« AnteriorContinuar »
The expenses made during the first period of three years of service had taught the authorities valuable lessons, which led to the following reforms: It was found that the number of schoolrooms (20 to 25), given to one physician to supervise, was too large; the consequence was that the examination of individual children with reference to their eyesight, ears and teeth (the seats of most children's diseases), could not be minute and exact enough, hence the city council appointed a commission which worked out and submitted a new statute, or set of regulations; this was adopted on November 7, 1883, and went into effect January 1, 1884.
The most important points of these regulations, which are still in force, are as follows:
ART. 2. The public schools of the city of Paris are for the purpose of medical supervision to be divided into groups of from 15 to 20 school rooms. Any maternal school is to be reckoned as two rooms. A redistricting takes place every three years. The prefect performs this duty. Newly opened schools are assigned to the nearest "medical group."
ART. 3. The salary of a school physician is 800 francs per annum ($160).
ART. 4. The physicians are nominated by the mayors and appointed by the prefect of the department.
ART. 5. The tenure of office of these physicians is for three years.
ART. 8. Every school physician must announce to the mayor his address of residence or office, and the hours at which he can be found there. This statement is published at a conspicuous place in the respective schools.
ART. 9. A book must be kept in every public school and maternal school, in which the school physician notes down his observations. This book must be submitted to the inspection of officials and supervisory authorities.
ART. 10. The school physician is obliged to visit every public and maternal school twice a month, but he must also appear there when the mayor or prefect may see fit to order a visit.
ART. 11. When visiting a schoolhouse the physician shall first thoroughly inspect the localities" (corridors, stairs, waterclosets, etc.). In doing so the principal of the school is to accompany him, so that he may receive suggestions from the physician. Then the latter visits each class-room, and after he has inspected them with reference to light, heat, ventilation, and furniture, etc., he must proceed to examine the pupils separately, especially those who are pointed out by the principal and teachers as showing symptoms of indisposition. After the examination of a schoolroom and its inmates is completed, the physician enters the results into his book intended for this purpose. He answers the different questions and tabulates his answers in the columns provided for them. In the column ad hoc" he enters the names of those children in whom he has noticed symptoms of approaching disease, states that their withdrawal from school proves necessary, and especially notes whether the disease is contagious. Finally he enters the number of pupils absent on account of sickness on the day of his visit, and inquires of the teachers what sickness, if any, seem to be prevalent at that time.
ART. 13. At least once a month a thorough examination of each child is to be made with reference to eyes, ears, and teeth, if the physician finds an inclination to disease, or if the general state of health of a child needs special attention on the part of the parents these must be notified by the physician's certificate, which is to be handed to the child.
ART. 14. Children in whom the physician discovers the symptoms of a contagious or infectious disease are to be sent home at once with a sealed letter, in which the physician states the cause of this step. In this letter the parents are notified that the child is not permitted to attend school until it comes with a certificate signed by a school physician announcing its complete recovery.
ART. 15. The principal of every school keeps at hand a series of instructions issued by the supreme sanitary council, in which the symptoms of contagious and infectious diseases are stated. If a child gets ill during the absence of the school physician, the teacher of the respective class room notifies the principal. If the latter finds symptoms of a contagious or infectious disease, he must send the child home with a sealed letter, in which he asks the parent or guardian to call at the office of the respective school physician during his office hours, which are mentioned.
ART. 16. A certificate of recovery may even be required of children who have been absent for any length of time on account of sickness, without having been sent home. In this case the nature of the illness is to be stated unless the child is subjected to a special examination by the school physician, and thus acquires a certificate of recovery.
ART. 18. Within twenty-four hours after each sanitary and medical inspection the physician is obliged to report to the mayor of the arrondissement (ward) about the sanitary condition of the school. Blanks for this purpose are furnished him.
ART. 19. The mayors of all arrondissements prepare summaries of the various individual reports, and submit to higher authority all those propositions and suggestions which seem of special importance. Propositions which are of a more general nature, and not very pressing, are referred to medical committees for deliberation and subsequent report. In case an epidemic breaks out, the mayor has the right, upon motion of the school physician, to close a school: but he is obliged to give notice of his action to the school inspector and his own superiors.
ART. 20. The mayor is required to report regularly every three months to his higher authority (the prefect of the department) concerning the sanitary and medical condition of the schools in the arrondissement. Semiannually he must send in a more elaborate report, containing suggestions for changes and improvements, such as are made by the physicians in their reports to him. Advice regarding changes and "a laptations" in buildings is equally welcome. This supervision of the Paris elementary schools was, in 1839, performed by 128 physicians. The budget of the city for that year contained the sum of 100,800 francs for this institution. Medical supervision of schools in Paris has served as a model for similar arrangements in other French cities. By means of a ministerial order of November 14, 1879, the attention of all prefects was called to the instructions quoted above at length. But since then, through the school law of October, 30, 1886, as well as through ministerial decrees and orders dated November 18, 1887, medical and sanitary inspection has been made obligatory for all the schools, public and private.
