. 8. What is the effect of excessive excitement?
II. 1. How does alcohol reach and affect the nerve centers? 2. Show the fallacy of the supposition that alcoholic drinks aid brain work. 3. Show how alcohol through its action on the brain affects the judgment, the will, the character. 4. What change may alcohol make in the structure of the brain? 5. What inheritance may a drinking or tobacco-using parent leave his children? 6. What effect is tobacco likely to have on the brain and nerves of a boy who uses it?
QUESTIONS SUGGESTED FOR THE USE OF HIGH-SCHOOL PUPILS IN PREPARING EXAMINATION PAPERS ON THE SUBJECT OF PHYSIOLOGY AND HYGIENE, INCLUDING THE NATURE AND EFFECTS OF ALCOHOLIC DRINKS AND OTHER NARCOTICS, FOR THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION.
I. 1. Describe the cell as found in the human body; a tissue; an organ; a system.
II. 1. Why do we need food? Discuss kinds, sources, and proper preparation of food.
III. 1. What are healthful drinks? 2. What change takes place when the juices of fruits are pressed out and allowed to ferment? Tell what you know about the causes of this change. 3. What is present in the liquid after it has fermented that was not there before and how did it get there? 4. Show the fallacy of supposing that beer, wine, and cider are good because made from healthful grains, grapes, or apples. 5. What characteristic of alcohol makes any liquid containing it a dangerous drink? 6. Describe the alcoholic appetite and its causes.
IV. 1. Describe the organs of digestion, and the office of each, and tell what harm alcoholic liquors and tobacco do the same.
V. 1. Describe the blood, the organs of circulation, and the function of each. 2. The need of pure blood, showing causes that make the blood impure. 3. What is the immediate effect of alcohol upon the blood vessels and why? 4. Upon the heart and why? 5. What changes may be brought about in the blood vessels and the heart by continued use of alcohol and why? 6. How may tobacco affect the heart?
VI. 1. What are the organs of respiration and what are their functions? 2. Tell why pure air is a necessity and how to get it. 3. How are the organs of respiration and the voice injured by alcoholic drinks or tobacco ?
VII. 1. What are muscles and their functions? 2. How is strength of museles affected by lack of exercise, tight clothing, or improper food? 3. Explain the eflect of alcohol upon muscular strength and precision.
VIII. 1. Describe the brain, nerves, and spinal cord, and the uses of each. 2. How is brain power developed? 3. How are habits formed? 4. What is the relation of habit to character and success in life?
IX. 1. What causes the flushing of the face which usually follows taking an alcoholic drink? 2. Describe the effect of alcohol upon the higher faculties of the brain? 3. What changes in the brain may the use of alcohol produce? 4. What are the results upon character? 5. What institutions supported by tax on the general public are made necessary largely by the effect of alcohol on the brain? 6. What diseases of the nervous system and what hereditary consequences are due to the use of alcohol? 7. How does tobacco affect the brain and nerves? What is its effect upon brain power and scholarship? 8. What of opium on the nerves and brain?
HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN.
General statement.-Description of new institutions: Barnard College; Woman's College of Baltimore; Cleveland College for Women; Evelyn College. Summary of Statistics: Number of Institutions; Endowment Funds; Scientific Apparatus; Benefactions; Income; Degrees. Course of Study for A. B. degree in fifteen Institutions.
The higher education of women continues to receive marked attention in this country, several institutions for this purpose having been established during the past few years. These institutions make provision for instruction of collegiate grade and are not merely "finishing" schools. The tendency seems to be to establish these institutions as colleges affiliated to universities already established, or at least to locate them in cities where leading universities exist, thus securing to these new schools the advantages of large and well-selected libraries, museums, etc., facilities which otherwise could not be obtained until after a long period of years. Another advantage gained by locating them in university towns consists in this, that very frequently the services of some of the university professors or instructors whose time is not fully occupied with their regular duties can be easily secured for a part of the day. In this manner nearly all the instruction in few of the more prominent of these institutions is provided by university professors, and this fact has done much toward making their work successful. A short account of the establishment of some of the institutions recently founded is here given.
DESCRIPTION OF NEW INSTITUTIONS.
