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8. The muscles.-The anatomy and physiology of muscular tissue and its hygiene, including the effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics. This division of the subject includes in its hygiene systematic exercises for the development of the various tissues of the body, such as calisthenics, gymnastics, or what are called physical-culture exercises.
9. The skin.-Its anatomy, physiology, and hygiene, including the relation of exercise, pure air, right food, bathing, and proper clothing to the hygiene of the skin, and the evil effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics upon the
10. The senses. Their anatomy, physiology, and hygiene, including the effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics.
In physiological temperance, as in other branches which extend through several years of the school life, a few of the simple elements should be taught in the lowest grade, and these reviewed and more added from year to year, until an advanced treatment of the whole topic is completed in the high school.
In the lower primary grades a few lessons on the parts of the body should precede the work on the other divisions, which, in the lower grades, should consist chiefly of hygiene with only a very little physiology and almost nothing of the anatomy of internal organs.
Methods for primary grades.
Simple truths should be selected for first, second, and third year pupils under each division of the subject, to be developed by means of simple stories, objects, or pictures, or questions relating to the pupil's previous experience. The following indicates what may be taught under the division of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics to first-year pupils, to be reviewed with added truths for second or third year pupils:
1. There are ferments on the dust on grapes.
2. There is sweet juice inside the grape.
3. When the juice is pressed out the ferments get into it.
4. The ferments take away the sweetness of the juice and leave a poison in it Second lesson:
1. Poisons can do us harm.
2. Poisons may kill.
3. Alcohol is a poison.
4. We should never take any drink that has alcohol in it.
1. Cider is made from apples.
2. Ferments change the juice of the apples after it is pressed out.
3. We should not drink cider, for there is alcohol in it.
4. Wine is made from grapes.
5. We should not drink wine, for there is alcohol in it. 6. There is no alcohol in grapes or apples.
Methods for lower intermediate grades.
The law, in saying that this study should be introduced and taught as a regular branch, virtually says that the established methods of teaching other branches with text-books when pupils are able to read, and orally before, is to be the method here. But the books used should be adapted to grade. Where such books are in the hands of the pupils three lessons per week for fourteen weeks of the school year will allow time for covering as much of each division of the subject as the pupils are capable of understanding, without repetition or crowding other branches. When pupils have mastered so much of a topic as is adapted to their grades, they should not go over and over the same with needless repetition. The subject, after suitable reviewing, should be dropped for the remainder of the year and something else take its place.
Fourth-year pupils.—Pupils in the fourth year of school are ready to begin to learn to use text-books, and should at this point begin to pursue this branch as a regular text-book study. The matter contained in the indorsed primary textED 90-45
book has been carefully culled with special reference to what is adapted to this grade of pupils.
Fifth and six year pupils.-Pupils in these grades are prepared for a larger discussion of the subject, which should here, as in all grades above the primary, be a text-book study. More time would therefore be required to cover the subject, which may here be distributed over a period of two years. Fifth-year pupils may take a part of the ten divisions, as food, alcoholic drinks, and other narcotics, digestion, circulation, respiration. [The hygiene of the last three will include the effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics.]
Sixth-year pupils, after reviewing the work of the fifth year, may take the remaining divisions, as bones, muscles, skin, the nervous system, the senses [each including in its hygiene the effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics].
For the use of pupils in these grades a large variety of books that contain the matter that should be taught at this stage, expressed in language adapted to the comprehension of the pupils, without the use of technical terms, are ready and indorsed by the friends of the movement.
Advanced grammar grades.
For seventh and eighth year pupils the topics may be apportioned as in the fifth and six year grades; but the pupils will require text-books containing a more advanced treatment of the subject. Nothing is more detrimental to the object sought by this study than attempting to make one grade of books on temperance physiology fit all grades of pupils.
The spirit and letter of the law requires this to be a text-book study in this grade. High-school pupils are capable of comprehending the partially technical treatment found in the indorsed high-school physiologies mentioned on p. 699. This can be easily mastered the first year of the high-school course. Where examinations show that it has been so mastered the study is completed and should be dropped and not repeated through the other years. Pupils in the second and third years of the high school who have not had this study should take it up in those grades.
The divisions are the same here as in the graded schools. The pupils should be arranged in classes according to their attainments, ordinarily three-a primary, an intermediate, and a more advanced. Each class of pupils able to read should have books corresponding to their various grades. At least three grades of books on this subject are generally needed for ungraded schools.
THE SPECIAL WORK OF 1890.
"The special work of 1890 has been careful planning for thorough enforcement of legislation that has made scientific temperance a mandatory study. Two States, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, began this year what may be termed campaigns for this enforcement. The State organizations, after voting to make this a leading line of work, provided funds for paying the expenses of county superintendents or other organizers to go through the counties securing local workers; also for the necessary literature and postage. Literature, showing the local superintendents, as fast as they were appointed, exactly what to do in every detail of the work, was then sent out from State and national headquarters."