A few years ago, the city council of Paris expressed the desire that with this institution of supervision be connected a free school dispensary. This suggestion is under advisement at present. These dispensaries, so it is intended, shall go further than the school physicians who are watching over the health of the children. These dispensaries shall take sick children and treat them in hospital wards, specially arranged for children, and provide them with medicine and surgical assistance.
As early as 1862, a few free dispensaries were in existence in Paris supported by charitable societies, notably the "Société philanthropique." These dispensaries were connected with the hospitals for children, but there is a differenc between institutions founded and maintained by charity and those by law. In these private dispensaries children could not always have the desirable special treatment, medicine, shower baths, etc. To the city of Havre belongs the honor and credit of having founded the first public free dispensary for children. This institution is equipped with all the most desirable conveniences and all necessary appliances. In 1975 a physician, Dr. Giebert aided by contributions of charitable persons, established an institution of this kind which had astonishing results, and was subsequently made a city institution.
In Paris the first children's dispensary was opened in the first arrondissement upon urgent solicitation of Dr. Dubrisay and M. Baudof. It found a home in Jean Lantier street, No. 15, in a house which was offered by the owners free of charge. Since the date of opening, April 1, 1883, the consultations in this institution have reached the enormous number of 60,000; in the first year the number was 5,087, then steadily increasing, it reached 19,000 in 1889. The expenses during 1889 were 5,980 francs, but the annual donations amounted to 8,205 francs. The example set by the first arrondissement soon found imitators. To-day (in 1890) eight arrondissements have children's dispensaries partly supported by private persons (like those in the thirteenth and fourteenth arrondissements), partly by the city. The excellent influence these few institutions have exerted has awakened the desire of increasing their number and to provide every ward of the city with one, hence a credit of 100,000 francs was opened for that purpose in the city bu iget of 1890, and all indications point toward an early fulfilment of the desire mentioned above, namely, that the medical and sanitary inspection of the schools be supplemented by a great number of free dispensaries in which children will find the treatment needed in cases of sickness. (After L. Fleischer.)
14. MISCELLANEOUS NOTES.
Canada.-A new feature has been introduced into some Canadian public schools, this being what is called "grade conventions." It is carried out by the teacher of one grade visiting the room of a teacher of the same grade and ob
serving the work in the room during the afternoon. At the conclusion of the teaching, when the pupils are dismissed, the teachers and inspector hold a consultation to talk over any points of interest they have observed, with a view to improving the methods of teaching. Some of the benefits of these conventions are obvious. The teachers observe the points of excellence and the defects in the room they visit, and all are benefited by the experience and exchange of ideas. Besides, they bring about uniformity in teaching and management, which is an essential feature in graded schools, where pupils pass from one teacher to another. The similarity in teaching saves much time, as the pupils do not have to learn or be taught new methods when they enter another room. (Schoolm.)
Belgium.-The State Savings Bank, of Belgium, in its report of 1890 contains a few interesting points concerning the mooted question of savings banks. Belgium had in 1890, altogether, 7,637 elementary schools attended by 896,787 pupils (449,497 boys and 447,290 girls). In 4,965 schools the custom of collecting savings has been fostered. The pupils own 167,696 savings books (92,975 boys and 74,721 girls). Besides these there are 38,907 pupils whose savings are so small that they have not acquired their own bank book. The amount saved by the children in 1890 was $808,430 (of which the boys contributed $443,344, the girls $365,086), an increase of $24,296 over the previous year. The province of Hennegan has the greatest number of juvenile savers, while Limberg has the smallest. The teachers are generally opposed to the institution of school savings banks, and expressed this in unmistakable terms at their last annual meeting. At the general meeting of the elementary teachers in Brussels, the school savings bank has been condemned by a vote of 117 yeas and 86 nays, on the following grounds: (1) What is saved is never sufficient to provide aid in case of sickness or accidents. Insurance companies and workmen's unions would be much better. (2) Saving makes young children selfish; the teaching at school ought to develop charity, not grasping. (3) As it is, it is seldom the children that save-it is the parents, who give their savings to the children to take them to the schoolmaster, who thus becomes the banker for the parents. (4) Several parents save from a desire to please the schoolmaster. (5) The practical good of the school savings bank, after a trial of twenty-five years, may be said to be nil. (Different educ. journals.)