Barnard College.-Since the year 1885 Columbia College, New York, has granted the degree of bachelor of arts to women who have pursued a course of study equivalent to that for which the degree is conferred in the school of arts. Notwithstanding the degree was conferred by the college no provision was made by which the women pursuing this course could obtain instruction from the faculty, although those who had secured this degree might study for higher degrees under the direction of the professors of the college. The suggestion was therefore made to found a college where women studying for the Columbia degrees could receive instruction from the college faculty. This proposal received the official approval of the trustees of Columbia in March, 1889, and the college was opened for instruction in the following October. The name given to the new institution is Barnard College, in honor of the late Dr. F. A. P. Bárnard, who had always taken great interest in the higher education of women and had advocated granting to women full opportunity for collegiate training. The course of study is identical with that of the School of Arts of Columbia College, and is intended to give to the girls of New York and its vicinity the same instruction that is given to the boys. In order that the status of this institution may be made clear the following is reprinted from the first report of the academic committee:
"The entrance examination papers are the same for the students of Barnard and Columbia, the papers are passed upon by the same examining board, the course of study is the same, and at the end of the course the degree awarded is the same. These facts are emphasized because nothing is so constantly mis
understood as the fact that Barnard College has no separate academic existence. Educationally considered, Barnard is Columbia. Its only autonomy is administrative and financial."
The establishment of Barnard College rendered unnecessary the continuance of the collegiate course for women by Columbia, and no new students in that course are received; but those who have already been admitted to the course will be allowed to complete it.
Barnard College does not yet possess an endowment fund, but depends for its support upon the fees from its students and upon yearly contributions. Stren-. uous efforts are being made to raise an endowment sufficient to make the institution in a measure independent of students' fees.
Although Barnard has no productive funds,' on account of its relations with Columbia College it has been able to exact that its students should be fully prepared to enter upon the course as laid down. It has been decided by the authorities, as a result of the experience of the first year, to accept, at least for some years to come, only regular students in its undergraduate classes. This was rendered necessary by the large number of students who wished to enter upon special courses. Students who wish to pursue special courses in botany and chemistry only will be admitted, but such students must pass the examinations required for admission to the freshman class. The first year's work of the college proved successful. There were thirty-six students in attendance, which number was increased to forty-five at the beginning of the second year; of these, eighteen are in the regular classes, eight are graduate students, and sixteen are specials in chemistry and botany only, while three are specials from last year who are permitted to remain.
Woman's College of Baltimore.-Another addition to the institutions for the higher education of women is the Woman's College of Baltimore, Maryland. This institution was first opened for instruction in September, 1888, with fifty students, while the number in attendance during the year 1889-90 was two hundred and eighty-three. Of this number only thirty were in attendance upon regular undergraduate courses, one hundred and thirty-three were in special or partial courses, while the remainder were in the preparatory department. The name of this department has been changed to Girls' Latin School of Baltimore and the purpose is to give it a separate organization.
The institution was founded "to provide women with the best facilities for securing liberal culture. Its primary purpose is to meet the educational demands arising in the Methodist Episcopal Church. It was established by action of that church, and is conducted under its fostering care. At the same time it was not planned and is not managed in an exclusive or sectarian spirit."
The buildings, three in number, have been erected since 1887 and are valued at $340,000, while the productive funds of the college amount to $150,000. The president of the institution is Rev. John F. Goucher, D. D.
The scheme of instruction consists of four years' courses of study leading to the degree of bachelor of arts, supplemented by such instruction in subcollegiate courses as may be found necessary. No election of studies is allowed in the first collegiate year and but little in the second. In the third and fourth years a wide range of choice is permitted, to accord with individual tastes or to meet the demands of preparation for practical work.
Cleveland College for Women.-The Cleveland College for Women, Cleveland, Ohio, was first opened for instruction in 1888 as a department of Western Reserve University. At the same time the trustees of the university decided to receive no more women into Adelbert College. That the success of the new school might be assured, the faculty of Adelbert College generously offered their services for a term of years as instructors. During the first year twenty-three young women were admitted, but two of whom were in the regular courses. During 1889-90 the number of students increased to thirty-eight, eleven of whom were in the regular courses, of which there are three, viz, the classical and modern language courses, leading to the degree of A. B. and the Latin English course to that of PH. B. The institution received $100,000 from Mrs. Eliza A. Clark, one-half of which is to be used for the erection of a building and the remainder invested as an endowment fund.
Evelyn College. In 1887 Evelyn College, an institution for women, was opened at Princeton, N. J. Its location at this place gives the institution very great advantages, inasmuch as the use of the libraries and museums of the College of
1 On the settlement of the Fayerweather estate, New York, Barnard will receive a fund of $100,000.
2 Annual catalogue, 1890.