"As soon as active work for enforcement was begun it became apparent that an accepted standard as to what constitutes an honest enforcement of a temperance education law is as necessary as the standard for temperance text-books proved. Time and experience have established something like school-room standards for the pursuit of other branches; but the conceptions as to how this new subject should be studied and taught were vague, various, and indefinite. From consultation with eminent educators and comparison of the fruits of varied experience the following standard was wrought out. This is being sent to superintendents of public instruction intrusted with the enforcement of temperance education laws in various States. Its specifications as to minimum of time, necessary means, and method for the pursuit of the study is receiving their cordial indorsement: "
A STANDARD FOR THE ENFORCEMENT OF A TEMPERANCE EDUCATION LAW
1. Minimum of time.1-The pursuit of the study of physiological temperance by "all pupils in all schools," as the law demands, requires at least three lessons per week for fourteen weeks of each school year below the second year of the high school. After an adequate and well-graded portion of the topic assigned for this time is thoroughly learned, the subject may then be dropped for the remainder of that year. The following year a little more advanced treatment of the subject should be pursued for the same length of time. Allowing twenty minutes to a lesson for all grades or classes above the primary, this requirement would amount to only fourteen hours per year; but if carried through the several years between the primary and the second year of the high school or corresponding class of ungraded schools, would give sufficient time for a thorough comprehension of the subject without encroaching upon other studies.
2. Necessary means for the fulfillment of the law. -Well-graded text-books on physiology and hygiene that contain also the "special" facts concerning the nature and effects of alcoholic drinks, tobacco, and other narcotics, that the law requires taught. These facts can not be treated in less than one-quarter of the space given to the physiology and hygiene appropriate for primary and intermediate grades, or in less than twenty pages of the ordinary high-school book. These books should be as well graded to the capacities of pupils as modern school readers are.
3. Necessary method.2-Text-books in the hands of pupils who use text-books in studying such other branches as arithmetic or geography, and oral instruction, not less than three times per week, for those not sufficiently advanced to use text-books.
4. Examinations or tests.3-As thorough examinations or tests should be required in this study as in other branches, the same marking system should be used, and such marks should enter into the general average which decides the rank of the pupil.
The above standard of requirement for the enforcement of a temperance education law is both fair and just. Anything less would not represent the spirit and letter of this legislation. and would not be a pursuit of the subject “as a regular branch" by "all pupils in all schools," as the laws of many States demand.
1Three lessons per week for fourteen weeks is specifled, instead of one lesson per week for forty weeks, or two lessons per week for twenty-one weeks, because when the lessons come farther apart the pupils forget the last before they reach the next; the subject as a whole does not become so readily a part of the intelligence; more time has to be taken in reviewing the last lesson before taking up the new; the pupil's interest is not so well sustained, nor proficiency so easily acquired, as when the lessons are given in closer succession.
2 Without well-authenticated text-books in the hands of pupils, error is as liable to be taught as truth, for teachers have rarely received even a brief course of instruction in the subject, and their knowleege of the same is therefore made up of as much folklore as fact. Much time is also liable to be wasted over matters that are entirely irrelevant, such as the legal or political phases of the temperance question, whenever the text-book is not followed.
3 Teachers will be more thorough in teaching a subject in which the pupils, and hence their faithfulness in teaching it, are put to a test. The pupils will also study a subject more faithfully when they know that their standing or promotion depends upon their ability to pass an examination in it.
The following, relating to the requirements of institute instructors and the duties of school boards, is taken from Mrs. Hunt's work, "A Brief History of the First Decade," before referred to:
There is now great need of trained institute instructors on this topic. Great harm has been done this cause, and the study has been brought into disrepute, by persons going before institutes and attempting to give instruction when they were not qualified to do so, and were not prepared to answer the questions propounded by critics, friendly or otherwise.
An institute instructor on this topic should have the following qualifications: 1. He, or she, should be a good physiologist.
2. Should be thoroughly familiar with the biological side of the question as revealed by the researches of the last few years. Should be well read in the works of Pasteur, De Barry, Troussart, Shurtzenberger and others on fermentation.
3. Should know enough of modern investigation to be able to refute, on the testimony of scientific experts, the popular fallacies concerning the nature of alcohol, especially as found in the most common drinks, beer, wine, cider, etc. 4. Should be familiar with the great physiological authorities on the subject of the effect of these narcotics upon the human system, mental, moral, and physical.
5. Should be familiar with all the school literature on this subject and be able to point out quickly where one book is defective and where and why another is sound.
6. Should understand thoroughly the matter of grading the topic, i. e., what should be taught the first year and what enlargement of the subject should be added each succeeding year, through all the grades, in order that "all the pupils in all schools" may be taught the subject as the law demands without unnecessary repetition.