Austria. The annual report concerning the school kitchens in Vienna during the winter of 1889 90 shows that indigent pupils were provided with a good dinner (soup, vegetables, and bread). The number thus provided for was 2,869 a day but the real number is much greater. Many pupils come with their little brothers and sisters, and the cook is told to help the older children, who thus ** provide for the family" more plentifully. Often children come to school who are not enrolled and ask for a dinner which is never refused. In one hundred and thirty-two days 381,577 dinners have been served, but if the foregoing is considered the number is more than 400,000. Lately these kitchens can not supply all the children who come; poverty and starvation are spreading in Vienna. (Oestr. Schulbote.)
Egypt.-In the government schools of Egypt it has been the rule for years that, in addition to Arabic, every pupil must learn English or French at his option. This is not merely as a linguistic study, but is gradually being made the medium of instruction in the ordinary curriculum and in science. In 1889 only 14 per cent of the pupils chose English in preference to French, but last year the proportion Lose to 23 er cent. In order to meet the increased desire to learn English, a no: mal school for native teachers has been opened, and it has 30 students. Also 6 young Egyptians have been sent to normal colleges in England to qualify themselves as teachers in the government schools. On the other hand, about 100 pupils are studying in France at the expense of, or recommended by, the Egyptian Government, and a Government norinal school exists in Cairo under French management. Hence, it would appear that the French have the inside track in Egypt. (Lond. Jl. of Ed.)
England. The money-lender and the betting man are never greater curses of their race than when their wiles entrap school boys who have expectations of coming into the possession of property when they are of age. The English legislators have, to some extent, restrained the evils in other places, but the circulars of the betting agent and money-lender seem to have found the way without hinderance into both public and private schools. Recently Lord Herschell brought the matter before the House of Lords; and archbishops and bishops, the lord chancellor and lords justice, dukes, earls, and other lords were absolutely unanimous in supporting the measure for rendering it penal to send out
such circulars to boys at school and youths at college. Lord Herschell in introducing the bill said its object was to render penal the sending of what were known as touting, betting circulars to boys at school and youths at college; and it proceeded upon the assumption, in this case quite justifiable, that the receivers at schools and colleges were prima facie persons who were infants and known to be such, leaving it to the sender to show that in any particular case the person to whom a circular was sent was not an infant. He added that if he received encouragement he should be prepared to extend the scope of the bill by including the sending of money-lending circulars. (Schoolm.)
Germany.-The school board of Berlin has ordered the purchase of an ample number of cuspidors for use in the schools. The committee on science and medicine had recommended this on the ground that tuberculosis (consumption) is transmitted through germs in the air, hence that the expectorations of sick children are apt to cause contagion if not confined to spittoons filled with water. The vessels are placed in every class room, on stair landings and corridors, and are attended to twice a day. (Allg. Dr Lztg.)
England.-In 1849 a royal commission investigated the accounts of the eight so-called public schools of England, namely: Eton, Harrow, Winchester, Rugby, Shrewsbury, Charterhouse, Westminster, Merchant Taylors. The report of this commission revealed the following facts: Column 1 states the income of the principals; column 2, that of the first assistants; column 3 states the amount it takes to keep a boy at these schools a year:
a This signifies only the tuition fee per year. In all the other cases board and lodging are included. (Zeitschr für Gecundhpfe.)
Various alphabets.-The Sandwich Islands alphabet has 12 letters; the Burmese, 19; Italian, 20; Bengalese, 21; Hebrew, Syrian, Chaldee, and Samaritan, 22 each; French, 23; Greek, 24; Latin, 25; German, Dutch, and English, 26 each; Spanish and Sclavonic, 27 each; Arabic, 28; Persian and Coptic, 32; Georgian, 35; Armenian, 38; Russian, 41; Muscovite, 43; Sanskrit and Japanese, 50; Ethiopic and Tartarian have 202 each.
Germany.-School gardens, of which there are more than 9,000 in Austria, are being laid out in different parts of Germany. Their object is to give methodical instruction in the cultivation of fruit trees and to be used in the teaching of botany.
The minister of education has sent a notice to the provincial councils, requesting them not to refer candidates for positions as school superintendents to him, but themselves to take the initiative in recommending suitable persons to him. "It is of extreme importance," he writes, "for the proper development of education in elementary schools, that the responsible office of school superintendent should be only in the hands of especially trustworthy men, those who have proved themselves to be efficient elementary schoolmasters. This applies equally to masters who have enjoyed a university education. I expect that the local authorities will not restrict themselves to an examination of those candidates who present themselves for election, but will, without regard to expected vacancies, keep themselves conscientiously informed of specially suitable candidates. The school inspections, and an understanding with the provincial school board, will ofler ample opportunity to discover such persons." (Lond. Jl. of Ed.)
How to treat stutterers.—Dr. Schellenberg, in Wiesbaden, gives the following advice to teachers as to how to treat stutterers:
(1) Treat the stutterer most kindly, and try to win his entire confidence. (2) Prevent other children from making fun of his trouble, and if necessary punish them for it. (3) Infuse him with courage and self-reliance. (4) During the first few weeks of school ask him no questions in recitation; then begin with such easy questions that he can answer without reflection and hesitation. (5) Direct your attention away from the stutterer as soon as he betrays confusion and disquietude in his attempt at speaking; repeat your question when he has regained
composure. (6) Urge him to assume a straight posture when speaking. (7) See to it that while speaking he breathes through the mouth, not through the nose, and that he takes a deep breath when he comes to a period or other convenient full stop. He should also take breath before he attempts to answer a question. (8) Advise him to begin his speech slowly and in a lower pitch than usual. (9) If the first word of his sentence begins with a vowel, let him begin that vowel faintly and increase it in strength thus, A-sia. If the word begins with a consonant, let him blur over it to reach the vowel, dwell on that, and then go on thus, ba-thing. (10) The stutterer must learn to run his words into one another so that no hiatus occurs, which would, of course, facilitate or cause stuttering. He should at first speak thus: "A-ll'swellthatendswell," until he has to some extent mastered his infirmity.
These points are exceptionally well taken, and the present writer can confirm them, since he has found them of excellent use in the school room. The English language does not breed so many stutterers as the German, but there are still cases enough in our schools to make advice like the foregoing welcome to teachers of little experience, and of them, alas! we have more than is desirable. (Allg. D. Lztg.)
Saxony. In the Kingdom of Saxony the lower schools have on an average 73 pupils to the teacher. The greatest number is found in inspection-District Loebau, namely, 95; then Chemnitz, with nearly 94; then Schwarzenberg, 92, and Marienberg, 91. The smallest number is found in Leipzig, where it is 43; in Dresden it is 44; other districts have respectively 67, 70, 71, 72, 73, and 74 pupils to the teacher. There are still 128 schools of three grades with but one teacher, and averaging 132 pupils. In 1,117 continuation schools (post-graduate courses of elementary schools) instruction is given all the year round; in 712 only during the winter. (Allg. D. Lztg.)
Germany.-The Society for the Promotion of Public Games for the young and for the people in Germany, which was founded in May in Berlin, has already begun to make itself felt. Committees have been formed under the direction of Dr. Eitner, of Görlitz, and Dr. Schmidt, of Bonn. The latter, who is also a member of the Committee of the German Gymnastic Society, announces that the latter society is ready to join in active coöperation for the promotion of healthgiving games for the people. The minister of education, Graf Zedlitz, has expressed his heartiest sympathy in the aims of the society. In June, 1891, a course of instruction in public-school games was held in Görlitz for the benefit of the teachers. Dr. Eitner and Herr Jordan, the head teacher of gymnastics, conducted the classes, which were numerously attended.
Görlitz, a very progressive town in the province of Silesia, which was one of the first cities in Germany which introduced manual training, again comes to the front with normal courses for teachers in public games. Public play, supplementary to gymnastic exercises, has recently become an object of much attention of the Government as well as educational circles. (German Ed. Press.) France.-Levasseur, the noted French statistician, makes the following statements concerning the population in France: France (or Gaul) had at the time of Cæsar 6,700,000 inhabitants, estimated according to the size and number of Gallic tribes. Roman Gaul during the time of the Antonines is said to have had 8,500,000, but this is a mere hypothesis. At the time of Charlemagne Gaul is said to have had only 5,500,000 inhabitants, according to Irmions Polyptique, but 8,000,000 or 9,000,000 according to an estimate made at the time. During the first half of the fourteenth century Gaul had 20,000,000 or 22,000,000, estimated by means of the number of hearths. At the end of the sixteenth century Froumenteau credited Gaul with 20,000,000 inhabitants. In 1700 the - number is said to have been 21,136,000, estimated in the "Memoirs of an administrative officer." In 1715 the estimate was 18,000,000. Numerous positive statements go to show that in 1770 the number of inhabitants was 24,500,000, and in the great memorable year of the revolution, 1789, it was stated to be 26,000,000. In 1801 a rectified census proved the inhabitants of France to be 27,347,800; in 1866, 38,067,064 (with Alsace-Lorraine); in 1872, 36,102,921 (without Alsace-Lorraine), and in 1886, 37,930,759.
Germany. Recently statistics have been published concerning suicides of children in Prussia. The Neue Freie Presse of Vienna on May 26 published a statement which permits a comparison between Prussia and Italy. Since in population the two countries are nearly alike, a comparison seems just. The cases mentioned are all committed by children below 15 years of age.