7. Should be familiar with modern methods of teaching as based upon psychological principles, so as to be able to present this subject in harmony with the
8. Should have also what is called "platform powers," i. c., ability to present this subject with clearness, enthusiasm, and the magnetism which holds an
The subject of physiology and hygiene, with special reference to the nature and effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics, is a large one requiring exact knowledge on the part of anyone who would attempt to instruct teachers. For those who can fully meet these requirements there is a wide opening, and correspondence with such is invited by the national superintendent of this department, Mrs. Mary H. Hunt, Hyde Park, Mass.
A bureau for the training of such instructors on this topic for teachers' institutes is already under way. Applicants for the course of training will be required to present testimonials as to previous education, capacity for study, aptness to teach, and power to interest an audience. The instructors now preparing for this work have had experience as institute instructors on other topics, and have established a reputation in that direction.
THE SCHOOL BOARD.
The parties who ought to take the first official steps in the enforcement of a temperance education law are ordinarily the local school boards. These steps, if rightly taken, are:
(1) The adoption of a definite course of study, with time and place given to it as to other branches, and for each grade of pupils.
(2) The recommendation of text-books containing the facts the law requires taught, graded to the capacities of the several classes of scholars.
In the discharge of these duties on the part of the school boards, there is wide room for improvement. They have too often recommended books notably lacking in temperance matter, and so absolutely out of grade as to be practically useless. Conscientious teachers in such cases have tried to give oral instruction, but they have not had the previous drill in this branch that they have had in others. When neither the teacher nor the books are in possession of the facts to be taught, it is not strange that the teacher soon runs out of matter for the so-called oral instruction.
Oral instruction on this topic, in all grades above primary, has been, and still is, a signal failure. We must insist upon text-book study in all grades using text-books for other like branches, if we would not be mocked with disappointment in results.
A master in a city school, under temperance education law, recently said: "I can and will teach this branch when it is put into my course of study and books containing the subject are put into my hands and those of my pupils, but the school board must do that first. If they fill my course of study absolutely full with other branches, leaving no time for this, and in addition, neglect to give me or my pupils any adequate text-books, I can not do much."
This statement represents the relation of school boards to the enforcement of these laws, and reveals the greatest hindrance to be overcome. The neglect with these officials is often due to misapprehension or indifference, and sometimes to positive opposition. The appeal in the latter case is to the people for the election of persons who will execute the law. The man who would withhold this instruction from the children of a city or modify its full truth for fear of injuring the brewing or other liquor interests is most unfit to be intrusted with any care of the education of the children in this age. Misapprehension on the part of school boards can be enlightened; that should be the work of the local superintendent. The indifferent can ordinarily be aroused; if not, they should be retired.
Hard indeed must be the heart of the man or woman who could deliberately withhold the utmost warning science has against strong drink and other narcotics from the children under his or her care. If we deliberately or otherwise withhold a given information from a child are we not responsible for what may follow to that child's future and to others through him because of such withholding? Is it too much to say that the officials who carelessly, negligently, or purposely fail to provide for the full enforcement of the temperance education laws in the schools under their control, are incurring a fearful and personal responsibility for the drunkenness of the future? The time has come for calling attention to this from pulpit, platform, and press.
II. THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON THE HUMAN SYSTEM AND THE METHOD OF TEACHING THEM.
BY PROF. A. C. BOYDEN, OF BRIDGEWATER, MASS.
[From proceedings National Educational Association, 1886.]
Two very practical questions remain for us as teachers. The two are these: What shall we teach? and How shall we teach it? That is, what shall we select from all the mass of material that has been prepared upon this subject for the young pupil? Much is especially adapted to them. Much we can give them with assurance. Many of the facts can be presented correctly, simply, and effectively to the children. And when we have made our selection, the important question comes, how shall we present the subject according to the best methods of teaching and in such a way as to lead to conviction on the part of the young. Let me say, what I am going to repeat a great many times throughout this discourse, that it is not mere knowledge that we are to teach—it is conviction that we are to bring to the minds and the wills of these pupils. Stopping with mere knowledge will not accomplish the work. What shall we teach?
First. A knowledge of the human body: Its external parts; the relations of those parts to each other: the uses of these parts, and especially the proper care of them; a knowledge of these delicate organs, the senses that we have and the work which they do for us, and the care which we should take of them; the work done by the important systems within our bodies, the way in which they do that work, and the care which they should receive from us-not merely a knowledge that we have certain parts, that we use them in certain ways, and that they can be taken care of in certain ways, but we should lead the mind to a profound conviction of the marvelous construction of our body, the delicate arrangement of its parts and the duty of each one of us to take the very best care of these houses of our souls. Not the mere knowledge, we repeat, but the conviction of the duty to care for these. This work is the preparation for the later work.
Second. A knowledge of the origin, properties, and uses of the various stimulants and narcotics; that the children may recognize them when they see them;